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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №11/2023


Alekseenko E. V., Petrova A. A., Lanshin N. A.The use of pear concentrate, as a natural source of sorbitol in the production of flour semi-finished product

P. 6-10 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.001

Key words
sorbitol syrup, pear concentrate, sorbitol, sponge cake, organoleptic, physico-chemical, microbiological indicators, water activity

Recently, there has been an increased interest of consumers in products with the so-called "clean label", which encourages modern manufacturers to expand the product line and bring to market competitive food products made according to modified recipes based on the replacement of artificial ingredients with natural ones showing a similar technological effect. The aim of the work was to investigate the possibility of an alternative replacement in the biscuit recipe of the moisture-retaining ingredient of sorbitol syrup with pear concentrate, a natural source of sorbitol, while ensuring quality and safety indicators guaranteed by the manufacturer, as well as preserving the freshness of finished products within the expected shelf life. The results of the research demonstrated that the use of pear concentrate instead of sorbitol syrup allows you to obtain a product with organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics at the level of the traditional formulation; to ensure microbiological safety and stability of indicators for 90 days under the condition of storage in a sealed package, temperature 20…22 °C and relative humidity 70-75 %. It is shown that the introduction of pear concentrate into the formulation in an amount of 4.25-5.0 % by weight of the product is accompanied by a slight increase in the mass fraction of moisture in the finished products (by 0.5-1.3 %) and a decrease in the water activity (by 2.6-4.0 %) compared with the sample prepared according to the traditional recipe (control). It was found that by the end of the shelf life of biscuits made according to modified recipes, the water activity is slightly inferior to the control variant (by 0.6-3.0 %), which indirectly indicates that the freshness of the product remains at the level of the traditional recipe.

1. Making sense of the "clean label" trends: A review of consumer food choice behavior and discussion of industry implications. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318380847
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3. Uddin A., Gallardo R. K. Consumers willingness to pay for organic, clean label, and processed with a new food technology: an application to ready meals. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. 2021;24(3):563-579.
4. Shaboldina O. V. Clean label for chicken products. Myasnie tekhnologii = Meat technologies. 2014;(4):30-31 (In Russ.).
5. Zimnyakov V. M., Gavryushina I. V. The possibility of using auxiliary technological means for products with a clean label. Niva Povolzh'ya = Niva of Volga region. 2015;4(37):39-44 (In Russ.).
6. Natural dyes in food production. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2020;12:26-27 (In Russ.).
7. Hae In Yong, Tae-Kyung Kim, Hee-Don Choi, Hae Won Jang, Samooel Jung, Yun-Sang Choi. Clean label meat technology: pre-converted nitrite as a natural curing. Food Science of Animal Resources. 2021;41(2):173-184.
8. Smirnov E. V. Ingredients without E-index for coloring food products. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2018;(1):35-39 (In Russ.).
9. Le Lay C., Mounier J., Vasseur V., Weill A., Le Blay G., Barbier G. and Coton E. In vitro and in situ screening of lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria antifungal activities against bakery product spoilage molds. Food Control. 2016;(60):247-255.
10. Kolupaeva T. G. Clean label: natural preservatives for flour products. Bakery news. 2022;(2-3):19-21 (In Russ.).
11. Matseichik I. V., Sapozhnikov A. N., Rozhestvenskaya L. N. Investigation of the quality of biscuits with oat processing products and berry powders. TPPP APK = TPPP AIK. 2015;3(7):45-52 (In Russ.).
12. Derenkova I. A., Grushina N. S., Ul'yanenko P. Yu., Shumskaya N. V. Development of methods for enriching beverages, sauces and confectionery products with natural food additives. Modern Science. 2022;(3-1):395-399 (In Russ.).
13. Tarasova V. V., Nikolaeva Yu. V., Krylova L. A. Development of a recipe for muffins with an extended shelf life. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2021;(3):12-18 (In Russ.).
14. Kopylova A. V., Sapozhnikov A. N., Davydenko N. I. Development of the recipe and technology of muffins using inulin and celery stalks. ХХII vek: itogi proshlogo i problemy nastoyashchego plyus = ХХII century: Results of the past and problems of the present plus. 2021;4(56):138-142 (In Russ.).
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Alekseenko Elena V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Petrova Anastasiya A.,
Lanshin Nikita A., graduate student
Russian biotechnology university (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Shubina N. A.On the prospects of using active coals in the technology of preparation of alcoholic grain distilled beverages

P. 11-14 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.002

Key words
grain distillate, distilled grain alcoholic beverage, active coals

Currently, distilled alcoholic grain beverages, prepared on the basis of grain distillates with a strength from 35.0 %vol. to 60.0 %vol., meeting the requirements of GOST 33301-2015 Distilled alcoholic grain beverages made from unopened or aged grain distillates, with or without the addition of sugar and other sugar-containing beverages, are becoming increasingly popular in the domestic market products, natural flavor components, natural dye (sugar color), prepared (corrected) water. Grain distillates obtained under laboratory conditions by double distillation on copper alambik Copper Crafts before and after treatment with activated carbons were studied. The unseasoned distillates included in the distilled beverages were treated with active carbons BAU-A. VSK and MEX. After processing grain distillates with activated carbons in the amount of 50 kg / thousand dal, the mass concentrations of acetic aldehyde and the volume fraction of methyl alcohol practically did not change. The mass concentration of ethyl acetate before and after treatment with coals statistically differed at p<0.05, after treatment the amount of ethyl acetate decreased by 21.4, 13.5 and 8.0 % after treatment with coals BAU-A, VSK and MEX, respectively. After treatment with coals, the mass concentration of 2-methylbutanol decreased by 10.3 and 8.2 %, 3-methylbutanol by 9.9 and 7.6 % for BAU-A and VSK coals, respectively. The mass concentration of furfural decreased by 55.5, 30, 63.6 % after treatment with BAU-A, VSK and MEX coals, respectively. The acetal content decreased by 21.9, 17.2 and 10.9 % after treatment with BAU-A, VSK and MEX coals. After treatment with coals, the cationic composition of grain distillates changed, which indicates the presence of ash impurities and adsorption-desorption processes occurring on the surface of coals. The organoleptic characteristics of distillates improved by 0.2-0.3 points, possibly due to a decrease in the mass concentration of furfural of higher alcohols (2-methylbutanol and 3-methylbutanol), which can give burning to alcoholic beverages. The best results were noted when processing with coal BAU-A.

1. State Standard 33723-2016. Distillate of grain. Specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 6 p. (In Russ.)
2. State Standard 33301-2015. Distilled grain alcoholic drinks. General specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 7 p. (In Russ.)
3. Abramova I. M., Morozova S. S., Golovacheva N. E., Shubina N. A. About the possibility of using new active coals in the technology of vodka preparation. Sbornik nauchnikh trudov "Sovremennie biotexnologicheskie processy, oborudovanie i metody kontrolya spirta i spirtnikh napitkov = Collection of scientific papers "Modern biotechnological processes, equipment and methods of alcohol and alcoholic beverages control". 2017:149-155 (In Russ.).
4. Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E., Shubina N. A., Mukhin V. M., Korolev N. V. Promising active coals in vodka production. Perspektivnie tekhnologii i metody kontrolya v proizvodstve spirta i spirtnikh napitkov. Sbornik nauchnikh trudov po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara = Promising technologies and methods of control in the production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. Collection of scientific papers based on the materials of the International Scientific and Practical Seminar / edited by I. M. Abramova, E. M. Serba. Moscow: Biblio-Globus, 2019. P. 115-123 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18334/9785907063549.115-123.
5. Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Mukhin V. M. Active coals as an important factor in improving the efficiency of the production of alcoholic beverages. Collection of Agritech-V - IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) kV International Scientific Conference on Agribusiness, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies. Krasnoyarsk, 2021. Russian Federation. Science 839 022052. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/839/2/022052/pdf. Doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/839/2/022052.
6. Patent RU 2222493 C1. Mukhin V. M., Dvoretsky G. V., Chebykin V. V., Zubova I. N., Makeeva A. N., Polyakov V. A., Yakovleva E. N., Fizina A. A. A method for producing activated carbon. Published 27.01.2004 (In Russ.).
7. State Standard 34675-2020. Grain and rum distillates, distillate of whiskey alcohol beverages based on them. Gas chromatographic method for determination of concentration of volatile components. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 12 p. (In Russ.)
8. Organization standard 00334586-3-02-2014. Vodkas, special vodkas and process water for their preparation. Methods for determining the mass concentration of iron and anions. Moscow: FGBNU VNIIPBT, 2019. 18 p. (In Russ.)
9. State Standard 33817-2016. Ethanol from food raw material and strong drinks. Methods of organoleptic analysis. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 19 p. (In Russ.)
10. Faradzheva E. D., Karaberov S. F. The effect of micro-admixtures on the organoleptic evaluation of vodkas. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnikh izdeliy = Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. 2006;3:15-16 (In Russ.).
Golovacheva Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Morozova Svetlana S., Candidate of Сhemical Sciences,
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shubina Natal'ya A.
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Klochkova I. S., Maslennikova E. V. The use of flax seeds in the development of chocolate recipe

P. 15-17 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.003

Key words
chocolate, confectionery, recipe, flax seeds, quality indicators, organoleptic indicators

In the article, the authors consider the possibility of using flax seed in confectionery technology on the example of chocolate. Flax seeds are a promising vegetable raw material. They are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and have a balanced amino acid composition of a complete protein. The main work was carried out at the Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University. Chocolate was made according to a unified recipe for chocolate № 1 according to the generally accepted technology for ordinary chocolate masses. It has been found that adding flax seeds to the chocolate recipe without preliminary thermal and mechanical treatment is impractical, since their solid structure complicates the chewing process. Additional grinding of flax seeds to a particle size of 2 mm allowed to improve the taste perception of the product, but their herbaceous taste was felt more intensely. The study showed that the heat treatment (roasting) of flax seeds over medium heat and their grinding significantly increases the organoleptic indicators of the quality of chocolate. Flax seeds become darker and brittle during roasting, and the taste and smell are pleasant, saturated, reminiscent of the taste and smell of sunflower. The optimal content of roasted and crushed flax seeds in the chocolate recipe was determined - 7.5 g/100 g of the product. This sample had a taste and smell peculiar to chocolate, with a pleasant aftertaste of roasted flax seed, reminiscent of roasted sunflower seeds. The energy value of chocolate with roasted and crushed flax seeds was 551.5 kcal. The shelf life of chocolate is 6 months. A new type of chocolate can be recommended for use in the nutrition of the adult healthy population of Russia.

1. Kazantseva S. Yu., Sizova D. A. Features of chocolate market. Lizing = Leasing. 2023;(1):5-8 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.33920/VNE-03-2301-01.
2. Khudoerko E. E., Alekseev A. L. The study of the functional properties of flax seeds. The use of flax seeds in the technology of oatmeal cookies. Akademicheskaya publitsistika = Academic journalism. 2021;(11-2):103-107 (In Russ.).
3. Pavlova N. S. Collection of basic recipes of sugary products. Saint Petersburg: Giord, 2000. 232 p. (In Russ.)
Klochkova Irina S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University,
52B, Lugovaya str., Vladivostok, 690080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Maslennikova Evgeniya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Vladivostok State University,
41, Gogolya str., Vladivistok, 690014, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Moiseev I. V., Karmanov D. A., Lezniy V. V.Quantitative changes of carboxylic acids in tobacco raw materials during fermentation

P. 18-21 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.004

Key words
tobacco, organic carboxylic acids, fermentation, high-performance liquid chromatography

Organic carboxylic acids, which are part of tobacco raw materials, play an important role in the formation of the taste and aroma of tobacco smoke. In the process of fermentation of raw tobacco, significant changes occur in it`s chemical composition, after which it acquires it`s consumer qualities. The aim of the research was to study the quantitative changes in the carboxylic acids that make up tobacco during natural fermentation under pressure. For this, a method was developed for the quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in tobacco raw materials by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC). Pipe and cigar blends were used as analyzed samples. Fermentation was carried out at a temperature of 20 °C and a relative air humidity of 70 %. To carry out the analysis, the samples were subjected to acid hydrolysis in 6 M hydrochloric acid for 17 hours to transfer the salt forms of organic acids to the free state. Analysis of the samples for the content of carboxylic acids was carried out on a liquid chromatograph with a UV/VIS-photometric detector using the external standard method at a wavelength of 210 nm. Previously, for external standards, their chromatographic characteristics were determined - retention time, height and peak area. In the course of the research, the dependence of the content of carboxylic acids in samples of tobacco blends on the fermentation time for 6 months was revealed. The results of chromatography showed that in the period of 1-4 months there is an increase in the content of acids for all types of tobacco mixtures. At the same time, the total increase in acids is due to a significant increase in malic acid. Subsequent fermentation practically does not change the total acid content in the pipe blend, and sharply reduces it in cigars. The data obtained make it possible to calculate the change in the taste strength of blends during fermentation and evaluate the contribution of each of the acids to the flavor profile, which can be used in the technological process when forming the taste characteristics of tobacco products.

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3. Moiseev I. V., Moiseyak M. B., Lezniy V. V., Prihod'ko R. P., Simdyanova T. P. Chemical and organoleptic parameters of Cavendish samples from various botanical varieties of tobacco raw materials. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2013;(6):36-44 (In Russ.).
4. Golubenko A. M., Nikonorov V. V., Nikitina T. G. Determination of hydroxycarboxylic acids in food by capillary electrophoresis. Zhurnal analiticheskoy khimii = Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2012;67(9):866-870 (In Russ.).
5. Zipaev D. V., Tulina A. A., Kozhukhov A. N. The use of capillary electrophoresis in the evaluation of food and beverages. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta inzhenernikh tekhnologiy = Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2020;82(1):82-87 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.20914/2310-1202-2020-1-82-87.
6. Marce R. M., Calull M., Manchobas R. M., Borrull F., Rius F. X. An optimized direct method for the determination of carboxylic acids in beverages by HPLC. Chromatographia. 1990;29:54-58. DOI: 10.1007/BF02261140
7. Anisimovich I. P., Otman R., Deyneka L. A., Deyneka V. I., Voloschenko L. V. Determination of the acidity of some fruits, juices and soft drinks. Nauchnie vedomosti Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya "Estestvennie nauki" = Scientific bulletin of Belgorod State University. Series "Natural Sciences". 2011;9(104):250-257 (In Russ.).
8. Hacajuk A. S., Pavlova O. E., Ekhova M. E. The role and significance of high-performance liquid chromatography in the practice of high-tech laboratory research. Zdorov'e. Meditsinskaya ekologiya. Nauka = Health. Medical ecology. The science. 2016;3(66):215-219. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.18411/hmes.d-2016-146.
9. Moiseev I. V., Karmanov D. A., Lezniy V. V., Kirillov D. D. Quantitative change of nicotine in tobacco raw materials during natural fermentation under pressure. Nauchniy zhurnal NIU ITMO. Seriya "Protsessi i apparati pischevikh proizvodstv = Processes and Food Production Equipment. 2022;4(54):25-30 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17586/2310-1164-2022-15-4-25-30.
Moiseev Igor V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Russian Biotechnological University ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
Karmanov Denis A.,
Lezniy Valeriy V.
Pogar Сigarette & Сigar Factory,
41, Octyabrskaya str., Pogar, Bryansk region, Russia, 243550, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Aldamatov N. E., Bredikhin S. A. Analysis of the structure of the capacity of refrigeration premises of enterprises processing products of animal origin

P. 22-25 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.005

Key words
cooling, freezing, storage, meat, animal products, refrigeration technologies

One of the key links in the technological chain of the food processing food industry is the storage of food products in special storage warehouses at normalized values of temperature and relative humidity in order to extend the shelf life and shelf life of products. When the ambient temperature decreases, the biochemical processes occurring inside the stored product slow down, and which negatively affect the consumer characteristics of food raw materials. The products can be stored both chilled and frozen. The shelf life in one state or another varies depending on the product, but on average, in chilled form, the duration of food storage does not exceed 5-6 days, except for vegetable and fruit products, for which these values can be considered months. Frozen storage allows you to significantly increase the duration of storage of raw materials. It varies on average from three to twelve months. The capacity of food storage facilities is subject to the norms defined in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The main emphasis is placed on the storage of raw materials in frozen form. These standards of cold storage design are used to this day. Meat products are an important component of the human diet, thanks to which the correct functioning of the human body is carried out. Animal products are one of the main sources of phosphorus, as well as other valuable minerals: iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, iodine and other important organically significant components. The article is devoted to the analysis of the structure of the capacity of refrigerating facilities of enterprises processing animal products. These premises were built in the period from 2010 to 2022 by specialists of the CryoFrost group of companies. A comparative analysis of the structure of the capacity of refrigerating rooms for cooling the "meat storage facilities" and meat processing enterprises actually built over the past decade on the territory of the Russian Federation is carried out.

1. Komarova N. A. Refrigeration units. Fundamentals of design: textbook. Moscow: Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, 2012. 368 р. (In Russ.)
2. Bredikhin S. A., Bredikhina A. S., Zhukov V. G., Kosmodem'yanskiy Yu. V., Yakushev A. O. Processes and devices of food technology. Saint Petersburg: Lan', 2014. 544 p. (In Russ.)
Aldamatov Nursultan E., Postgraduate,
Bredihin Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
4A, Listvennichnaya Alley, Moscow, 127550, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kharlamova L. N., Sinelnikova M. Yu., Matveeva D. Yu.Investigation of phenolic compounds in oat drinks

P. 26-29 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.006

Key words
oats, plant-based beverages, phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, metabolites, organoleptic profile

Oats contain a variety of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity, including phenolic compounds, avenanthramides, phytic acid, sterols, etc. Some of the most abundant antioxidants in oats are phenolic compounds, classified as primary antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are biologically active substances containing aromatic rings with a hydroxyl group and various derivatives of such substances. Phenolic compounds prevent the oxidation of products and exhibit protective functions under ultraviolet irradiation. They are a component of plant cell walls and also have antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The object of the study were 4 industrial samples of herbal drinks made from oats (classic extralight oat drink; classic oat drink, enriched with vitamins and minerals; vanilla oat drink, enriched with vitamins and minerals; oat drink, enriched with vitamins and minerals). The subject of the study was phenolic compounds determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Agilent 1200 instrument. The main objective of the work is the detection of phenolic compounds in herbal drinks made from oats. Five major phenolic compounds were found, namely vanillic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, sinapic acid and coniferyl aldehyde. The concentrations of components in various products were generally similar, for example, the content of vanillic acid in the samples varied from 0.08 to 0.31 mg/dm3, syringic acid - from 0.15 to 0.47 mg/dm3. In turn, the concentration of vanillin varied from 0.02 to 6.04 mg/dm3, sinapic acid - from 0.15 to 0.28 mg/dm3, and coniferyl aldehyde - from 0.06 to 0.12 mg/dm3. The results indicate that commercial oat products are a source of phenolic compounds for consumers.

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Kharlamova Larisa N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Sinelnikova Marina Yu.,
Matveeva Dar'ya Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kurbanova M. N., Bondarenko A. V., Samoilova A. M. The effect of antimicrobial agents on increasing the shelf life of chopped vegetables

P. 30-34 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.007

Key words
collagen hydrolyzate, quality, bioassay, antioxidant activity

Products that do not require lengthy preparation before culinary processing, and allow consumers to save time, are in demand in the food industry. So, as semi-finished products for the preparation of lunch dishes, fresh vegetables are also used, both in whole and cut, packed in various polymer materials. The assortment of such semi-finished fresh vegetables includes: potatoes, carrots, table beets, white cabbage, red cabbage, celery, as well as sets of vegetables. At the same time, this type of product is subject to more rapid microbiological damage and manufacturers have a problem of increasing its shelf life. The purpose of this work was a microbiological and organoleptic assessment of the effect of the solution of protein-vitamin concentrate "Biatis" and the means "PLOD'OKEY" for the shelf life of white cabbage cut. Studies have shown that both drugs showed a pronounced antimicrobial effect when processing cut cabbage and storing it. When analyzing data on antimicrobial activity of concentrations of the drug PLOD'OKEY the advantage of 0.16 % solution was noted due to the greater suppression of the number of microorganisms at each control point. At the same time, all concentrations of this drug showed satisfactory results of organoleptic evaluation on 11 days of storage, whereas in control samples of cabbage without treatment, deterioration of organoleptic parameters occurred on 7 days of storage. Hence, the means PLOD'OKEY can be recommended for processing shredded cabbage in order to increase the shelf life. And from a number of the studied concentrations of the drug "Biatis", the greatest effect was noted in a two percent solution. This is evidenced by the inhibition of the growth of microorganisms throughout the entire shelf life of cabbage. However, due to the unsatisfactory results of the organoleptic evaluation of cut cabbage, this drug is not recommended for its processing in order to prolong the shelf life. Further experiments with "Biatis" concentrate on other types of food products are possible.

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Kurbanova Madinat N., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Bondarenko Anna V.,
Samoilova Anastasiya M., Candidate of Biological Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Volkova G. S., Sokolova E. N., Ionov V. V., Yuraskina T. V., Serba E. M.Prospective directions of berry cake processing into food ingredients

P. 35-39 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.008

Key words
berry cake, food ingredients, biocatalysis, lingonberries, black rowan berries

Nowadays the processing of berry pomace is becoming more and more actual direction of development of food industry. The pomace is formed at the enterprises of juice industry and represents a valuable secondary raw material. The paper gives an overview of the main technologies of berry pomace production, chemical composition of lingonberry pomace and blackberry pomace, modern directions of berry pomace processing into various food ingredients containing biologically active substances and dietary fibres. Modern technologies of berry processing, the waste of which is cake, are created on the basis of maximum preservation of valuable components of raw materials and vitamins by means of gentle modes and combination of technological parameters. Despite the great interest in the processing of berry cake, the main drawback of existing technologies is their simplicity and insufficient use of the biological potential of secondary raw materials. Part of the biologically active compounds of berries pass into the juice during pressing, however, a noticeable amount of them is present in the skin and pressed pulp. New studies of this issue are mainly aimed at obtaining experimental data on the composition of biologically active substances of berry cake, available for extraction from some types of wild-growing raw materials and products of its processing, as well as on high-tech methods of cake processing into functional food products. Modern technologies make it possible to obtain food additives from the cake of garden and wild berries, which are a rich source of phenolic substances, vitamins and trace elements. Technologies of berry cake processing to produce natural colouring agents, concentrates of polyphenolic compounds, pectin, flavouring agents, structuring agents and flour substitutes are well developed. One of the most promising is considered to be the biocatalytic method of cake processing with a selected complex of enzyme preparations, which maximally extracts biologically active substances and can be obtained food ingredient for modern food technologies. It is possible to obtain dry berry cake as a source of dietary fibre and concentrated extract containing high content of flavonoids. The obtained food ingredients can be used in the formulations of grain extrusion products of rapid preparation. It is planned to continue the work on selection of optimal technological parameters of biocatalytic processing of cowberry cake and blackcurrant ash cake.

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Volkova Galina S., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Sokolova Elena N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ionov Vladislav V.,
Yuraskina Tat'yana V.,
Serba Elena M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of RAS, Corresponding Member of RAS
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology, and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Posokina N. E., Kurbanova M. N., Zakharova A. I., Pesterev M. A., Rudenko O. S.The influence of cavitation treatment on the total contamination of vegetable puree and water activity

P. 40-44 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.009

Key words
ultrasound, cavitation, vegetable purees, microbiological indicators, contamination of raw materials

In recent years, consumer demand for high-quality fruits, vegetables and products of their processing with higher nutritional value and minimal processing has been growing rapidly. In this regard, there is an increasing need for new processing methods with reduced negative impacts on the nutritional value and quality of products. Currently, high hydrostatic pressure, electrical pulses and ultrasound are promising non-thermal processing technologies for food systems. The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic radiation is a consequence of the combined influence of mechanical, thermal and sonochemical effects on microbial cells, which is possible only under conditions of collapsing acoustic cavitation in a liquid medium. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of the duration of cavitation treatment on the total contamination of pumpkin puree and changes in water activity. The research objects were: natural pumpkin puree; a composition mixture consisting of pumpkin puree and sugar syrup in a ratio of 1:1; a mixture of pumpkin puree and invert sugar syrup, taken in a 1:1 ratio. All types of purees were subjected to ultrasonic treatment on a laboratory unit SYRINKS-250 (VNIIKP). Processing time 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Samples of pumpkin puree before treatment served as control. Processing of pure puree and puree with sugars showed similar dynamics of reduction in the number of contaminating microorganisms with increasing processing time. Treatment for the first 10 and 20 minutes in all puree samples reduced the number of viable microorganisms slightly. The most pronounced decrease in the total contamination of all types of purees was observed after 30 minutes of cavitation treatment of the puree. The water activity in natural purees remained virtually unchanged during processing, while in purees with sugars the decrease in this indicator was significant.

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Posokina Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kurbanova Madinat N., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Zakharova Anna I.
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkolnaya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Pesterev Mikhail A.,
Rudenko Oksana S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Research Institute of the Confectionery Industry - Branch of the V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
20, Elektrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107076, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zaytseva M. V.The influence of temperature storage conditions on the antioxidant properties of chilled broccoli and cauliflower

P. 45-48 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.010

Key words
broccoli, cauliflower, storage, antioxidant potential, quality, temperature

Vegetables are important sources of antioxidants, so it is important for consumers to be aware of changes in their composition that may occur during storage of these products. At the same time, assessing the level of antioxidant potential is necessary to reduce the loss of nutritional value of these products under different storage temperatures. Vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower are known for their antioxidant properties and are popular products, including in baby food. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of refrigerated storage (4 °C) of broccoli and cauliflower on the antioxidant potential of these vegetables. Broccoli and cauliflower were purchased commercially and stored in the refrigerator for one and two weeks, respectively. The level of lipid peroxidation in inflorescence tissues was determined by the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The antioxidant activity of broccoli increased during storage, as the level of MDA decreased by 22 %, while in cauliflower, on the contrary, this indicator increased by 1.5 times. The effect of preliminary short-term storage of these vegetables at room temperature for 1, 4 and 8 hours on the weight of samples and MDA production during subsequent storage in the refrigerator was studied. The weight loss of broccoli inflorescences increased in proportion to the increase in the storage period of the samples at room temperature. An increase in temperature contributed to an even greater decrease in the level of MDA (up to 33 %) in the samples. A similar trend was observed in cauliflower samples, since this indicator, although it increased compared to the initial level, was only 1.2 times. At the same time, the texture and color of the broccoli and cauliflower samples, both when stored only in the refrigerator and when kept at room temperature, did not differ from the original material.

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Samoylov Artyom V., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Suraeva Natal'ya M., Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Zaytseva Mariya V.
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems for RAS,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tochilina R. P., Saryan A. Sh., Gochina S. S., Pashkova I. N., Samoilova E. Yu.Checking of tartaric acid content in wine- goals and objectives

P. 49-53 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.011

Key words
wine, food additives, tartaric acid, mass concentration, determination methodology

It is permitted to use food additives in wine production: organic acids which are natural ingredients of wine: citric, tartaric, malic and lactic acid as well as preservatives: sorbic acid and its salts and sulfates (sulfur dioxide). It is given a list of methods of determination of these food additives, developed in VNIIPBiVP. Tartaric acid concentration is one of the wine authenticity indicator and determination of its concentration is a required condition when conducting identification tests of wine products. Tartaric acid determination methods have been considered, including methods recommended by International winemaking and Viticulture organization, also the comparative analysis has been conducted. Research was conducted on determination of tartaric acid concentration by colorimetric method with the use of ready set reagents EnzytecTM Color E3100 and liquid chromatography method. It is shown, that the result of tartaric acid concentration determination in wine products samples with the use of colorimetric method and liquid chromatography method are close in value. Recommendations are given on preparation of certified solutions of tartaric acid used when conducting the procedure of checking the accuracy of measurement results. The use of suggested method in production and test laboratories does not need additional measuring instruments, auxiliary equipment and personnel retraining.

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Tochilina Regina P., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Saryan Anaida Sh.,
Gochina Svetlana S.,
Pashkova Irina N.,
Samoilova Elena Yu.
All-Russian Research Institute of the brewing, non-alcoholic and wine industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center of food systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ostrikov A. N., Kleymenova N. L., Nazina L. I., Bolgova I. N., Orlovtseva O. A. Study of fatty acid composition and characteristics of vegetable oils using cluster analysis

P. 54-59 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.012

Key words
fatty acid composition, oxidation characteristics, vegetable oils, cluster analysis

Oils are one of the main components of a balanced diet, being a good source of energy. More attention has been paid to the fatty acid composition and stability of plant oils because they increasingly act as an important source of biologically active compounds in a balanced diet. The purpose of the study was to determine the peroxide number, acid number and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils. Cluster analysis of all factors showed that the oils were divided into three clusters: S1, S2 and S3. Cluster S1 includes corn, safflower and sunflower oils with a high concentration of oleic acid. Cluster S2 is represented by hemp, amaranth, soybean, pumpkin, flax (white seed), and milk thistle oils, in which the concentration of oleic acid varies in the range from 0.805 % to 17.965 %. All other vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, flaxseed (brown seed), camelina, rapeseed, mustard) belong to cluster S3, they contain linoleic acid in the range from 14.895 % to 32.243 %, alpha-linolenic acid - 1.394 % to 54 ,4 %. K-means clustering also confirmed three clusters for fatty acids of 14 vegetable oils. Using analysis of variance for three clusters, p values of 0.05 were obtained for the fatty acids myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, elaidic, linolenic, alpha-linolenic, which indicates a significant difference. The peroxide number, acid number and fatty acid composition of oils determine the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oils. All of the listed indicators of the 14 studied oils were within the acceptable levels of physico-chemical quality and safety indicators specified in TR CU 024/2011. The quality and quantity of fatty acids of the 14 cold-pressed vegetable oils differed from each other. The predominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) acids, and arachidic (C20:0) and behenic (C22:0) acids were present in minor or small quantities. The most pronounced differences between the analyzed oils were found for unsaturated fatty acids, the beneficial effects of which on human health have been proven. During the study, one of the monounsaturated fatty acids detected was oleic acid (C18:1n9c), which accounted for 58.612 % of all fatty acids in rapeseed oil, while only 10.949 % was detected in sea buckthorn oil. When analyzing polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) was found in all the oils studied, but its content differed between them. The data obtained can contribute to further work on the standardization of cold-pressed vegetable oils permitted for consumption.

1. Ostrikov A. N., Kleimenova N. L., Bolgova I. N., Kopylov M. V., et al. Control of the qualitative and quantitative composition of vitamins and tocopherols of various types of vegetable oils. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2021;(10):92-95 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2021.10.10.005.
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10. GOST 31933-2012. Vegetable oils. Methods for determining the acid number and acidity. Access mode: legal system Consultant plus (date of application: 11/27/2022) (In Russ.).
11. Kleimenova N. L., Bolgova I. N., Kopylov M. V., Pegina A. N., et al. Application of cluster analysis for the identification of oilseed raw materials. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2021;(3):149-162 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.36107/spfр.2021.216.
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15. Barcelo-Coblijn G., Murphy E. J., Othman R., Moghadasian M. H., et al. Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: A multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;88:801-809.
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Ostrikov Alexander N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kleymenova Natal'ya L., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Nazina Ludmila I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bolgova Inessa N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19, Revolution Avenue, Voronezh, Russia, 394036, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Orlovtseva Olga A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
The Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Dushkina T. N., Komarov S. S., Shapovalov S. O., Kalashnikov V. A., Makarova O. O., Golubev I. S.Campylobacter spp. as a criterion for the effectiveness of slaughter hygiene and the level of biosafety in poultry growing and processing

P. 60-66 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.013

Key words
campylobacter, campylobacteriosis, acute enteric infections, antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic bacteria, slaughter hygiene, biosafety, poultry farming and processing, production control program, rapid diagnosis, quantitative counting, most probable number method

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported gastrointestinal disease in the world today. In most countries of the world, poultry is the main source of human campylobacteriosis, including environmental transmission, direct contact with animals, processing, preparation and consumption of poultry meat. International experts estimate that the poultry reservoir accounts for 50-80 % of all campylobacteriosis cases, with poultry slaughterhouses being the main site of contamination by C. jejuni, which poses a high risk to humans. Guided by the global best practice for the control and quantitation of Campylobacter spp. as a hygiene criterion of an effective technological slaughter process at poultry processing plants, bioM?rieux in cooperation with Scientific and Test Center Cherkizovo (Cherkizovo LAB) boffinery for the first time in Russia initiated introduction of an innovative Campylobacter quantitation control method in the poultry processing industry through Tempo® CAM system test for ТЕМРО® (bioM?rieux) Express analyzer. For this purpose, bioM?rieux together with Cherkizovo LAB, conducted a scientific experiment to evaluate Campylobacter spp. count in poultry samples at different production stages and in finished products at poultry processing plants. As a result, they have conducted TEMPO® CAM (Campylobacter spp. quantitation) test system verification and evaluated method reproducibility, assessed hygiene level on slaughter line and biosafety level at the poultry rearing and processing plant for compliance with the international criterion of poultry slaughter hygiene; the finished products at poultry processing and storage facilities were also examined for cross-contamination. The method is novel, since there is no similar method of express diagnostics for Campylobacter spp. quantitation, which can be recommended for risk analysis at production sites and implementation of the Campylobacter control program as a hygiene criterion of an effective slaughter process at poultry processing plants in order to increase slaughter hygiene and biosafety level.

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Dushkina Tatiana N.,
UK Ltd, Chineham Gate, Crockford Ln, Chineham, Basingstoke RG24 8NA, England, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Komarov Sergey S.,
Makarova Oksana A.,
Golubev Ilya S.,
LLC "bioMerieux RUS",
10/1, 1st Nagatinsky passage, Moscow, 115230, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shapovalov Sergey O., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Kalashnikov Vyacheslav A., Candidate of Veterinary Sciences
LLC Research and Testing Center Cherkizovo,
14, Dorozhnaya str., Yakovlevskoe, Moscow, 143340, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zarubin N. Yu., Lavrukhina E. V., Bredikhina O. V., Grinevich A. I., Arkhipov L. O. Probiotic fish food products: the role in the diet and the method of obtaining by biotechnology

P. 67-71 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.014

Key words
probiotic food product, fish raw materials, microorganisms, probiotic, fillets, bacterial starter cultures

The priority direction is the development of modern technologies for the production of food ingredients and food processing technologies, including biotechnologies to create conditions for the production of new-generation food products with specified quality characteristics and promote the principles of healthy nutrition. In accordance with this, the development of technologies and a database of enriched fish products for daily consumption based on assortment and recipe optimization using modeling and biotechnology methods is of great social importance and is relevant and developing. These studies will become the basis for expanding the production of fish food products with a directed change in composition, as well as with the content of substances useful to the human body. At the same time, the population of the Russian Federation is interested in probiotic products, due to the fact that these properties will allow obtaining a probiotic fish food product to maintain the functional activity of human organs and tissues, correct the composition of the internal indigenous microflora of the intestinal microbiota and, as a result, increase the immune protection of the body and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Data on the possibility of biotransformation of commercial fillets (pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), cod (Gadus macrocephalus), small-eyed macrurus (Albatrossia pectoralis) and potentially commercial fish species (Gilbert's half-shell "Goby" (Hemilepidotus gilberti) are presented bacterial starter cultures in order to obtain a semi-finished product for further use as a basis for probiotic fish food products. Studies have been carried out to study the residual number of living cells of bacterial starter cultures in the muscle tissue of fish fillets, which meets the requirements for probiotic products. The survival rate under the influence of temperatures has been determined, the data on which will be used to develop and adjust the thermal treatment modes of the final product. The results of the conducted research will be used to select the most suitable bacterial starter cultures, as well as to verify the optimal conditions and parameters predicted by mathematical modeling algorithms for this processing process as the basis for the development of the formulation and final technology of probiotic fish food products.

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Zarubin Nikita Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Lavrukhina Elizaveta V.,
Bredikhina Olga V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Grinevich Alexandra I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Arkhipov Leonid O., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Federal Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO),
19, Okruzhnoy passage, Moscow, 105187, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vafin R. R., Mikhailova I. Yu., Ageikina I. I., Sviridov D. A., Ganin M. Yu.Modeling of DNA technology for determining the botanical origin of honey

P. 72-75 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.015

Key words
monofloral honey, honey plant, chloroplast DNA, PCR, RFLP, electrophoresis, sequencing, identification

Honey, due to its unique properties, is widely used in the food and chemical industries. Monofloral honey, produced by honey bees from the nectar of flowering plants predominantly of one type of honey plant, is positioned as a high-quality bee product with high economic value. The identification of monofloral varieties of honey is dictated by the need to control their quality to ensure the protection of the rights of consumers and conscientious honey producers. The purpose of the study was to simulate the DNA technology for determining the botanical origin of honey. The model objects of the theoretical-analytical study were monofloral varieties of honey: acacia, buckwheat, sweet clover, chestnut, linden, raspberry, sunflower, sainfoin, phacelia, alfalfa, orange, sage, blueberry and mustard. Search, alignment and restriction mapping of the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA locus of honey plants amplified with primers #1 and #2 were performed using the BLAST, MEGA11 and NEBcutter V2.0 programs, with further modeling of the calculated PCR-RFLP profiles. At the initial stage of the study in the GenBank NCBI bioinformatic resource, a search was made for the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA locus of honey plants: white acacia, yellow acacia, common buckwheat, white sweet clover, common sweet clover, common chestnut, heart-shaped linden, western raspberry, annual sunflower, sainfoin, phacelia tansy, alfalfa, orange, sage, blueberry and white mustard. Further alignment of the selected nucleotide sequences showed species and/or genus specificity in most honey plants and a high potential for their identification by direct sequencing of the PCR product. And their subsequent mapping by identification-significant restriction sites of 5 selected endonucleases (TaqI, AciI, BssSI, BmgBI, and HinfI) made it possible to calculate the generated PCR-RFLP profiles of the analyzed species of honey plants and perform their in silico modeling. The obtained bioinformatic data formed the basis of a simulated DNA technology with the potential for its practical application to identify the most common varieties of monofloral honey, depending on the botanical origin, with the aim of subsequent quality control.

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11. Soares S., Rodrigues F., Delerue-Matos C. Towards DNA-Based Methods Analysis for Honey: An Update. Molecules. 2023;28(5):2106. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28052106
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Vafin Ramil R., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS,
Mikhailova Irina Yu.,
Ageikina Irina I.,
Sviridov Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ganin Mikhail Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Khramova V. N., Surkov D. I., Vladimtseva I. V., Bogdanov A. I.Effect of microwave treatment on the structure and microbial contamination of chickpeas

P. 76-79 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.016

Key words
chickpeas, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis, microbial contamination, microwave treatment

The issue of nutritional protein deficiency is pressing all over the world. A number of ways have been presented to solve this problem, and one of them is the creation of functional nutritional products. They can contain chickpeas as a functional ingredient, with 18 to 32 % protein content depending on their variety. However, due to the legume flavor, the seeds are not in demand in food production. Microwave treatment of chickpea seeds can help to solve this problem. Although, both the changes in organoleptic parameters that occur during this process and the effect of microwave radiation on the structure and total microbial contamination of the grains have not been fully studied so far. In this research, we used control and experimental samples of chickpea variety "Volzhanin" grown in 2021 in the Volgograd region. The seeds were treated with microwave radiation at the power of 200 W (5 minutes) and 400 W (3 minutes). We studied the surface of the grains with a scanning electron microscope and defined the crystal structure of biopolymer (starch) with X-ray diffraction analysis, and examined the total microbial contamination of all the samples. The electron microscopy data indicate the damaging effect of microwaves on the integrity of chickpea grain shell; thus, the samples are loosened, which facilitates further technological processing. The analysis of the obtained diffractograms showed that the applied microwave treatment modes do not change the crystalline structure. The study of the total microbial contamination of the experimental and control chickpea samples indicates that microwave irradiation of the seeds reduces the amount of microbiota in them by 3.5-4.4 times, which leads to increased safety of the food products obtained using such raw materials. Consequently, microwave treatment of chickpea grains leads to improvement of its organoleptic properties, facilitation of technological processing and reduction of total microbial contamination.

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Khramova Valentina N., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Surkov Dmitriy I., graduate student,
Vladimtseva Irina V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Bogdanov Artem I., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Volgograd State Technical University,
28, Lenin Avenue, Volgograd, Russia, 400005, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Posokina N. E., Zakharova A. I., Kurbanova M. N. Study of the dynamics of the titer of microorganisms spore after heat treatment and thermostatization

P. 80-83 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.017

Key words
spores of microorganisms, heat treatment, food safety

The mechanism of spore formation is quite complex and is the regulation of specific proteins, leading to cell differentiation, resulting in the formation of a mature dormant form of microorganisms without an active reproductive system, structurally and morphologically different from the mother cell. Sporulation of a bacterial cell is an irreversible process that increases its chance of survival. Cell germination or activation occurs when external conditions are normalized. As soon as nutrients become available, dormancy ceases and the spore quickly returns to a vegetative form of life. Although much is known about spore germination, one of the main questions remains what happens during the highly variable and often long delay between nutrient exposure to spores and the time they germinate, the so-called lag period. In connection with the above, there is a need to study the kinetics of spore germination after thermal exposure and in the process of subsequent thermostating. The strain Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, obtained at the FBSI SRC PMB "GKPM-Obolensk", was used as an object of research. In order to study the effect of thermal exposure and the subsequent time lag on the kinetics of Bacillus subtilis spore death, spore suspensions were heated at temperatures of 75, 85, and 95 °C. The data obtained allow us to conclude that heating the spore suspension at a temperature of 75 °C does not significantly affect the kinetics of microbial death. The change in titer during heating of the spore suspension at a temperature of 85 °C with subsequent thermostating showed that the change in the titer of microorganisms does not exceed one order of magnitude, which gives reason not to take into account these changes. When the spore suspension is heated at a temperature of 95 °C, the concentration of microorganisms decreases by 4 orders of magnitude. Further temperature control of the spore suspension leads to a slight increase in titer on the second and third days.

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Posokina Nata'lya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Zakharova Anna I.,
Kurbanova Madinat N., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkolnaya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Litvinenko O. V., Korneva N. Yu. Milk and soy mixture fermentation process peculiarities

P. 84-89 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.018

Key words
soy milk, cow milk, fermentation, milk and soy clot, acid formation, organoleptic evaluation

The plant milk market is actively developing at the moment, as many consumers suffer from lactose and casein intolerance, while vegetarianism is being popularized. The use of soy milk is becoming popular in the technology of fermented dairy plant products, as it is a lactose-free analog of cow milk and source of native protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other micronutrients. However, the fermentation of dairy and plant compositions is quite complex and has not been fully understood yet, and therefore the goal of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the fermentation of milk and soy mixtures with different compositions (cow milk: soy milk in the ratios of 55:45; 70:30; 85:15). The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Product Processing. To obtain milk and soy mixtures, a plant protein drink - soy milk - was prepared from soybeans of the Sentyabrinka variety selected by the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Research Center All-Russian Research Institute of Soybean. The fermentation of milk and soy mixtures was performed using the acid-rennet method with bacterial starter cultures No. 1 (Lactobacillus lactis, Lactococcus diacetylactis, Lactococcus cremoris, Streptococcus thermophilus) and No. 2 (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lac. lactis subsp. diacetilactis, Leuconostoc lactis and/or mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Streptococcus thermophilus). The acid formation of fermented milk and soy clots was studied in time at intervals of 1 hour, and their active and titratable acidity levels were analyzed in the course of work. Fermentation completion was determined based on the organoleptic indicators of fermented clots and their acidity levels. The following was established as the result of the tests: composition of the milk-soy mixture - 70:30; technological fermentation process parameters and modes - 328-346 minutes at a temperature of 34 °C, with the production of a fermented milk and soy clot having the best organoleptic quality indicators - well-formed, with a stable texture, pleasant, sour-milk taste, light soy aftertaste and smell. The analytical dependences of the titratable and active acidity indicators on the duration of fermentation process were calculated based on an analysis of acid formation in experimental clot samples.

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Litvinenko Oksana V., Candidate of Veterinary Sciences,
Korneva Nadezhda Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean,
19, Ignat'evskoe highway, Blagoveschensk, Russia, 675027, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Livinskiy A. A., Portnov N. M., Goryacheva E. D., Krasavin A. S., Lapin A. V., Pavlovsky A. S.Substantiation of the nomenclature of nutrients for food quality management

P. 90-95 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.019

Key words
chemical composition, physiological norms, nutritional value

At the state level, it is required that the results of calculations of food and energy values be put on the label, as well as included in the menu of catering establishments. Information about the nutritional composition of prescription components is also necessary when developing new types of products and dishes. To calculate collective, individual and personalized nutrition, knowledge about the nutrient composition of the products and diets used is necessary. Scientifically based management of collective and individual, personalized nutrition requires objective means of measuring the characteristics of products and diets in general. For a unified solution of tasks in related fields of technologists, nutritionists, nutritionists, it is necessary to have a single data source (register) of the nutrient composition of products. The analysis of modern international practice, official documents of the Russian Federation, reference and scientific literature is carried out. The current documents contain the standards of physiological requirements for nutrients for 67 nutrients: for adults - 14 macronutrients, 14 vitamins, 14 mineral compounds, 25 minor biologically active substances of food; for children - 41 compounds: 8 macronutrients, 13 vitamins, 15 minerals and 5 minor biologically active substances. The regulatory documents show the consumption levels of 131 food and biologically active substances with an indication of the norm and the upper permissible level of consumption, 5 of them are enzymes (including three names of enzymes without specifying numerical norms) and 4 groups of microorganisms. In practice, at present, periodically reprinted reference books are used as the main source of information on the nutritional composition of Russian food products, where information on 18 indicators is available from the normalized 67 indicators to solve practical calculations. Based on the analysis of scientific and technical information, the nomenclature of nutrients and the requirements for keeping it up to date are substantiated. Proposals are formulated for the construction of a nationwide database of the nutritional composition of food products, including coding, naming, units of measurement, degree of accuracy.

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Livinskiy Aleksey A.,
LLC "Seyomushka",
9, 2nd Yamskaya str., Moscow, 127018, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Portnov Nikolay M.,
LLC "Agentstvo KAPITAN",
16, bld. 2, Fomicheva str., Moscow, 125481
Goryacheva Elena D., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Krasavin Alexander S., postgraduate,
Lapin Alexander V., postgraduate,
Pavlovskiy Aleksander S., postgraduate
Russian Biotechnological University (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Panasyuk A. L., Kuzmina E. I., Sviridov D. A., Ganin M. Yu., Shilkin A. A. A new approach to the identification of vinegar from plant raw materials

P. 96-99 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.020

Key words
vinegar, acetic acid, acetate, identification, isotope mass spectrometry, isotope carbon ratio

Vinegar from vegetable raw materials is a natural product and plays an important role in the human diet. It is obtained by biological oxidation of alcohol-containing substrates by acetic acid bacteria. The authenticity of such a product is a determining factor on which both its physiological value and cost depend. Today, under the guise of vinegar from grape or fruit raw materials, unscrupulous manufacturers can supply to the market a low-quality product made from synthetic acetic acid with the addition of dyes, flavors and other compounds. It is known that compounds obtained as a result of chemical synthesis have a characteristic composition of values of isotopic characteristics of "light" elements, different from similar values of isotopic characteristics of elements of compounds obtained as a result of processing of plant raw materials. Accordingly, in order to detect the presence of synthetic acetic acid in natural vinegar from vegetable raw materials, it is promising to use the method of isotope mass spectrometry. In the work carried out, 12 samples of vinegar from vegetable raw materials and 4 samples of vinegar essence purchased in retail chains were examined. For all samples, the values of the d13C gross index were obtained by isotope mass spectrometry. In another case, acetic acid was isolated from vinegar samples by steam distillation in the form of its aqueous solution, which was then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to avoid losses during subsequent concentration of the solution in a water bath. In the resulting sodium acetate solution, the values of d13C were measured, which reflect the values of the carbon isotopic characteristics of acetic acid, excluding the influence of other carbon-containing compounds in the product. It is established that the method of isotope mass spectrometry is a reliable tool for establishing the authenticity of vinegars from vegetable raw materials. The results of the study showed that both the measured values of d13C gross and the values of d13C of the obtained acetates of 10 samples out of 12 studied are typical for products made from vegetable raw materials. The values obtained for the remaining 2 samples are in the range typical for products produced using synthetic acetic acid.

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Panasyuk Alexander L., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kuzmina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Sviridov Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ganin Michail Yu.,
Shilkin Aleksey A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Andrievskaya D. V., Moiseeva A. A., Trofimchenko V. A. The effect of light on the quality of pink sparkling wines

P. 100-104 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.021

Key words
sparkling wine, storage conditions, visible light, quality characteristics

Preserving the quality characteristics of sparkling wines during storage is an urgent task. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of visible light in the middle range of the spectrum on the qualitative characteristics of pink sparkling semi-dry wines bottled in colorless glass bottles. Control samples were stored in the dark and under natural light, experimental samples were stored under continuous illumination at l=440-485 nm (blue light), l=500-565 nm (green light), l=565-590 nm (yellow light). The effect of electromagnetic radiation was assessed for 60 days by changes in the main controlled parameters, volatile components, color intensity (I), hue (T) and redox potential (ORP). It was found that the controlled physico-chemical parameters of the samples did not change significantly after the expiration of the storage period. During organoleptic evaluation, in all experimental and control samples, to varying degrees, a decrease in the intensity of previously pronounced floral shades was noted. In addition, in the aroma of samples exposed to blue light and natural lighting, the appearance of "boiled" tones and a decrease in harmony in taste were recorded. It has been shown that changes in the quality characteristics of pink sparkling wines during storage under the influence of visible light in the middle range of the spectrum are due to the intensification of predominantly oxidative processes leading to transformation of the product composition. During storage of samples under natural light, blue and yellow light, a decrease in their color intensity (I) from 29 to 34 % and an increase in the T value by 4-8 % were recorded, which indicates the formation of condensation products of phenolic compounds that form yellow-brown tones. In samples stored in the dark and under green light, the decrease in color intensity was minimal (11-14 %), and the color shade remained virtually unchanged. It has been established that exposure to visible light leads to a change in the content of volatile components that directly affect the aroma of wine and an increase in the ORP value. In general, the most significant negative changes in the quality characteristics of pink sparkling wines were recorded when exposed to natural lighting and blue light (l=440-485 nm). The results obtained allow us to recommend storing them in the dark or at l=500-565 nm (green light) to maximize the preservation of the original quality of pink sparkling wines.

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Andrievskaya Dar'ya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Moiseeva Aleksandra A.,
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kruchinin A. G., Bolshakova E. I., Turovskaya S. N., Illarionova E. E.Effect of freezing on the constituents of concentrated milk systems with intermediate moisture content

P. 105-107 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.022

Key words
sweetened condensed milk, storage, sub-zero temperatures

Whole sweetened condensed milk is a strategic product in the Russian Federation, it is popular among consumers and enables to provide remote regions of the country with dairy products. Quality control of canned milk is carried out in accordance with the regulatory and technical documentation, which undergoes changes and upgrades under the influence of industry development. To date, due to the increased interest in the Arctic zone, it is relevant to improve the scientific principles of long-term storage of food products at low-negative temperatures. In this connection, the purpose of this work was to study scientific and technical data on the effect of freezing on the structural components of condensed milk with sugar. Influence of negative temperatures on fat, protein and lactose in milk concentrate system was considered. It has been revealed that the season of production of sweetened condensed milk can be the reason of accelerated course of oxidation process after freezing of the product due to the peculiarities of the composition of raw materials used (content of natural antioxidants and destabilized fat). In addition, the activation of the oxidative process in the product after freezing-thawing may be caused by the release of fat due to the disruption of the membrane of fat globules caused by the mechanical action of ice crystals. In this case, oxidation may occur under the action of enzymes of residual microflora. It was established that the protein in the product can go to the flocculated form during freezing, but with sufficient subsequent storage under normal conditions to return to the conditionally native state. At the same time, enzymes of osmotolerant microorganisms are able to induce hydrolysis of peptide bonds, which can also affect changes in the colloidal system. A significant effect of pre-storage prior to freezing of the product on changes in lactose was found. As a result of the general analysis of literature on this issue, critical changes in the storage of the product at low-negative temperature conditions were determined and recommendations were formed for producers with the potential to sell canned dairy products to the northern regions of Russia in order to provide consumers with a high-quality product.

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Kruchinin Alexander G., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bolshakova Ekaterina I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Turovskaya Svetlana N.,
Illarionova Elena E.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shevchenko S. E., Kalugina Z. I.Method of Inversion Voltammetry for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Bitter Chocolate

P. 108-113 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.023

Key words
stripping voltammetry, cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, bitter chocolate, quality control

Bitter chocolate is one of the popular and healthy products among confectionery products, while it has a pleasant taste and high energy value. It is recommended to be included in the diet of people with cardiovascular diseases, those exposed to physical and mental stress, as well as to improve overall well-being and mood. To produce Bitter chocolate, cocoa products, cocoa butter and sugar are used as raw materials. At the same time, cocoa beans are capable of accumulating heavy metals, so often increased concentrations of cadmium and mercury are observed in products based on them. In addition to low-quality raw materials, the source of contamination of the finished product can be: non-compliance with technological instructions during the processing of raw materials, the use of equipment containing toxic metals in alloys or steel. The purpose of our research was to determine safety indicators - the content of toxic elements in bitter chocolate of domestic and foreign production using the method of stripping voltammetry (SV). 10 samples of bitter chocolate with a cocoa content of 55-90 %, produced in different countries, were analyzed. Chocolate samples were purchased at retail outlets in the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. Optimal conditions for sample preparation, electrode preparation and background solutions were selected for the quantitative determination of cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury in chocolate, a comparative analysis of the content of elements was made depending on the percentage of cocoa in the sample, and the possibility of using the SV method for quality control of such a complex food product was studied. like bitter chocolate. It has been shown that, if necessary, the SV method can also be used for the detection of these heavy metals, especially mercury and arsenic, along with other, more expensive methods.

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Shevchenko Svetlana E., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Kalugina Zoya I.
All-Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of the V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Shterman S. V., Sidorenko A. Yu., Sidorenko M. Yu., Ganina V. I., Shterman V. S., Sukhina M. A. Eliseeva L. G., Molodkina P. G.Modern biologically active components of sports nutrition. Prebiotics: we are responsible for those we have tamed. Part III (2)

P. 114-118 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.024

Key words
sports nutrition, prebiotics, probiotics, gut microbiota, immunity, gut permeability, antioxidant protection, cognitive activity

In the second part of the article, the prospects that can be achieved by athletes with the consumption of prebiotics are considered. Intaking prebiotics allows athletes to achieve increased endurance; taccelerate the regeneration of muscle glycogen reserves, achieve faster recovery after intense physical exertion; to prevent the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders and the appearance of other negative physiological consequences that may be the result of strenuous training and competition. The consumption of prebiotics by increasing the number of beneficial lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in their intestines enhances the immune function of athletes. In addition to creating conditions for increased survival and the growth of protective microorganisms, prebiotics reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, to which cultivated by them probiotics exhibit antagonistic properties. Prolonged and strenuous physical activity can cause drastic changes in the permeability of the intestinal walls, which will lead to inflammation. Stable functioning of the protective intestinal barrier in athletes, which can be achieved by regular consumption of prebiotics, is a prerequisite for achieving high athletic performance. The change in intestinal pH, which occurs as a result of the impact of prebiotics on intestinal probiotics, as well as an increase in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (2-6 carbon atoms) in its environment, allows to achieve a significant modification of the composition and abundance of the intestinal microbiota, leading to the predominance of beneficial bacterial species in it. Prebiotics can affect not only the human gastrointestinal tract, but also the cognitive activity of athletes. The intake of prebiotics, as a result of changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and / or its activity, affects mood, memory, learning and some mental disorders. One of the important production functions of prebiotics may be their use as an effective protective agent in the process of spray and freeze-drying of probiotics. The article draws attention to the fact that prebiotics may not act instantly like caffeine or some other sports dietary supplements, leading to the need for athletes to be patient and consistent when taking prebiotic supplements. The paper concluded that prebiotics, with their wide range of applications and benefits, are steadily becoming more popular, providing significant potential for the development and production of various types of sports nutrition, capable of attracting an increasing number of discerning consumers in order to cheaply and safely provide clear benefits to their health.

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Shterman Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Sidorenko Alexey Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Sidorenko Mikhail Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shterman Valeriy S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
1, Obolenskoe highway, settl. Obolensk, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142279, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ganina Vera I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Moscow State University of Technology and Management,
73, Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sukhina Marina A., Candidate of Biological. Sciences
Russian Medical Academy of continuing professional education of the Ministry of Health of Russia.
2/1, bld. 1, Barrikadnaya str., Moscow, 125993, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Eliseeva Lyudmila G., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Molodkina Polina G.
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Korolev A. A., Pokudina G. P., Senkevich V. I.Analysis of the modes of sterilization of baby food products in different types of packages of the same capacity

P. 119-123 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.11.11.025

Key words
horizontal autoclave, sterilization mode, logger, required and actual lethality, industrial sterility, Doy Pack pouch, glass jars

The article provides an analysis of the sterilization regimes of baby food products manufactured in accordance with GOST 30545-2015 in various types of packages of the same capacity. When developing sterilization modes, the type, composition of the preserved raw materials, pH, type and capacity of the package are taken into account. The canned food manufacturer faces the question of choosing the optimal sterilization mode for a particular type of packaging used for canned products. A comparative analysis of the developed sterilization modes for one product name packed in different types of packaging having the same capacity (100 g): glass jars for baby food with a type IV whisk according to GOST 32671-2020 and polymer bags of the Doy Pack type according to GOST ISO22015-2020. Sterilization was carried out in a horizontal steam-water autoclave. The main task in the development of sterilization regimes is to determine the temperature and duration of the heat treatment of the product, at which the actual lethality should be equal to or exceed the value of the required lethality F of the canned food sterilization process. In accordance with the calculated required lethality F, preliminary sterilization modes were selected, in accordance with which the samples of canned food were subjected to heating with registration of thermograms of the environment in the autoclave and the product in its slowest heating zone (SHZ) of the package by the registrars. Using the lethality coefficients lT0 the values of the actual lethality L were calculated when the product samples were heated. These values exceeded the required lethality. In accordance with the selected and adjusted modes, experimental batches of canned food were developed and stored for 3 months in isothermal conditions at air temperature 20±5 °С. After the specified period, the batches of canned food were sorted, microbiological analyzes were carried out, which confirmed that the developed modes ensure the industrial sterility of the canned food produced. The heating rate of glass jar material was studied in comparison with other baby food packaging materials. The (heating rate)-1 of a 100 ml net glass jar is 15 % of the 100 g net products filled. The performed calculations and studies show that when developing sterilization modes, one should take into account the type of product packaging used, taking into account its influence on the heating stage and the actual sterilization of the heat treatment process.

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Korolev Aleksey A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Pokudina Galina P.,
Senkevich Vyacheslav I., lead engineer
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
78, Shkol`naya str., Vidnoe town, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




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