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Food processing Industry №8/2023


Tvorogova A. A., Gurskiy I. A., Kazakova N. V., Korolev I. A.Study on technological functionality of citrus fibers in production of the Creamy and the High Fatty ice cream

P. 6-9 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.001

Key words
ice cream, citrus fiber, guar gum, microstructure, viscosity, meltdown rate

Creamy ice cream and ice cream are the most produced. Traditionally, stabilizer-emulsifier complexes containing 4-6 food additives are used to stabilize the structure of ice cream. What limits the consumption of these varieties in a certain category of people. The aim of the research was to establish the possibility of using citrus fibers and their composition with guar gum instead of effective stabilizers-emulsifiers in the production of ice cream with a limited content of food additives. The samples of creamy ice cream and ice cream with fat mass fractions of 8 and 12 %, respectively, were used as objects of study. Rheological methods were used - to assess the viscosity of the mixture and the texture of ice cream, microstructural - to assess the dispersion of ice crystals and air bubbles, and thermostatic - to assess thermal stability. It was found that when using citrus fibers as monostabilizers in ice cream ice cream, the dynamic viscosity of the mixture reached 200 mPa s, which is 2 times lower than when using complex emulsifier stabilizers. When used together with citrus fibers of guar gum, the viscosity indicators reached values of 57 mPa s in a mixture for creamy ice cream and 513 mPa s in a mixture for ice cream. When replacing the complex stabilization system with fibers or their composition with guar gum, overrun was significantly reduced. Overrun in these samples did not exceed 42 %. A positive effect of dietary fiber on the thermal stability of ice cream was revealed. In all samples of ice cream, a highly dispersed crystalline structure of ice was found. Their average size did not exceed 40 µm. The air phase was most affected by citrus fibers in cream ice cream. The average size of air bubbles was 16 % larger than in samples with an effective complex of stabilizers-emulsifiers. In the study of texture indicators, it was found that the indicators of hardness, adhesive force and stickiness are more affected by the overrun of ice cream than the type of stabilizer. The obtained research results indicate the technological possibility of using citrus fibers as a stabilizer together with guar gum in the production of cream ice cream and ice cream. However, further studies of structural elements during storage are needed. Of scientific and practical interest are studies to assess the effect of dietary fiber on ice cream quality indicators in the presence of an effective stabilizer-emulsifier.

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Tvorogova Antonina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Gurskiy Igor A.,
Kazakova Nataliya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Korolev Igor A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Refrigeration Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food System,
12, Kostyakova str., Moscow, 127422, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gribkova I. N., Khorosheva E. M., Remneva G. A. The brewer's spent grain structure study the point of view mineral composition

P. 10-15 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.002

Key words
beer pellet, organic compounds, mineral elements, physical processing

The article is devoted to the mineral elements role study in the brewer's spent grain plant matrix structure and their relationship with organic compounds. With the help of instrumental methods of analysis, the work achieves the study's goal - the mineral composition of deeply processed grain's study by physical methods and its relationship with organic compounds. It has been shown that the use of excess (0.5-1 atm) pressure in a medium with a catalyte (pH 9.4) is most effective in terms of deep processing of the grain structure, since the extracts accumulate the largest amount of phenolic, nitrogenous, carbohydrate compounds and trace elements (Mr, Mg, Zn, Fe), especially at 1 atm for 30 minutes. The content of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, P, N) accumulates in extracts obtained at 0.5 atm for 1 hour. The authors obtained data indicating that the content of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, P, N) and Mg during treatment with excessive pressure change within narrow limits: 17.0-26.8 mg/dm3; 169.5-205.6 mg/dm3; 20.4-21.3 mg/dm3; 21.5-47.5 mg/dm3; 31.0-39.8 mg/dm3; 23.9-29.4 mg/dm3 respectively. Regarding Mn and Zn ions, a correlation was noted with respect to the soluble nitrogen amount, and Fe - with the total polyphenols content. The use of brewer's spent grain ultrasonic treatment in the presence of a catalyte for 1 h made it possible to accumulate the maximum amount of reducing compounds in the extracts. It was noted that the polyphenolic and nitrogenous compounds content in the brewer's spent grain extracts treated with ultrasound, regardless of the duration of treatment, did not exceed the content of organic compounds contained in the extracts obtained under excessive pressure. The authors have shown that ultrasound has little effect on the change in the concentration of mineral compounds ions, they fluctuate within narrow limits; the use of excess pressure allows you to accumulate more K and Fe ions, since their content increases by 1.2 times and 1.5-5.2 times, respectively, compared with analogues obtained at atmospheric pressure even when exposed to ultrasound. Correlation-regression multivariate analysis showed a close correlation between: phenolic compounds, Mg (R=0.74) and Zn (R=0.81) ions; nitrogenous compounds, Na (R=0.67) and Fe (R=0.60) ions; arabinoxylans, Na (R=-0.74) and P (R=-0.76). Multiple correlation analysis showed a strong relationship between phenolic compounds, soluble nitrogen, beta-glucan and arabinoxylans and Na-Fe ions, all the same compounds except arabinoxylans, and Na-P ions, arabinoxylans and soluble nitrogen and Mg-Zn ions, arabinoxylan and beta-glucan and K-Ca ions, which is associated with the biochemical characteristics of the vital activity of the grain

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Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Khorosheva Elena V.,
Remneva Galina A.
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Non-Alcoholic and Wine-making Industry - Branch of the V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Timakova R. T., Il'yukhina Yu. V., Startsev V. G. Evaluation of the balance of amino acid composition of dry mare's milk protein

P. 16-21 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.003

Key words
dry mare's milk, freeze drying, proteins, amino acids, amino acid score, biological value

Mare's milk, which is close in composition to women's milk, and its processed products (koumiss) are actively used in therapeutic and preventive nutrition for bronchopulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal pathologies, in the rehabilitation of cancer patients and to maintain general immunity. The biological value of mare's milk is determined by the quality of protein and the balance of its amino acid composition. At the same time, the production of mare's milk has not become widespread (production volumes are up to 0.02% of the total production of raw milk) due to the peculiarities of the organization of dairy horse breeding, high cost of raw materials, imperfections in logistics processes, which requires changes in business processes and the transition to the production of dry mare's milk, characterized by prolonged shelf life. The amino acid composition of mare's milk protein is comparable to an ideal protein, there is no limiting amino acid in it, along with this, a minimum amino acid score for valine is established in raw mare's milk. The high balance of the amino acid composition makes it possible to improve protein synthesis in the human body with a high utilitarianism coefficient - from 0.9883 in raw milk to 0.9900 in powdered milk. Amino acids of mare's milk powder protein are almost completely used for anabolic purposes, while the index of comparable redundancy is 0.0003, whichis 14 times less than in raw milk, thereby providing a higher digestibility of milk powder - up to 99.0-99.5 %. In the absence of regulatory regulatory documentation on the use of raw natural mare's milk in human nutrition, the most optimal solution is the production of dry mare's milk by freeze-drying at small agricultural enterprises of the full production cycle. The results of the conducted studies show higher characteristics of the balanced amino acid composition of dry mare's milk. It is recommended to conduct further studies on the in-depth assessment of the nutritional value of dry mare's milk.

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Timakova Roza T., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Il'yukhina Yuliya V., graduate student
Ural State EconomicUuniversity,
62/45, 8 Marta/Narodnoy voli, Ekaterinburg, Russia, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Startsev Vadim G., head of the peasant farm
Peasant farm Startsev V. G.,
Mochische village, Sharkanskiy district, Udmurt Republic, Russia, 427075, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Rogov V. S., Sakharova E. S., Vlasova E. A. The influence of the type of cheese on the quality indicators of classic pizza

P. 22-26 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.004

Key words
cheese, mozzarella, maasdam, gouda, parmesan, àdyghe, dor blue, russian, smoked sausage, pizza, organoleptic and physico-chemical quality indicators

Public catering organizations, positioning themselves as fast-food enterprises, in modern conditions have received the widest distribution not only in the world, but also in Russia. Especially many of these "restaurants" are in large cities, where the rhythm of life and the mobility of citizens are very high. The main task of this type of enterprises is to provide services of adequate quality quickly and inexpensively. Fast food restaurants are popular with almost half of the population because of their affordability, democracy and fast service. Quick service enterprises show high dynamics of development. Starting from 2016, their number has increased annually by an average of 20 %, covering several directions and formats at once. Numerous establishments are opening at food courts and business centers, mobile kiosks in recreation areas, and even individual stationary establishments. This segment of the public catering market is divided into several segments: pancake, cheburek, dumplings, burgers, bakeries, pizzerias and other fast food establishments focused on the manufacture of products, as a rule, made from semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness and not requiring long preparation: hamburger, sandwich, pizza, etc. Pizza is very popular today. Pizza is quite nutritious and allows you to quickly fill up. It is prepared simply and very quickly. In addition, its delivery services make it possible to receive a dish at the right time and at any address. Pizza is one of the most popular fast food all over the world. Pizza is a national Italian dish, which is a round open flatbread covered with melted cheese and tomatoes. The main ingredient in pizza is cheese. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of a variety of cheese on the organoleptic quality indicators of classic pizza and the choice of the most suitable type of cheese in the production of such products. The objectives of the study included: 1) determination and comparative analysis of physicochemical and organoleptic quality indicators of eight types of cheese; 2) study of the influence of the type of cheese on the organoleptic characteristics of classic pizza by a tasting committee of 15 people; 3) rationale for the choice of cheese for the pizza recipe based on the results of the study. First of all, different samples of cheese were analyzed. To assess the quality, representatives of each type of cheese were selected, according to their classification by production technology: hard, semi-hard, soft, brine and processed (processed). It is shown that all samples, with the exception of the semi-hard cheese russian, meet the standards in terms of physicochemical (content of fat, moisture and sodium chloride, pH) and organoleptic (appearance and texture, color, taste and smell, pattern) quality indicators. The salt content in Russian cheese exceeds the norm by 2 times. Eight samples of pizza were baked with all the cheeses. It has been established that the best samples, according to tasters, are pizzas with cheese: smoked sausage, parmesan and adyghe, i. e. inexpensive (budget) varieties. In addition, the replacement of expensive types of cheese traditionally used in pizzerias for making pizza, such as mozzarella or cheese with noble mold, with soft cheese adyghe or processed sausage smoked in the production of pizza will expand the range of products and reduce their cost.

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8. GOST 34356-2017. Cheeses with cheddarization and thermomechanical processing of cheese mass. Specifications. Introduced 2018-09-01. Moscow: Standartinform, 2018. 18 p.
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Rogov Vladislav S., student of the 10th grade
School No. 26,
Ivanovo, Ivanovo region, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sakharova Ekaterina S., student,
Vlasova Elena Alexandrovna, Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology,
7, Sheremetevskiy Avenue, Ivanovo, Ivanovo region, 153000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kupriy A. S., Maslovskiy S. A., Yanchenko E. V., Bebris A. R., Kharitonova P. S.Scientific rationale of the possibility of using carrots as a source of functional food ingredients for the production of fish pate

P. 27-30 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.005

Key words
functional fish product, roots, variety, carrot, quality indicators, nutrition value

The article presents the results of an experiment conducted by researchers from the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education RGAU-MSHA named after K. A. Timiryazev and the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing - Branch of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution of the Federal Scientific and Practical Center for Education. The expansion of the range of food products intended for systematic consumption as part of the diet of a healthy population is ensured by the development of new formulations for multicomponent food products. The possibility of introducing the appropriate varieties of carrots into the formulation of fish pate is being considered to obtain a product enriched with dietary fibers or carotenoids, the normalized content of which allows substantiating its functional orientation. Assessing the quality and safety of plant-derived raw materials leads to increased scientific knowledge about nutrient synergies and the prospects for balancing food systems. Studies have been carried out to study the quality indicators of zoned samples of domestic varieties of carrots for the production of fish pate with functional herbal ingredients. Brief characteristics of the morphological features of each carrot variety are given and their biochemical parameters are determined. The experimental part was performed in accordance with standard methods in the necessary repetition to ensure the reliability of the results. The requirements of regulatory and technical documentation for table carrots and functional food products, as well as their distinctive features, were the basis for confirming the quality and safety indicators of prototypes. The obtained data on the amount of dry matter, sugars, carotenoids, protein, fiber, ash, fats and nitrates made it possible to determine the most suitable carrot varieties for enrichment with essential nutrients. The results of the conducted studies were subjected to a correlation analysis in order to identify a positive and negative relationship between biochemical indicators, as well as an objective characteristic of the technological properties of raw materials. The expediency of using carrot roots as a functional ingredient in the composition of enriched food products has been scientifically proven and experimentally confirmed.

1. Bebris A. R., Yanchenko E. V., Maslovskiy S. A. Productivity of table carrot varieties and hybrids depending on nutritional backgrounds. Materiali Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy conferentsii molodikh uchenikh i spetsialistov, posvyaschennoy 135-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya A. N. Kostyakova: sbornik statey = Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists dedicated to 135 anniversary of the birth of A. N. Kostyakova: collection of articles. Moscow: Russian State Agrarian University - K. A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy, 2022. Vol. 2. P. 177-180 (In Russ.).
2. Borisov V. A., Yanchenko E. V., Yanchenko A. V., et al. Changes in the content of dry matter, carotenoids, sugars during the drying of varieties and hybrids of table carrots. Izvestiya FNTSO = News of FSCV. 2019;(1):39-42 (In Russ). DOI: 10.18619/2658-4832-2019-1-39-42.
3. Kupriy A. S., Dunchenko N. I. Trends in food technologies in improving the formulations of fish products. Materiali Vserossiyskoy s mezhdunarodnim uchastiem nauchnoy conferentsii molodikh uchenikh i spetsialistov, posvyaschennoy 155-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Khudyakova N. N. = Materials of the All-Russian Scientific Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists with International Participation, dedicated to the 155th Anniversary of N. N. Khudyakova. Moscow: Russian State Agricultural University, 2021. P. 386-390 (In Russ.).
4. Megerdichev E. Ya. Technological requirements for varieties of vegetable and fruit crops intended for various types of canning. Moscow, 2003. 94 p. (In Russ.)
5. Patent No. 2330478 C1 Russian Federation, IPC A23L 1/325, A23L 3/00. Method for the production of canned fish from cod: No. 2007102786/13; appl. 01/25/2007; publ. 08/10/2008 / O. I. Kvasenkov, V. A. Lomachinskiy; applicant All-Russian Research Institute of the Canning and Vegetable-Drying (In Russ.).
6. Patent No. 2333694 C1 Russian Federation, IPC A23L 1/325. Method for the production of canned fish from cod for special purposes (options): No. 2007109084/13; appl. 03/13/2007; publ. 20.09.2008 / O. I. Kvasenkov (In Russ.).
7. Patent No. 2757293 C1 Russian Federation, IPC A23L 17/00. Functional Fish Pate: No. 2021104399; appl. 02/20/2021; publ. 12.10.2021 / N. I. Dunchenko, A. S. Kupriy, V. S. Yankovskaya, et al. Applicant Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K. A. Timiryazev" (In Russ.).
8. Order of the Ministry of Health of Russia dated August 19, 2016 No. 614 "On Approval of Recommendations on Rational Norms for Consumption of Food Products that Meet Modern Requirements for a Healthy Diet" (In Russ.).
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10. Kupriy A. S., Dunchenko N. I., Voloshina E. S. Scientific rationale of ingredients choice for functional fish pastes. Theory and practice of meat processing. 2021;6(1):66-77. https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X 2021-6-1-66-77.
11. https://ppkmaksimikha.ru/news/243
Kupriy Anastasiya S., graduate student,
Maslovskiy Sergey A., Candidate of Agriculture Sciences,
Kharitonova Polina S., graduate student
Russian State Agrarian University - K. A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy,
49, Timiryazevskaya str., Moscow, 127550, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yanchenko Elena V., Candidate of Agriculture Sciences,
Bebris Artem R., Candidate of Agriculture Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing - Branch of the Federal Scientific Vegetable Center,
140153, Moscow region, Ramensky district, village. Vereya, p. 500, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu., Shterman V. S., Sidorenko Yu. I. Modern biologically active components of sports nutrition. Part I. Beta-alanine will help you climb the pedesta

P. 31-35 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.006

Key words
sports nutrition, beta-alanine, carnosine, muscle acidosis, sports fatigue, buffering action, antioxidants, protein glycation

Nowadays, while developing sports nutrition products, a search is constantly being made for components that have ergogenic properties, i.e. those that enable athletes to safely improve their athletic performance. Among these compounds, specialists in sports physiology have recently pay attention to the natural amino acid beta-alanine. The purpose of this work was to assess the physiological effect of beta-alanine on the athletes organism and to identify the most effective directions for its use in various sports. One of the main biochemical functions of beta-alanine is the synthesis on its basis with the participation of another partially replaceable amino acid - histidine, an important from a physiological point of view compound - carnosine. Of greatest interest to athletes and fitness enthusiasts is the unique ability of carnosine to delay the onset of fatigue, which inevitably occurs as a result of intense physical exertion. One of the important causes of fatigue during moderate and high-intensity exercises is the rapid increase in the concentration of lactic acid in muscle tissues and, accordingly, the hydrogen ions (H+) formed as a result of its dissociation. One of the main advantages of carnosine is its effective buffering acid-base properties in relation to muscle tissues and thus preventing their "acidification". The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine is most achieved if the duration of physical activity, which is predominantly of anaerobic in nature, is from 60 to 240 s. Carnosine, synthesized from beta-alanine, can also act as an antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species, the formation of which is greatly enhanced during intense physical exertion; prevent or weaken the glycation of protein structures of the body, which leads to the loss of their physiological functions, as well as increase the sensitivity of muscle fibers to calcium ions, which allows them to maintain the strength of their contractions against the background of developing fatigue.

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19. Spradley B. D., Crowley K. R., Tai C. Y., et al. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance. Nutrition and Metabolism (London). 2012;9:28. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-28.
20. Smith A. E., Moon J. R., Kendall K. L., et al. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009;105(3):357-363.
21. Van Thienen R., Van Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde B., et al. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2009;41:898-903.
22. Hoffman J. R., Landau G., Stout J. R., et al. beta-Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers. Amino Acids. 2015;47(3):627-636. Doi: 10.1007/s00726-014-1896-7.
23. Decombaz J., Beaumont M., Vuichoud J., et al. Effect of slow-release ?-alanine tablets on absorption kinetics and paresthesia. Amino Acids. Doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1169-7.
Shterman Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Sidorenko Mikhail Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shterman Valeriy S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Sidorenko Yuriy I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
1, Obolenskoe highway, Obolensk, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142279, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Moiseeva A. A., Andrievskaya D. V., Trofimchenko V. A.The effect of light on the quality of white sparkling wines

P. 36-40 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.007

Key words
sparkling wine, storage conditions, visible light, physicochemical composition, redox potential, color intensity, volatile acids, organoleptic properties

The problem of preserving the quality of sparkling wines during storage is extremely urgent. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of visible radiation in the middle range of the spectrum (blue [l=440-485 nm], green [l=500-565 nm] and yellow light [l=565-590 nm]) on the qualitative characteristics of white sparkling brut wines bottled in dark olive glass bottles. The control samples were stored in the dark and in natural light. The effect of electromagnetic radiation was evaluated for 60 days by changes in the redox potential (ORP), the optical density (OP) at l = 420 nm and the main controlled parameters. It was found that during storage in experimental and control samples, the values of ORP and OP increase. The maximum changes were recorded in samples exposed to blue and yellow light, as well as natural light. When stored in the dark and at ?=500-565 nm (green light) these indicators did not change so significantly. It was also found that the controlled physico-chemical parameters of the samples did not change significantly after the expiration of the storage period, with the exception of the mass concentration of volatile acids and total sulfur dioxide, relative to the initial one. The maximum increase in the mass concentration of volatile acids was observed when exposed to blue light and natural light - by 45.8 % and 41.7 %, respectively. Minimum - when stored in the dark (4.2 %). As a result of the organoleptic evaluation, it was noted that in all experimental and control samples, the intensity of floral shades inherent in the original samples decreased to varying degrees. Most significantly, this happened under the influence of blue light and natural light. In addition, "boiled" tones appeared in the aroma, and the taste became less harmonious. When storing sparkling wines in the dark and in the range l = 500-565 nm (green light), the change in quality characteristics was minimal. Thus, the results of the study made it possible to recommend storing brut white sparkling wines in the dark or using lighting with a wavelength in the range of 500-565 nm (green light) for maximum preservation of the original quality, in the absence of such an opportunity, use a yellow light.

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7. Carlin S., Mattivi F., Durantini V., Dalledonne S., Panagiotis A. Flint glass bottles cause white wine aroma identity degradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2022;119(29):Art2121940119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2121940119
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12. Caceres-Mella A., Flores-Valdivia D., Felipe L. V., Lopez-Solis R., Pena-Neira A. Chemical and Sensory Effects of Storing Sauvignon Blanc Wine in Colored Bottles under Artificial Light. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2014;62(29):7255-7262. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf501467f
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15. Celotti E., Lazaridis G., Figelj J., Scutaru Y., Natolino A. Comparison of a Rapid Light-Induced and Forced Test to Study the Oxidative Stability of White Wines. Molecules. 2022;27(1):326. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010326
Moiseeva Aleksandra A.,
Andrievskaya Dar'ya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tikhonova O. Yu., Kotova T. V., Frolova T. V., Dmitrieva N. V., Gruzin A. A., Bersenev I. I.Towards the development of templates for determining the contrast of food labeling

P. 41-45 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.008

Key words
labeling of food products, labeling contrast, contrast levels, font

To date, the indicator of the contrast of food labeling in regulatory documents is presented in a theorized and rather streamlined manner. In accordance with the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation, all inscriptions, signs and symbols must be contrasting with the background on which they are applied. However, contrast performance requirements are limited to this feature only. The contrast of colors can be expressed in a specific numerical value, which will allow, in the study of product quality, to evaluate the performance of the marking in terms of contrast, taking into account the numerical parameter. When developing marking templates by the manufacturer, the contrast level can be preset. In this article, the concept of contrast is considered in detail, both in a general sense and in relation to food labeling. The interpretation of the term contrast, applicable in the framework of marking, is formulated. The classification of contrast is given. The classification features used in its differentiation are revealed. Specified types in terms of labeling food products. It is noted that for the readability of information placed on a package or a separate medium, contrast is often crucial. On the basis of the results obtained in previous studies, it was found that problems with ensuring contrast in labeling are quite common. These aspects have become the justification for the need to conduct an experiment to establish the most acceptable level of contrast, which will ensure the readability of information about the product. This will allow buyers to receive more complete information during the purchase process, and will also help to increase the consumer value of products. The result of this study was the development of special marking templates, performed at different levels of contrast, which were the main tools in the experiment. It is also taken into account that even at similar contrast levels, legibility may not be ensured. In this regard, two versions of the template were developed at each level to take into account possible options for the implementation of food labeling by manufacturers.

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11. Tikhonova O. Yu., Frolova T. V., Bersenev I. I. Development of a method for assessing the quality of execution of labeling of food products for defects. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pischevyh produktov = Technology and commodity science of innovative food products. 2022;5(76):90-95 (In Russ.).
Tikhonova Olga Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bersenev Igor I., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Kemerovo State Medical University,
22A, Voroshilova str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650056, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kotova Tatyana V., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Kemerovo State Medical University,
22A, Voroshilova str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650056
Ural State University of Economics,
62, 8 March str., Ekaterinburg, Russia, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Frolova Tamara V., Candidate of Economic Sciences
T. F. Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University,
28, Vesennya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Dmitrieva Natal'ya V., Candidate of Economic Sciences
Kemerovo State University,
6A, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gruzin Andrey A., director
1/6, Karbolitovskaya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Lutkov I. P.Scientific approaches to assessing the quality of sparkling wines

P. 46-56 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.009

Key words
physico-chemical parameters, descriptors, aromatic complex, phenolic substances, optical characteristics, organic acids, foamy properties, sparkling properties, breeding varieties

For an objective assessment of sparkling wines, it is necessary to develop an approach to obtaining the necessary and sufficient information about their basic properties, applicable to confirm the quality of products and for scientific research. The aim of the work was to develop an algorithm for an objective assessment of the quality of sparkling wines on the example of samples from breeding grape varieties. The content of organic acids, sugars, glycerin, phenolic substances and ethanol was determined by HPLC, amine nitrogen - by formalin titration; optical characteristics - by colorimetric method. Foamy properties - by bubbling a wine sample with air in a measuring cylinder, sparkling properties - by measuring the rate of CO2 desorption, CO2 content - by volumetric method. Organoleptic evaluation - according to GOST 32051-2013, ISO5492:2008, ISO11035:1994. An algorithm for assessing the quality of sparkling wines is proposed, including the study of accompanying documentation; visual and insrumental assessment of transparency and color; analysis of phenolic, coloring substances, optical density spectra, intensity and shade of coloring; organoleptic analysis; determination of organic acids, sugars, glycerin, amine nitrogen, dynamic viscosity, foamy and sparkling properties. It was found that rose and red wines from Rubinovy Magaracha and Bastardo Magarachsky received high tasting ratings. The components of the aromatic complex of rose wines from Bastardo Magarachsky were berry and floral descriptor, a sample from Rubinovy Magaracha - berry descriptor, and the greatest contribution to the addition of taste was provided by berry and fruit descriptor; in red wines from these varieties, the basis of the aromatic complex was berry and dried fruit descriptors, the greatest contribution to the addition of taste was provided by berry-fruit descriptor and velvety. Among the experimental samples, the best foamy properties were determined in rose and red sparkling wine from Rubinovy Magaracha, the best sparkling properties were in rose wine from Rubinovy Magaracha and red wine from Bastardo Magarachsky. It is shown that high-quality sparkling wines can be produced from breeding grape varieties.

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Lutkov Igor P., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking "Magarach" of RAS,
31, Kirova str., Yalta, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation, 298600, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tarasov A. V., Zavorokhina N. V., Chugunova O. V.Express method of measuring antioxidant activity in beverages using a potentiometric sensor system

P. 57-60 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.010

Key words
food systems, antioxidant activity, potentiometric sensory system, express method

The introduction of antioxidants into food products is an important modern trend that contributes to the reduction of oxidative stress, prevention of cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Quantitative determination of antioxidant activity (AOA) in food products is associated with the need for sample preparation; the use of different units of measurement of AOA, various standard substances in its calculation, which leads to the impossibility of comparative quantitative analysis of AOA in various foods. The aim of the study is to develop an express method for measuring the antioxidant activity of liquid foods using a disposable potentiometric sensor system (PSS test). Objects of research: large-leaf green and black bayh tea Greenfield Flying Dragon and Greenfield Golden Ceylon (LLC "ORIMI", Russia); Arabica coffee beans of medium and dark degree of roasting; freshly squeezed and commercial pomegranate juices. Extracts of tea and coffee were obtained by hot brewing and infusing for five minutes with a hydromodule of 1:50. Data on the development of a single-use potentiometric sensor system (PSS) and its application in the assessment of antioxidant activity (AOA) of liquid food samples are presented. Thick-film PSS electrodes were manufactured using scalable screen printing technology. A carbon-containing electrode modified with multilayer carbon nanotubes (MNT) was used as an indicator electrode. The silver-containing electrode served as a reference electrode. AOA was evaluated by a potentiometric method using a mediator system of potassium hexacyanoferrates (K3[Fe(CN)6/K4[Fe(CN)6]). The results of the analysis of functional beverages of plant origin obtained using PSS are comparable with the results obtained using commercial electrodes. The use of PSS in analysis is characterized by the following advantages: the lack of preparation of electrodes for measurements. In combination with a portable type potentiometric analyzer, the proposed PSS can be used in non-laboratory conditions. The use of a single-use PSS allows you to obtain results comparable to traditional potentiometric measurement of AOA using commercial electrodes, while no maintenance of the electrodes and additional sample preparation is required.

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Tarasov Alexey V.,
Zavorokhina Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Chugunova Olga V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Ural State University of Economics,
62/45, 8 March/Narodnoy Voli str., Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zaytseva M. V.The influence of thermal processing methods on the microstructural characteristics of green peas

P. 62-66 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.011

Key words
frozen green peas, heat treatment, quality, microstructure, chlorophyll, starch

Thermal methods of cooking legumes significantly increase its quality characteristics by increasing the digestibility of macronutrients, inactivating anti-nutritional factors, and improving organoleptic indicators. However, these treatments can negatively affect the functional properties of the product, increase the glycemic index, and reduce the activity of biologically active compounds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of boiling (10, 30 and 60 minutes), steaming (10 and 30 minutes) and microwave cooking (4 minutes) on the microstructure of green pea seeds. The packaged frozen product was used in the work. The study was based on light microscopy of cytological preparations of seed coat cells (hypoderm) and cotyledon storage tissue (parenchyma). The effect of three types of heat treatment of frozen green peas was evaluated in terms of the identified microstructural changes in the cells of the hypodermis and parenchyma. After thawing peas (control), plastids with chlorophyll in the hypodermis cells were bright green in color, rounded starch grains stained with iodine present in the parenchyma cells had clear boundaries. It was found that when seeds were boiled for 10 and 30 minutes, as well as processed in a microwave oven, the amount of chlorophyll in the plastids of hypodermal cells did not decrease, and the bright green color of these organelles was preserved. Whereas in the samples boiled for an hour, a partial loss of this pigment was found. The maximum negative microstructural changes in this indicator compared with the control were recorded in peas after steaming. Change in the color of plastids to olive was noted in these samples. It is an indicator of conversion of chlorophylls a and b into pheophytins and pyropheophytins. The progressive process of increasing the volume of starch grains until they merge with each other began after 30 minutes of boiling and 10 minutes of steaming the peas. The effect of microwave treatment was associated not only with starch gelatinization, but also with the destruction of cell walls.

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Samoylov Artem V., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Suraeva Natal'ya M., Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Zaytseva Mariya V.
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems for RAS,
78, Shkolnaya str., Vidnoe, Russian region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ulduz Ali kizi Babaeva. Investigation of the parameters of the mechanical composition of the persimmon fruit depending on the maturation time

P. 67-70 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.012

Key words
persimmon fruits, varieties Khachia and Khiakume, mechanical composition, indicators, juice yield

One of the most pressing problems of our time is to provide the population with environmentally friendly food products rich in biologically active substances, including persimmon fruits. Since, environmentally unclean food products not only negatively affect human health, but also create conditions for the development of many diseases. When growing and ripening persimmon fruits, no chemicals are used. Persimmon fruits differ from other fruits in that they are not infected with any microbiological diseases. This is due to the fact that the composition of persimmon fruits is rich in biologically active substances with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, mainly phenolic compounds. Bearing in mind that persimmon fruits are environmentally friendly, widely distributed in household plots of the population, have a high nutritional value and have important healing properties, it is important to supplement the diet with persimmon fruits and food products prepared from it. Analyzing the above problems, we set ourselves the goal of preparing bekmez or condensed juice using a new technology using varieties of dates Khachiya and Khiakume. In addition to using this product as a functional drink, persimmon fruit bekmez can also be used as a sugar substitute in the production of juices and compotes in the food industry. This will increase the nutritional value of juices, compotes and other products made from various fruits and berries, as well as increase the shelf life of cooked foods. As a result, from the determination of the mechanical composition of persimmon fruits depending on the ripening period, it was concluded that the highest juice yield was recorded from fully ripened fruits compared to unripe and overripe fruits.

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Babaeva Ulduz Ali, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Azerbaijan Technological University,
103, Shakh ?smail Khatai str., Gandja, Azerbaijan Republic, AZ 2011, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sviridov D. A., Ganin M. Yu., Il'in A. A., Shmigelskaya N. A.Study of the features of the elemental profile of wines of the Bakhchisarai region of the Republic of Crimea

P. 71-77 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.013

Key words
grapes, identification, wine, elemental profile, mass spectrometry, geographical place of origin, technological techniques, auxiliary substances

Methods of confirming the authenticity of the geographical place of origin of wine include the analysis of "fingerprints" obtained using instrumental and statistical methods of analysis. To date, research aimed at studying the elemental profile of wine in order to identify the place of grape growth has become widespread in international practice. However, researchers, as a rule, classify wine samples based on the elemental profile without taking into account the technological features of production, during which some of its changes are possible due to the use of auxiliary means and various equipment. The article presents the results of a comparative study of the elemental profile of wines produced in laboratory and in production conditions within the same winery. It was found that samples obtained in laboratory and production conditions statistically significantly differ in the values of mass concentrations of the following elements: Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Y, Mo, Sb, Ba, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Tl, Th, Be, Mg, S, K, Ni, Sr, Ag, Cs, Re, Pt, Au, Bi, U, Na, V, Mn, La, Nd, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Lu, Pb. Of these elements Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ti, V, Cr, Th, La, Y and Nb were detected in production samples, but were not detected in the laboratory. The most significant statistical differences were found for the concentrations of chromium, molybdenum, ytterbium and thorium. The average mass concentration of ytterbium and thorium in the production samples was 0.35 mkg/dm3 and 0.27 mkg/dm3, respectively. It was also found that red wines produced under production conditions are characterized by a higher content of elements Na, Mg, Mn, Si, Br, Rb, Sr than white ones. The revealed trends of changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of macro-, micro- and rare earth metals in wine, depending on the production conditions, are important, since taking into account these factors when clustering wine samples, depending on their geographical origin, can increase the accuracy of the mathematical model.

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Sviridov Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ganin Mikhail Yu.,
Il'in Alexander A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shmigelskaya Nataliya A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking "Magarach" of RAS,
31, Kirova str., Yalta, Republic of Crimea, 298600, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abuova A. B., Muslimov N. Zh., Kandrokov R. Kh., Kabylda A. I. Creation of new types of gluten-free pasta from Kazakhstani vegetable raw materials

P. 78-83 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.014

Key words
non-traditional vegetable raw materials, celiac disease, gluten-free pasta, quality indicators

The study on the use of rice and corn flour as an alternative source of raw materials in the production of pasta is in line with the strategic development plan of Kazakhstan to prevent diseases and improve children's health. Purpose: to conduct a comparative assessment of the chemical composition and selection of alternative Kazakh raw materials for the creation of new types of gluten-free pasta. Corn is grown in 7 regions of Kazakhstan, the area is 165.0 thousand hectares, the yield is 61.0-90.0 q/ha. It has been established that domestically produced corn and rice have great potential as an alternative raw material. It was revealed that corn and rice produced in Kazakhstan meet the requirements of GOST 13634-90, GOST 6292-93. It was revealed that, compared with wheat baking flour, the protein content in chickpea, oat and buckwheat flour is 2, 1.3 and 1.36 times higher, respectively. It has been established that chickpea flour significantly exceeds the content of lysine, the limiting amino acid for most cereals, in terms of amino acid content. It was revealed that corn flour contains 11.9-30.0 mg/100 g more minerals than wheat flour and contains beta-carotene (0.55 mg/100 g) and vitamin C (3.62 mg/100 g) which are not found in wheat flour. A technology has been developed for gluten-free pasta made from a mixture of corn flour, rice flour, beetroot and carrot powder. It has been established that the physicochemical parameters of the developed gluten-free pasta, obtained from a mixture of corn flour, rice flour with the addition of beetroot and carrot powder, practically do not differ from each other. It has been established that the content of the limiting essential amino acid lysine in gluten-free pasta from a mixture of corn, rice flour and beetroot powder is 0.276 % higher compared to pasta with the addition of carrot powder. The content of argigin and terosine in pasta with the addition of beetroot powder is higher by 0.048 % and 0.119 %, respectively, compared with pasta with the addition of carrot powder. In terms of the content of other essential amino acids, pasta with the addition of carrot powder has a slight advantage compared to the addition of beetroot powder.

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Abuova Altynai B., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
International Engineering Technological University,
89/21, Al-Farabi Avenue, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 050060, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Muslimov Nurzhan Zh., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kabylda Anar I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Kazakh Research Institute of Processing and Food Industry,
238G, Gagarin Avenue, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 050060, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kandrokov Roman Kh., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sukhareva T. N., Sergienko I. V. Technological model for obtaining functional semi-finished meat products

P. 84-86 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.015

Key words
minced veal meat, natural linen bran, kohlrabi, preventive nutrition, functional ingredients, technological model

A new technology and recipe of "Kaulorapa" veal meatballs has been developed and scientifically substantiated with the replacement of 50 % of the wheat bread investment rate with natural flax bran from white flax; with the kohlrabireplacement the 50 % of the water investment rate. The indicators of functional properties and chemical composition of the developed meat semi-finished product with the natural flax bran from white flax and kohlrabi additionhave been established. In comparison with the control, the satisfaction of the daily need for dietary fiber increases by 23.65 %, in potassium by 8.91 %, phosphorus by 8.07 %, magnesium by 8.77 %, iron by 23.2 %, vitamins: B2 by 8.3 %, B1 by 10.7 %, vitamin C by 3.38 %, vitamin PP by 5.08 %, carotene by 220 %. According to microbiological safety standards, "Kaulorapa" veal meat meatballs with functional ingredients must comply with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "On the Safety of Meat and Meat Products" (TR TS 034/2013) and GOST 32951-2014 Meat and meat-containing semi-finished products. An operator model of the technological process for the production of meat semi-finished products with the addition of natural flax bran from white flax and kohlrabi for public catering enterprises has been developed. The calculation of economic efficiency showed that the introduction of functional ingredients into veal meatballs indicates an increase in total cost by 22.6 % compared to the control sample of veal meatballs without the functional ingredientsintroduction. The increase in the cost of "Kaulorapa" veal meatballs is due to the introduction of natural flax bran from white flax and kohlrabi into the recipe. The selling price per unit of production (weighing 100 g) is: 36.5 rubles, and the control sample - 46.4 rubles. The introduction of veal meatballs with functional ingredients into production has both an economic and a certain social effect. The consumer receives a more valuable product with the components necessary for the body: vitamins, minerals and ballast substances.

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4. Sukhareva T. N., Cheremisina N. A., Polshkova A. V. Design and research of chopped turkey cutlets with a vegetable ingredient for school meals. Prioritetnie napravleniya razvitiya sadovodstva. Materialy Nacionalnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferencii, posvyaschennoy 85-y godovschine so dnya rozhdeniya professora, doktora selskohozyajstvennih nauk Potapova V. A. = Priority areas for the development of horticulture (I Potapov readings). Materials of the national scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 85th anniversary of the birth of the Professor,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Laureate of the State Prize Potapov V. A. Michurinsk: Michurinsk State Agrarian university, 2019. P. 154-156 (In Russ).
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Sukhareva Tat'yana N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Michurinsk State Agrarian University,
101, Internationalnaya str., Michurinsk, Tambov region, Russia, 393760, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sergienko Inna V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Palagina M. V., Rochin E. O., Marchenok M. V., Cherevach E. I.The Use of Wild Plants of the Far East with Adaptogenic and Antioxidant Properties in Food Production

P. 87-90 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.016

Key words
Far Eastern plants, Araliaceae, adaptogens, antioxidants, fortified foods

The Far Eastern plants of the Araliaceae, known for their antioxidant and adaptogenic properties, were studied: Eleutherococcus senticosus, Acanthopanax sessiliflorus and Aralia elata. Individual plant organs - roots, branches (stems) or leaves were collected in ecologically clean areas in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories of the Russian Far East. Water-alcohol extracts were prepared from the collected raw materials, in which the content of flavonoids was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. It was shown that all samples of plant extracts contained significant concentrations of individual flavonoids - rutin and quercetin: from 31 to 54 mg/ 100 ml. At the same time, the content of polyphenols in extracts from stems was significantly higher than in extracts from roots. The mass concentration of organic acids of the extracts was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Were found: ascorbic, chlorogenic, nicotinic, orotic, caffeic, gallic and protocatechic acids. Acid concentrations differed slightly in the extracts of stems and roots. Extracts from the roots and stems of Eleutherococcus identified 12 amino acids. Based on the conducted studies of extracts from different organs of aralia, eleutherococcus and acanthopanax, a conclusion was made about the identical qualitative composition and a commensurate amount of biologically active substances: triterpene glycosides, polyphenols, organic acids and amino acids. It is shown that the use of renewable plant organs - branches (or stems) is preferable than roots. Based on the results of the work, the possibility of using renewable organs - stems or branches of aralia, eleutherococcus and acanthopanax in the production of adaptogenic and antioxidant-oriented food products is substantiated. Currently, the Advanced School of Engineering "Institute of Biotechnology, Bioengineering and Food Systems" of the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) a vitamin premix for energy drinks with plants of the Araliaceae family has substantiated and obtained (STO 84630485-0022-2023 "Vitamin Premix "Aralia"), a recipe for soy meat substitute with the addition of plant extracts of the Araliaceae family has been developed (STO "Soy meat substitutes: "Soy Meat").

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Palagina Marina V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Rochin Egor O., postgraduate student,
Marchenok Maksim V., postgraduate student,
Cherevach Elena I., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Far Eastern Federal University,
FEFU campus, 10, village Ajax, Russky Island, Vladivostok, 690920, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Karpova N. A., Maslovsky S. A., Sokolova L. M., Kulishov V. N. Development of an element of technology for short-term storage of pineapples using the gas mixture aligal-13

P. 91-94 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.017

Key words
pineapple, storage, barrier films, Aligal 13, moisture adsorbers, diseases

The paper presents the results of studies on the use of the gas mixture Aligal 13 in the storage of pineapple fruits. It contains 70% nitrogen and 30% carbon dioxide. The study was conducted on the basis of the Sofyino X5 Group distribution center. The scheme of the experiment included options for individual packaging of pineapple fruits in a barrier film with and without punctures, as well as with a moisture absorber (silica gel sachet). The duration of experimental storage was 14 days at a temperature of 6…8 °C and a relative humidity of 85-90 %. During storage, the gas composition of the medium and the change in the marketability of the product were monitored. At the end of the storage period, phytopathological and organoleptic analysis of the fruits was carried out. The object of the study was Golden Extra Sweet Pineapple imported from Costa Rica. Phytopathological analysis of the obtained sexes revealed the presence of a pathocomplex, which included pathogenic micromycetes - Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. During storage due to the respiration of fruits, the concentration of carbon dioxide in non-perforated packages was 36.5-23.2 %, oxygen 0-5.2 %, in perforated 13.3-15.1 and 7.2-9.2 % respectively. Inside packages without moisture absorbers, perspiration is noted. According to the results of experimental storage, it was found that fruits stored in sealed packaging revealed physiological disorders associated with exposure to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and the associated decrease in immunity. On the fruits after the expiration of the storage period, no signs of fungal and bacterial diseases were observed. According to the results of the organoleptic evaluation of fruits after storage, satisfactory results were obtained when using perforated barrier film bags filled with Aligal 13 gas mixture and silica gel-based moisture absorber. This packaging option ensured the suppression of mycobiota and the preservation of the commercial qualities of the fruit; therefore, it can be recommended as a way to increase the shelf life of pineapple in the retail network.

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Karpova Natal'ya A., graduate student,
Maslovskiy Sergey A., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Russian State Agrarian University - K. A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy,
49, Timiryazevskaya str., Moscow, 127422, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sokolova Lyubov M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing - Branch of the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing,
bld. 500, Vereya, Ramenskiy district, Moscow region, 140153, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kulishov Vsevolod N., Import development Manager,
X5 Group,
28, bld. 4, Srednyaya Kalitnikovskaya str., Moscow, 109029, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Posokina N. E., Bessarab O. V., Karastoyanova O. V.The use of polymer packaging materials for the storage of plant objects in a modified atmosphere

P. 95-100 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.018

Key words
storage of plant objects, polymer packaging materials, modified atmosphere, gas permeability, vapor permeability

This article discusses the storage of fruits, vegetables and mushrooms in a modified atmosphere using flexible polymer packaging materials with different barrier properties. A modified gaseous environment inside the package can be created in two ways: active (filling with a gas mixture of a given composition) and passive (formation of a gas composition only due to breathing). A reduced oxygen content contributes to a decrease in the intensity of respiration and, consequently, to a slowdown in the biochemical processes associated with the ripening and aging of plant objects. At the same time, the consumption of carbohydrates and the loss of moisture slow down, which contributes to the preservation of plant tissue turgor and, consequently, acceptable organoleptic characteristics for a longer time. With a reduced oxygen content, the oxidation of polyphenolic substances also slows down, which contributes to the preservation of the color of fruits, vegetables and mushrooms. At the same time, the gas permeability of the packaging material must be chosen in such a way as to prevent the oxygen content from falling below the critical level at which anaerobic conditions are created. The gas permeability of polymer films depends on the structure of macromolecules and the nature of intermolecular interactions. The flexibility of macromolecules and the weakening of intermolecular interaction contribute to an increase in gas permeability, and an increase in the number of intermolecular bonds (polymer crosslinking) - to its decrease. Also, an important condition for keeping plant objects fresh is maintaining an optimal level of humidity inside the package. However, water vapor condensation should be avoided, as the presence of drip moisture creates conditions for the germination of mold spores. For this purpose, perforated films are usually used, which ensures the removal of excess moisture.

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Posokina Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bessarab Olga V.,
Karastoyanova Olga V.
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkol`naya str., Vidnoe town, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Bliadze V. G., Krysanova J. I., Kalugina D. N. Comparative evaluation of b-galactosidase enzymes

P. 101-106 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.019

Key words
GODO-YNL2, NOLA-Fit 5500, Dairyzym Y50L, cryoscopy method, colorimetric method, enzymatic hydrolysis, AOAC 998.04

To date, a wide range of b-galactosidase enzyme preparations is available on the market. As a rule, this enzyme is isolated from various microorganisms such as molds, bacteria and yeast. There is no unified standard for the determination of the activity units of isolated b-galactosidases, since the activity of the enzyme depends on many factors, the main ones being, beside the origin, temperature and acidity of the medium. Due to this, it can be difficult to select correct enzyme for the production of different low-lactose dairy and fermented dairy products. Objective. To carry out a comparative evaluation of different origins of b-galactosidases by colorimetric method (AOAC 998.04 - hydrolysis of O-nitrophenyl-b-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG)) and on skim milk at three different temperature regimes and different substrate:enzyme ratios. Materials and Methods. Neutral enzyme preparations of different origin: GODO-YNL2 - 5500 NLU/g, NOLA-Fit 5500 - 5500 BLU/g, and Dairyzym Y50L - oNPGU/ml. The activity of the enzyme preparations of b-galactosidases was examined on two substrates: on ONPG 1.5 mg/ml by colorimetric method according to AOAC 998.04 at 27…30 °C and on reduced, skimmed, sterile milk at 6±1, 21±1 and 45±1 °C. The residual amount of lactose in the selected points was determined by the cryoscopic method according to GOST R 54760-2011. We proposed to estimate the activity of b-galactosidases relative to a reference sample by approximating the enzyme dosage for the lactose half-transformation period for 30 min for hydrolysis temperature 45±1 °C, 1 h for 21±1 °C and 1.5 h for 6 1 °C. It was found that the enzyme GODO-YNL2 had the highest activity in colorimetric determination of enzyme activity using ONPG at 27…30 °C, while the research on milk at different temperatures of hydrolysis showed lower or equal activity throughout the temperature range. Of the three enzymes studied, NOLA-Fit 5500 has the highest activity at low and medium temperatures and Dairyzym Y50L at high temperatures. For an objective assessment of the enzyme activity, comparative testing at different temperature and concentration regimes is recommended.

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Bliadze Vladimir G.,
Krysanova Yuliya I.,
Kalugina Dar'ya N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, build. 7 Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vafin R. R., Mikhailova I. Y., Ageykina I. I. Kharlamova L. N. Modeling of DNA technology for species identification of the raw composition of plant-based beverages

P. 107-111 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.020

Key words
plant milk, agricultural crops, chloroplast DNA, PCR, RFLP, electrophoresis, sequencing, SNP, identification

Plant-based milk is an alternative to dairy products of animal origin, gradually gaining popularity in the world. The traceability of its production and the actual identification of the finished product is a guarantee of the quality and safety of agricultural raw materials and food products. The purpose of the study was to model the DNA technology for the species identification of the raw composition of plant-based beverages of domestic producers. The model objects of the study were raw materials for the production of plant milk, as well as food products of the Russian trademarks, containing components of plant origin: oats, buckwheat, rice, soybeans, almonds, hazelnuts, coconut, cocoa, mango, orange, banana, passion fruit, vanilla, strawberry, apple, cinnamon and canola. Search, alignment, and restriction mapping of the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA locus amplified with primers #1 and #2 of 17 cultivated plant species were carried out using the online programs BLAST, ClustalW, and NEBcutter V2.0. The initial stage of the study was accompanied by a search in the GenBank NCBI bioinformatic resource for the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA locus Avena sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Prunus dulcis, Corylus avellana, Cocos nucifera, Theobroma cacao, Mangifera indica, Citrus sinensis, Musa acuminata, Passiflora edulis, Vanilla planifolia, Fragaria moschata, Malus domestica, Cinnamomum verum and Brassica napus are 17 of the above species of crops used in the production of vegetable milk of two domestic brands. The subsequent alignment of the selected nucleotide sequences revealed the species specificity of the studied cultivated plants with a high potential for their identification by direct sequencing of the PCR product. And their further mapping according to the identification-significant restriction sites of 7 selected endonucleases made it possible to calculate the generated PCR-RFLP profiles of the analyzed crops and perform their in silio modeling. The obtained bioinformatic data formed the basis of the modeled DNA technology for species identification of the serial composition of plant milk, with the potential for its practical application in the quality management system of agricultural raw materials and food products.

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Vafin Ramil R., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Mikhaylova Irina Yu.,
Ageykina Irina I.,
Kharlamova Larisa N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kalinina A. G., Golovacheva N. E., Abramova I. M., Shumakova A. A., Malinkin A. D., Kaplun A. P.Investigation of the manifestation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome during intoxication of rats with ethyl alcohol solutions containing various amounts of fuseloil

P. 112-115 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.021

Key words
fusel oil, whiskey, ethyl alcohol withdrawal cider, acetaldehyde

The effect of various concentrations of fusel oil in the composition of a 40 % solution of ethyl alcohol on the manifestation of withdrawal syndrome in rats was studied. Ethyl alcohol withdrawal symptoms were recorded 13, 15 and 17 hours after the last administration of the test solutions to rats. In the concentration range of fusel oil from 0 to 1600 mg/dm3, the severity of postintoxication symptoms decreases. At these values, the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of animals also decreases. The correlation analysis method (Spearman method) determined the relationship between the concentration of fusel oil in the studied solutions and the degree of manifestation of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in the range of decreasing withdrawal syndrome values - from 0 to 1600 mg/dm3, which corresponds to 1000-4000 mg/dm3 in terms of anhydrous alcohol. The correlation coefficient was 0.9, which corresponds to a high strength of the connection with a negative direction and the significance of the correlation P<0.05. The correlation coefficient between the content of acetaldehyde in the blood of animals and the average values of the manifestation of ethyl alcohol withdrawal for the entire observation period was 0.66, which is a significant level of connection. With a further increase in the concentration of fusel oil, the manifestation of the withdrawal syndrome and the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of rats increase. The obtained results are consistent with the information on the ability of fusel oil to reduce the severity of manifestations of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. This occurs due to the competition between the entry of ethyl alcohol and fusel oil into the bloodstream and, accordingly, into the liver. Fusel oil acts as an inhibitor of the absorption of ethyl alcohol, therefore, the state of intoxication is prolonged, and the formation of acetaldehyde and the manifestation of a hangover slows down. At the same time, the results obtained relate strictly to the conditions of this study - various concentrations of fusel oil were introduced into a 40 % solution of ethyl alcohol. When replacing an ethyl alcohol solution with a distilled drink, such as whiskey, the results may differ due to its multicomponent nature.

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Kalinina Anna G., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Golovacheva Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , golovacheva/ This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shumakova Antonina A., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Malinkin Alexey D., Candidate of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
2/14, Ust'inskiy passage, Moscow, 109240, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kaplun Alexander P., Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor
M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies (RTU MIREA),
78, Vernadskiy Avenue, Moscow, 119454, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kostyleva E. V., Sereda A. S., Velikoretskaya I. A., Kurbatova E. I., Fursova E. A., Tsurikova N. V., Ivanov V. V., Serba E. M., Satrutdinov A. D.The use of a new complex enzyme preparation from Aspergillus oryzae in the hydrolysis of wheat gluten

P. 116-120 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.8.8.022

Key words
gluten, hydrolysis, leucine aminopeptidase, proteases, Aspergillus oryzae

Wheat gluten is a good source of essential amino acids and bioactive peptides. Its hydrolysates are widely used as food additives and flavor enhancers. At the same time, the high proline content interferes with the gluten hydrolysis by digestive proteases, which leads to allergic reactions and digestive system disorders. Deep enzymatic hydrolysis contributes to the reduction of gluten allergenicity, increases its nutritional value and expands its scope in the food industry. Some complex enzyme preparations (EP) containing endo- and exopeptidases, due to their synergistic action, provide effective hydrolysis of gluten. Using Aspergillus oryzae 21-154 LAP strain, a producer of endo- and exopeptidases complex with increased leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity, the EP Protoorizin LAP was obtained, in terms of LAP activity comparable to Flavourzyme® 1000L widely used in the food industry, and possessing a high level of total proteolytic activity due to endopeptidases presence. During wheat gluten hydrolysis Protoorizin LAP was superior to Flavourzyme® 1000L and Alcalase 2.4L, both when used individually and when combined, by the increase in the soluble protein and free amino acids content. Electrophoretic analysis of the obtained hydrolysates showed that Protoorizin LAP intensively cleaves all major gluten proteins. After 24 h of hydrolysis, the ~14 kDa faint band remained at the level of ~37 kDa. Alcalase 2.4L cleaved wheat protein with less efficiency than Protoorizin LAP, leaving after 24 h, in addition to the ~37 kDa band, some peptides with a molecular weight of less than 14.4 kDa. Flavourzyme® 1000L had the least ability to hydrolyze gluten, however, when used together with Alcalase 2.4L, the EP contributed to a more complete hydrolysis of low molecular weight protein fractions. Protoorizin LAP successfully replaced the combined action of Flavourzyme 1000L and Alcalase 2.4L, which shows the promise of its use in the wheat gluten hydrolysates production.

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Kostyleva Elena V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Sereda Anna S., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Velikoretskaya Irina A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kurbatova Elena I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Fursova Elizaveta A.,
Tsurikova Nina V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ivanov Victor V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Serba Elena M., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Corresponding Member of RAS
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4b, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Satrutdinov Aidar D., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Federal Research Center "Fundamentals of Biotechnology" of RAS,
33, build. 2, Leninskiy Avenue, Moscow, 119071, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




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