+7 (916) 969-61-36



Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №7/2023


Rid A. A.Application of ultra- and nanofiltration methods for concentration and purification of potato juice

P. 6-9 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.001

Key words
membrane, membrane technology, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, potato juice

In this article are presented the results of research on the application of membrane technology methods in the concentration and purification of potato juice. The effectiveness of ultrafiltration using polymer hollow fiber membranes for primary concentration of potato juice and nanofiltration using spiral-wound membrane modules for post-treatment of ultrafiltration permeate in order to obtain the purified water to be reused in the production cycle has been studied in laboratory conditions. The objects of the study were native potato juice with a dry matter content of 4.2 % by weight and potato juice subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of 90…100 °C in a time interval of 5-10 minutes, with a dry matter content of 3.7 % by weight. Heat treatment was carried out in order to reduce the dry matter content in the feed potato juice. At the ultrafiltration stage, hollow fiber membrane modules were used, characterized by a molecular weight cutoff of 10, 30, 50 and 150 kDa. The membranes material is polyestersulfone. At the nanofiltration stage, a spiral-wound module with membranes made of piperazinamide was used. The unit operated in the maximum concentration mode, that is, the concentrate obtained after the membrane as a result of separation was returned to the feed separable solution to increase the degree of concentration, and the permeate was taken into a separate container. According to the results of the study, when concentrated at the ultrafiltration stage, it was possible to increase the dry matter content from 4.2 to 19.1 % by weight. After finishing the permeate from the ultrafiltration stage, when using nanofiltration, it was possible to reduce the dry matter content by 95 %. The optimal temperature of potato juice concentration at the ultrafiltration stage has been determined, which should not exceed 45 °C to prevent denaturation and loss of useful properties of proteins. The optimal pressure drop during ultra- and nanofiltration during the concentration and purification of potato juice has been determined, which should be maintained at least 4.5 bar.

1. Van Koningsveld G. A. Physico-chemical and Functional Properties of Potato Proteins, The Netherlands: Wageningen University, 2001. 147 p.
2. Goldshtein V. G., Kovalenok V. A., Krivtsun L. V., Plotnikov A. A., Kholkin B. V., Tkachenko E. I. Study of Parameters, Influencing Protein Coagulation of Potato Juice. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK = Achievements of Science and technology AIC. 2018;32(5):78-80 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235-2451-2018-10520.
3. Rausch K. D. Front end to backpipe: Membrane technology in the starch processing industry. Starch-Starke 54. 2002:273-284.
4. Ruffer H., Kremser U., Seekamp M. Experiences with a reverse osmosis pilot plant for the concentration of potato fruit water in the potato starch industry. Starch-Starke 49. 1997:354-359.
5. Zwijnenberg H. J., Kemperman A. J. B., Boerrigter M. E., Lotz M., Dijksterhuis J. F., Poulsen P. E., Koops G.-H. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration. Desalination 144. 2002:331-334.
6. Volkov N. V., Lukin N. D., Krivcun L. V. Application of membrane technology for clarification and concentration of diluted potato juice. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK = Achievements of Science and Technology of AIC. 2011;(11):79-80 (In Russ.).
Rid Arseniy A., graduate student
Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology,
9, Miusskaya square, Moscow, 125047, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ponomareva E. I., Titov S. A., Magomedov M. G., Lukin A.A., Gubareva J. P. Selection of rational parameters for drying vials with various enriching

P. 10-13 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.002

Key words
flax, convective, IR-convective drying, concentrators, quality indicators

Currently, in the technology of bakery products, it is relevant to produce products for a healthy diet with an increased content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibers in order to increase the production of useful products and preserve the health of the population through their use. The object of the study were vials of sprouted flax seeds with the introduction of various enriching agents (amaranth bran, pumpkin flour, black cumin cake, hemp fiber with seaweed), providing the market with high quality, as well as increased nutritional and biological value. The aim of the work was to determine the rational parameters of drying flaxseeds from sprouted flax seeds with various enriching agents. Generally accepted methods of studying the properties of finished products were used in the work. Rational parameters of drying of vials were established by studying organoleptic (color, taste, smell, appearance - GOST 5667-65) and physico-chemical parameters (humidity, % - GOST 5670-96); tensile strength, H - on the Stroganov device, water activity - on the portable hygrometer Rotronic HygroPalm HP23-AW-Set. The air flow velocity was determined on a GM 816 anemometer, the temperature on the surface of the vials during drying and their thermal imaging characteristics (photographs in the infrared region of light) were studied using a Testo 880-3 thermal imager. The result of the study is the rational parameters of drying vials with a thickness of 5 mm: with a convective drying method (Rotor SH-002) - air temperature 70±1 °C, duration 5 h; with IR-convective (infrared carbon fiber emitter ICO-K-1,0-5P) - the height of the emitter - 36,6 cm, duration 4 ch. The selected parameters of gentle drying modes contribute to obtaining the maximum value of the strength of finished products and provide a high degree of preservation of all useful properties. The developed products can be included in the diet of various population groups for the prevention of alimentary-dependent diseases.

1. Brosalina N. A., Esin S. S. Development of technology of flax crackers (flakes) with functional vegetable additives. "Sovremennie problemi tekhniki i tekhnologii pischevikh proizvodstv". Materiali XXI Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy conferentsii = Modern problems of technology and technology of food production. Materials of the XXI International scientific and practical conference. Altai: I. I. Polzunov Altai State Technical University, 2020. P. 20-25 (In Russ.).
2. Ponomareva E. I., Lukina S. I., Odintsovo A.V., Kobzeva A. O. Influence of the duration of soaking flax seeds on the tensile strength of flakes. Vestnik Voronezhskogo universiteta inzhenernikh tekhnologiy = Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2017;79(2):138-142 (In Russ.).
3. Ponomareva E. I., Lukina S. I., Odintsova A.V., Kobzeva A. O. Determination of rational parameters of preparation of flakes. Khleboproducty = Bakery products. 2017;(5):39-41 (In Russ.).
4. Plotnikova I. V., Magomedov G. O., Magomedov M. G., Shevyakova T. A., Polyansky K. K. Quality and hygroscopic properties of whey powdered products. Sirodelie i maslodelie = Cheese-making and butter-making. 2022;(3):33-36 (In Russ.).
5. Infrared carbon heaters: website [Electronic resource]. URL: https://âàêóóìíûå-êîìïîíåíòû.ðô/produktsiya/infrakrasnye-obogrevateli/iko-1-0-5p-72/ (accessed: 11/20/2022)
Ponomareva Elena I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Titov Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Magomedov Magomed G., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Gubareva Yuliya P., graduate student
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19, Revolution Avenue, Voronezh, Russia, 394000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
Lukin Anatoliy A., Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Voronezh State University,
1, University square, Voronezh, Russia, 394018

Suhareva T. N., Sergienko I. V.Theoretical and experimental substantiation of influence of linseed bran and kohlrabi on organoleptic and physical and chemical properties of meat semi-finished products

P. 14-17 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.003

Key words
minced veal meat, natural linen bran, kohlrabi, preventive nutrition, functional ingredients

The purpose of the study is to expand the range of meat semi-finished products with functional ingredients for preventive nutrition, as well as theoretical and experimental justification of vegetable components influence on the physicochemical and organoleptic indicators of meat semi-finished products. To improve nutritional and biological value, the possibility of introducing natural linen bran from white linen and kohlrabi into veal meat collops for preventive nutrition was investigated. For the production of collops from veal meat with vegetable raw materials, veal of the 2nd category was chosen. Veal is characterized by low calorie content: 97.0 kcal - 1st category and 87.0 kcal - 2nd category, good content of vitamins, macro- and microelements. When creating the recipe, the possibility of partial replacement with bran of the norm for the investment of wheat bread and the replacement of kohlrabi - the norm for the investment of water was considered. Based on the effect of functional ingredients on the physicochemical indices of veal meat collops, it was determined that the optimal dosages are to replace linseed natural bran from white linen with 50% of the norm of wheat bread investment and replace kohlrabi with 50% of water investment. Tasting of samples using a 5-point scale confirms the results of descriptive organoleptic assessment and makes it clear that sample No. 2 received the highest scores for all defined indicators. Adding a small amount of linen bran natural from white linen to dishes increases the production of intestinal secretions in people, improves the body's defenses in the fight against infections, stimulates the production of red blood cells and calms the nervous system. The consumption of the proposed meat collops increases the degree of the daily need for dietary fibers by 23.65 %, in potassium by 8.91 %, phosphorus by 8.07 %, magnesium by 8.77 %, iron by 23.2 %, vitamins: B2 by 8.3 %, B1 by 10.7 %, in vitamin C by 3.38 %, in vitamin PP by 5.08 %, in carotene by 220 % compared to the control.

1. Rodina Z. Y., Suhareva T. N. Economic efficiency of chopped turkey cutlets with the addition of rutabaga and wheat bran. Rol' agrarnoy nauki v ustoycivom razvitii celskih territoriy. Sbornik III Vserossiyskoy (natsionalnoy) nauchnoy conferencii = The role of agricultural science in the sustainable development of rural areas. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State Agrarian university, 2018. P. 489-491 (In Russ.).
2. Suhareva T. N., Guseva K. V., Danilkina U. A. Design and research of meat semi-finished products with vegetable raw materials for healthy nutrition. Potential nauki i sovremennogo obrazovaniya. Materialy Ubilejnoy nationalnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferencii = The potential of science and modern education in solving the priority tasks of the agro-industrial complex and forestry. Materials of the anniversary national scientific and practical conference. Ryazan: Ryazan State Agrotechnological university named after P. A. Kostychev, 2019. P. 20-21 (In Russ.).
3. Suhareva T. N., Rodina Z. Y., Kazmina N. V. Justification for obtaining chopped cutlets from turkey meat with a functional additive for school meals. Sovremennie problemi tehniki i tehnologii pischevih proizvodstv. Materialy XX Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferencii = Modern problems of engineering and technology of food production. Materials of the XX International scientific-practical conference. Barnaul: Altaic State Technical university named after I. I. Polzunov, 2019. P. 333-336 (In Russ.).
4. Sukhareva T. N., Cheremisina N. A., Polshkova A. V. Design and research of chopped turkey cutlets with a vegetable ingredient for school meals. Prioritetnie napravleniya razvitiya sadovodstva (I Potapovskie chteniya). Materialy Nationalnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferencii, posvyaschennoy 85-y godovschine so dnya rozhdeniya Professora,
Doctora selskohozyajstvennih nauk, Laureata Gosudarstvennoy premii Potapova Viktora Aleksandrovicha = Priority areas for the development of horticulture (Potapov readings). Materials of the national scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 85th anniversary of the birth of the Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Laureate of the State Prize Potapov V. A. Michurinsk: Michurinsk State Agricultural university, 2019. P. 154-156 (In Russ.).
5. Pavlycheva Y. S. Analysis of food products with biocorregulating properties. Molodie issledovateli agropromishlennogo i lesnogo kompleksov - regionam: Sbornik = Young researchers of the agro-industrial and forestry complexes to the regions: compilation. 2021:273-276 (In Russ.).
6. Polyanskaya I. S., Plakhina G. N., Tashinova M. A. Method of production of minced sausage product. Invention patent 2757684 C1.20.10.2021. Application No. 2020137393 dated 16.11.2020 (In Russ.).
Suhareva Tat'yana N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Michurinsk State Agrarian University,
101, Internationalnaya str., Michurinsk, Tambov region, Russia, 393760, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sergienko Inna V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Plekhanov Russian university of economics,
36, Stremyanny lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Golovacheva N. E., Abramova I. M., Morozova S. S.About the possibility of obtaining alcoholic beverages based on grain and fruit raw materials

P. 18-23 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.004

Key words
alcoholic beverage, grain distillate, fruit and berry distillate

Currently, in Russia, consumer interest in alcoholic beverages that can be obtained on the basis of grain, fruit and wine distillates has grown significantly. The article presents a review of literature data, which allows us to conclude that one of the priority directions of the industry development is to expand the range of high-quality alcoholic beverages through the use of fruit raw materials. The article describes popular distillate-based alcoholic beverages: grain distilled beverages, including whiskey, moonshine; wine distillate-brandy; rum, obtained from fermented wort from sugar cane processing products; tequila, the raw material for which is the juice from the core of the blue agave. There are popular alcoholic beverages based on fruit and berry distillates, which are produced in almost every region in European countries: Calvados, Kirsch, villamina, palinka, slivovitsa, cuika, Mirabelle. It is noted that in Russia recently increased demand for alcoholic beverages based on fruit distillates from berries, fruits and other fruits, which differ in original and attractive flavor characteristics. The article summarizes the existing experience of production of fruit and berry distillates in Russia. It is shown that technologies for producing distillates based on black currant, raspberry, àpple, pear, cherry, dogwood, mulberry, watermelon, mandarine, red rowan, pumpkin, topinambur have been developed. In this regard, it is suggested that the development of technology for the production of alcoholic beverages based on distillates obtained during the joint processing of grain and fruit raw materials is a very promising direction.

1. GOST 33301-2015 State Standard 33301-2015. Distilled grain alcoholic drinks. General specification. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 11 p. (In Russ.)
2. GOST 33281-2015 State Standard 33281-2015. Whisky. Specification. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. 6 p. (In Russ.)
3. GOST R 70225-2022 State Standard 33281-2015. Russian whisky. Specifications. Moscow: FGBU "RST", 2022. 9 p. (In Russ.)
4. Eliseev M. N., Belkin Yu. D., Lakutina O. V., Kosareva O. A. Light rum - quality and consumer properties. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2021;(1):21-25 (In Russ.).
5. GOST 33458-2015. Rum. Specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 11 p. (In Russ.)
6. Golovacheva N. E., Gallyamova L. P., Abramova I. M., Morozova S. S. About the prospects of the production of Russian traditional alcoholic beverages. Pischevaya promyshlennost`= Food industry. 2022;(7):75-78 (In Russ.).
7. GOST R 56368-2015 Russian traditional drinks on the basis of natural raw materials. Specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. 12 p.
8. Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Shubina N. A., Gallyamova L. P., Titova O. T. About the prospects for the development of modern technology for the preparation of moonshine. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty razvitiya spirtovoj i likerovodochnoj promyshlennosti. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov po materialam Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara = Theoretical and practical aspects of the development of the alcohol and distillery industry Collection of scientific papers based on the materials of the International scientific and practical seminar. 2022:45-53 (In Russ.).
9. GOST R 58206-2028 Brandy. General specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2018. 8 p.
10. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Method for the production of blackcurrant distillate. Patent RF ¹ 2609659. Byll. No. 4; published 02.02.2017.
11. Syz'ko K. S. The use of berry raw materials to obtain fruit (fruit) distillates. Intensifikatsiya pishchevykh proizvodstv: ot idei k praktike. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov XII mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh i spetsialistov organizatsiy v sfere sel'skokhozyaystvennykh nauk = Intensification of food production: from idea to practice. Collection of scientific papers of the XII international scientific-practical conference of young scientists and specialists of organizations in the field of agricultural sciences. Russian Scientific Research Institute of Starch Products - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems RAS. 201:358-362 (In Russ.).
12. Dubinina E. V., Osipova V. P., Trofimchenko V. A. Influence of the method of preparation of raw materials on the composition of volatile components and the yield of distillates from raspberries. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2018;(1):30-34 (In Russ.).
13. Mudzhiri L. A., Lotikashvili E. M. Establishment of chemical and technological parameters of the strong drink "Apple tree gifts". Annals of Agrarian Science. 2004;(4):102-104 (In Russ.).
14. Oganesyants L. A., Panasyuk A. L., Kuz'mina E. I., Peschanskaya V. A., Borisova A. L. Improving the technology of pear processing for the production of distillates. Vinodeliye i vinogradarstvo = Winemaking and viticulture. 2013;(2):10-13 (In Russ.).
15. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V., Trofimchenko V. A. Development of requirements for pear distillate for the production of fruit vodka. Khraneniye i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2014;(1):36-38 (In Russ.).
16. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Aliyeva G. A., Dubinina E. V. Method of obtaining cherry distillate. Patent RF ¹ 2487928. Bull. ¹ 20; published 20.07.2013.
17. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Alieva G. A., Dubinina E. V. Resource-saving technology of distillate from cherry pulp. Pichevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2013;(7):29-31 (In Russ.).
18. Krikunova L. N., Dubinina E. V. Development of technology for an alcoholic beverage based on cherry distillate. Khraneniye i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2017;(4):25-28 (In Russ.).
19. Krikunova L. N., Dubinina E. V., Alieva G. A. Objective criteria for assessing the quality of cherry vodkas. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevykh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2016;2(41):47-56 (In Russ.).
20. Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V., Krikunova L. N. Assessment of the biochemical composition of cornel fruits as raw materials for the production of distillates. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2020;(1):44-47 (In Russ.).
21. Dubinina E. V., Krikunova L. N., Trofimchenko V. A., Tomgorova S. M. Comparative evaluation of the methods of fermentation of dogwood in the production of distillates. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2020;(2):45-49 (In Russ.).
22. Dubinina E. V., Krikunova L. N., Trofimchenko V. A., Nebezhev K. V. Influence of distillation regime parameters on the distribution of volatile components by fractions during the production of dogwood distillate. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2021;(2):19-23 (In Russ.).
23. Obodeeva O. N. On the issue of assessing the composition of fruit distillates from stone raw materials. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2022;(2):49-52 (In Russ.).
24. Dubinina E. V. Krikunova L. N., Trofimchenko V. A., Obodeeva O. N. Additional identification indicators of alcoholic beverages from stone fruit raw materials. Pichevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2022;(9):40-43 (In Russ.).
25. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V., Loryan G. V. Method for obtaining distillate from mulberry. Patent RF ¹ 2560266. Bull. ¹ 23; published 20.08.2015.
26. Oganesyants L. A., Loryan G. V. Volatile components of alkaline distillates. Vinodeliye i vinogradarstvo = Winemaking and viticulture. 2015;(2):17-20 (In Russ.).
27. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Loryan G. V., Dubinina E. V. Method for the production of alcoholic beverage from fruit raw materials. Patent RF ¹ 2591530. Bull. No. 20; published 20.07.2016 (In Russ.).
28. Sobolev E. M., Kuzilov M. V. Method for the production of a strong alcoholic beverage from fruit and berry raw materials. Patent RU 2220197 C2; published 27.12.2003 (In Russ.).
29. Yakuba Yu. F., Kuzilov M. V. Processing of watermelons into watermelon distillates in order to obtain a strong drink. Khranenie i pererabotka selkhozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2005;(5):33-35 (In Russ.).
30. Kuzilov M. V., Yakuba Yu. F., Kiseleva G. K. Technology of making a strong drink from watermelons. Vinodeliye i vinogradarstvo = Winemaking and viticulture. 2006;(5):12-13 (In Russ.).
31. Kafkas E., Polatoz S., Koc N. K. Quantification and Comprison of Sugas, Carboxyl Acids and Vitamin C Components of Various Citrus Species by HPLC Techniques. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2011;5(2):175-180.
32. Bermejo A., Llosa M. J., Cano A. Analysis of bioactive compounds in seven citrus cultivars. Food Science and Technology International. 2011;(17):55-62.
33. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Assessment of the technological properties of tangerines for the production of distillates. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2018;(4):68-71 (In Russ.).
34. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Method of distillate production from tangerines. Patent RU ¹ 2731898 Ñ1. Bull. No. 25; published 09.09.20 (In Russ.).
35. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V., Nebezhev K. V. Development of technology for distillates from mandarin fruits. Aktualnie voprosy industrii napitkov = Topical issues of the beverage industry. 2019;(3):156-161 (In Russ.).
36. Dubinina E. V., Krikunova L. N., Trofimchenko V. A. Features of preparation of raw materials in the production of distillates from tandarines. XXI vek: Itogi proshlogo i problemy nastoyashchego plyus = XXI century: Results of the past and problems of the present plus. 2019;2(46)8:104-109 (In Russ.).
37. Oganesyants L. A., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V., Trofimchenko V. A. Assessment of the technological properties of mountain ash for the production of alcoholic beverages. Khranenie i pererabotka selkhozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2016;(9):19-22 (In Russ.).
38. Shkol'nikova M. N., Rozhnoy E. D., Chetverikov V. I. Research of the process of distillation of fruit wine material when obtaining distillates from sea buckthorn. Vestnik KRASGAU = Bulletin of KrasSAU. 2019;7(148):147-154 (In Russ.).
39. Zimichev A. V., Chaldayev P. A., Svechnikov A. Yu. Analysis of volatile compounds of pumpkin distillate. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2015;(3):52-54 (In Russ.).
40. Krikunova L. N., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Some aspects of distillate production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Part 1. Characteristics of the distillate. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevykh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2017;1(44):17-23 (In Russ.).
41. Krikunova L. N., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Some aspects of distillate production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Part 3. Characteristics of the distillate. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevykh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2017;3(46):36-42 (In Russ.).
42. Krikunova L. N., Dubinina E. V. The influence of distillation methods on the quality characteristics of distillates from dried Jerusalem artichoke. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevykh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2018;1(48):48-56 (In Russ.).
43. Solov'ev A. O., Turshatov M. V., Kononenko V. V., Pogorzhelskaya N. S., Pavlenko S. V. Processing of jerusalem artichoke tubers into distillates for the production of original alcoholic beverages. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2022;(4):36-43 (In Russ.).
44. Peschanskaya V. A. Methodological approaches in the development of innovative technology of jerusalem artichoke distillate. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2022;(9):77-81 (In Russ.).
45. Kharba R., Ivanova V. A., Meledina T. V. Development of a beverage based on grain and fruit distillates. Nedelya nauki SPBPU. Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem = PBPU Science Week Materials of a scientific conference with international participation. St. Petersburg, 2017. P. 44-46 (In Russ.).
Golovacheva Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Morozova Svetlana S., Candidate of Ñhemical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Misteneva S. Yu., Zaytseva L. V., Shcherbakova N. A.Main characteristics and technological properties of composite flour with whole oat tolokno

P. 24-29 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.005

Key words
flour confectionery, biscuits, wheat flour, whole grain products, whole oat tolokno, composite flours

The main principle of a healthy diet of people is consuming food, including flour-based confectionery, with low content of added sugar, fat, salt and enriched with functional ingredients. Whole grains are the main part of healthy diet and are used for creating flour-based confectionery with functional properties around the world. Whole oat tolokno is the traditional Russian product. The important technological stage of whole oat tolokno is hydrothermal processing. The process improves quality and properties of tolokno and its storage stability. The use of whole barley tolokno instead of refined wheat flour in biscuits is desirable due to its contents of dietary fiber, including beta-glucans, and phytochemicals. The aim of this study was the investigation some physicochemical and functional properties of composite flour from refined wheat flour and whole oat tolokno for using in flour-based confectionery. Whole oat tolokno was added to refined wheat flour its by replacing refined wheat flour at various incorporation levels. Levels of mixture used were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % The introduction of oat tolokno (10-40% instead of refined wheat flour in the composite flours led to a change in their chemical composition: there was an increase of protein by 4.3-16.2 %, fat by 1.6-2.4 times, dietary fiber by 3.0-3.8 times, depending on the amount of tolokno in the composite flour. Bulk density was in the range of 570-675 kg/m3. The sample with the maximum amount (40 %) of tolokno had the lowest value of the index. An increase in the values of the swelling capacities of the composite flours was noted at different temperatures. The swelling capacities of composite flours were at 20 °C 1.68-2.01, at 35 °C 1.79-2.11, which was higher than in the wheat flour sample. Water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity increased progressively with the elevation in tolokno content. They were 115 % and 87 % respectively when incorporation level of tolokno was 40 %. An analysis of the hydrophilic-lipophilic balances showed that composite flours with tolokno have a higher affinity for water than oil

1. Diet Related Noncommunicable Diseases. NCD Alliance. 2021 [Electronic resource]. Access mode: https://ncdalliance.org/why-ncds/risk-factors-prevention/unhealthy-diets-and-malnutrition (Date of Application: 17.10.2021).
2. Galanakis C. M. Functionality of Food Components and Emerging Technologies. Foods. 2021;10(1):128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010128.
3. Martini D., Tucci M., Bradfield J., Di Giorgio A., Marino M., Del Bo' C., Porrini M., Riso P. Principles of Sustainable Healthy Diets in Worldwide Dietary Guidelines: Efforts So Far and Future Perspectives. Nutrients. 2021;13(6):1827. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061827.
4. Van Gunst A., Roodenburg A. J. C. & Steenhuis I. H. M. Reformulation as an Integrated Approach of Four Disciplines: A Qualitative Study with Food Companies. Foods. 2018;7(4):64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040064.
5. Gressier M., Sassi F. & Frost G. Contribution of reformulation, product renewal, and changes in consumer behavior to the reduction of salt intakes in the UK population between 2008/2009 and 2016/2017. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2021;114(3):1092-1099. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab130.
6. Gressier M., Sassi F. & Frost G. Healthy Foods and Healthy Diets. How Government Policies Can Steer Food Reformulation. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071992.
7. Savenkova T. V., Soldatova E. A., Misteneva S. Yu., Taleysnik M. A. Technological properties of flour and their effect on quality indicators of sugar cookies. Pischevie systemi = Food Systems. 2019;2(2):13-19 (In Russ.).
8. Swaminathan S., Dehghan M., Raj J. M., et al. Associations of cereal grains intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries in Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal. 2021;372(m4948):1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4948.
9. Rico D., Penas E., Garcia MdC., et al. Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient. Foods. 2020;9(3):296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030296.
10. Seal C. J., Courti, C. M., Koen Venema K., et al. Health benefits of whole grain: effects on dietary carbohydrate quality, the gut microbiome, and consequences of processing. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (Wiley). 2021;20(3):2742-2768. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12728.
11. Johnson J., Wallace T. Whole Grains and their Bioactives: Composition and Health. Wiley. 2019:504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119129486.
12. Rasane P., Jha A., Sabikhi L. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(2):662-675. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1.
13. Zurbau A., Noronha J. C., Khan T. A. The effect of oat b-glucan on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2021;75(11):1540-1554. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00875-9.
14. Zielke C., Kosik O., Ainalem M. L., Lovegrove A., Stradner A. & Nilsson L. Characterization of cereal b-glucan extracts from oat and barley and quantification of proteinaceous matter. PLOS One. 2017;12(2)e0172034:1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172034.
15. Joyce S. A., Kamil A., Fleige L. & Gahan C. The Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Oats and Oat Beta Glucan: Modes of Action and Potential Role of Bile Acids and the Microbiome. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2019;27(6):171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00171.
16. Anikina E. N., Pasko O. V. Construction of a dairy-plant base for the production of a bioproduct with oatmeal. Industriya pitaniya = Food industry. 2018;3(1):33-38 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.29141/2500-1922-2018-6-1-5
17. Kutsova A. E., Kutsov S. V., Sergienko I. V., Lyutikova A. O. The use of oatmeal in the technology of functional products. Vestnik mezhdunarodnoy academii kholoda = Bulletin of the International Cold Academy. 2015;(2):23-27 (In Russ.).
18. Eliseeva L. G., Gribova N. A., Berketova L. V., Kryukova E. V. Analysis of modern trends in the production of food products for people leading an active lifestyle (part 2). Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2017;(2):11-15 (In Russ.).
19. Anon A. H., Fagbohoun J. B., Koffi A. G., Anno H. F., Atta and Kouame L. P. Functional properties of composite flours produced with Ivorian taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Cv Fou?) corms flour and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;15(3):164-176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30574/gscbps.2021.15.3.0131.
20. Makinen O., Sozer N., Ercili-Cura D., et al. Sustainable protein sources. Protein from oat: Structure, processes, functionality, and nutrition. Elsevier. 2017:105-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802778-3.00006-8.
21. Chandra S., Singh S. & Kumari D. Evaluation of functional properties of composite flours and sensorial attributes of composite flour biscuits. Journal of food science and technology. 2015;52(6):3681-3688. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1427-2.
22. Awuchi, Chinaza Godswilla, Igwe, Victory Somtochukwub and Echeta, Chinelo Kateb. The functional properties of foods and flours. Sciences, Technology and Engineering 2019;5(1):139-160.
23. Alex Lopez-Cordoba, Silvia Goyanes. Food powder properties. Food science. 2017. Sciences, Technology and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.21198-0.
24. Attaullah Kakar1, Tahseen Fatima Miano1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1, Asfand Yar1, Shamim Ara Memon, Babar Khan. Oil and water absorption capacity of wheat, rice and gram flour powders. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Science (IJEES). 2022;12(2):585-594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31407/ijees12.2.
25. Klang J. M., Tene S. T., Nguemguo Kalamo L. G., Boungo G. T., Ndomou Houketchang S. C., Kohole Foffe H. A. & Womeni H. M. Effect of bleaching and variety on the physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of three new Irish potatoes (Cipira, Pamela and Dosa) flours grown in the locality of Dschang (West region of Cameroon). Heliyon. 2019;5(12). DOI: e02982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02982
Misteneva Svetlana Yu.,
Zaytseva Larisa V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Scherbakova Natal'ya A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Confectionery Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
20, Electrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107076, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Meleshkina E. P., Vitol I. S. Biochemical characteristics of the products of processing of composite grain mixtures. Part 2. Products of processing of three-component grain mixtures

P. 30-32 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.006

Key words
wheat, lentils, flax, composite grain mixtures, flour, bran, biochemical characteristics

Wheat flour of the highest grades and products from it are deprived of many valuable food components contained in whole grains. One of the ways to level these losses in the process of flour milling is to obtain composite types of flour obtained by joint grinding of grain mixtures of various crops - cereals, legumes, oilseeds. The paper studied some features of the chemical composition, protein, carbohydrate, lipid complexes and endogenous enzyme systems of the products of joint processing of three-component grain mixtures. Option 1 - 55 % wheat grain, 38 % triticale grain and 7 % flax seeds. Option 2 - 85 % wheat grain, 10 % lentil seeds and 5 % flax seeds. It has been established that the addition of lentil and flax seeds enriches wheat flour in all macronutrients, increases the share of the albumin-globulin fraction of proteins, PUFA, first of all, the most deficient a-linolenic acid by 14.3-16.8 times compared to wheat flour. Changes in the carbohydrate composition (starch, fiber, reducing sugars) of flour and bran obtained from various technological systems were revealed. So the starch content in flour after the 1st grinding and 1st torn systems (70.58 % and 69.71 %, respectively). The amount of reducing sugars ranges from 0.16 % to 0.26 %. The amount of starch and fiber in the bran after the III torn system and after the 3rd grinding system differs by approximately 1.5-2.0 %. The activity of the main hydrolytic enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase) in samples of three-component bran is 2-4 times higher than their activity in flour. The results of the study indicate the possibility of using three-component flour for the production of flour confectionery products with increased nutritional and biological value, and three-component bran for further deep processing in order to obtain valuable ingredients for the food and feed industries.

1. Nikiforova T. A., Khon I. A., Leonova S. A., Weber A. L., Kraus S. V. Rational use of by-products of flour-grinding and cereal production. Khleboprodukty = Âakery products. 2020:(10):30-32 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.32462/0235-2508-2020-29-10-30-32.
2. Renzyaeva T. V., Tuboltseva A. S., Renzyaev A. O. Flour of various types in the technology of flour confectionery. Tehnika i tehnologiya pischevyh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2022;52(2):407-416 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2022-2-2373.
3. Bakumenko O. E., Alekseenko E. V., Nekrasova E. I., Gilmiyarova O. D. Study of the effect of powder from fenugreek seeds on the quality indicators of rye-wheat bread. Pischevaya promyshlennost` = Food industry. 2022:(2):12-15 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/ 10.52653/PPI.2022.2.2.002.
4. Berezina N. A., Artemov A. V., Nikitin I. A. Development of rye-wheat bakery products from flour polycomponent mixtures for functional and dietary nutrition. Izvestiya vuzov. Pischevaya tehnologiya = News of universities. Food technology. 2020:(5-6):29-33 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.26297/0579-3009.2020.5-6.6.
5. Vitol I. S., Meleshkina E. P., Pankratov G. N. Biochemical features of new varieties of three-component flour. Pischevaya promyshlennost` = Food industry. 2022:(6):8-11 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.52653/PPI.2022.6.6.001
6. Nechaev A. P., Traubenberg S. E., Kochetkova A. A., Kolpakova V. V., Vitol I. S., Kobeleva I. B. Pischevaya himiya. Laboratorniy praktikum = Food chemistry. Laboratory practice. St. Petersburg: Giord, 2006. 304 p. (In Russ.) ISBN 5-98879-037-2.
Meleshkina Elena P., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Vitol Irina S., Candidate of Biological Sciences
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kodentsova V. M., Risnik D. V., Serba E. M., Abramova I. M., Kononenko V. V., Krivchenko V. A.Modern prerequisites for the complex processing of apple raw materials for the complex processing of apple raw materials

P. 33-39 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.007

Key words
apples, apple pomace, dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, food products

Apples are the most accessible and widespread representative of fruit products on the Russian consumer market, which belongs to the category of healthy food products. An apple is 80 % water, the remaining 20 % is soluble dietary fiber, sugars, antioxidants, organic acids, trace elements (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, iodine), vitamins (C, B, A) and flavonoids. Apples have a general strengthening effect on the body, help protect against colds and other diseases. The purpose of this review was to analyze the nutritional value of apples and their products, followed by an assessment of the potential benefits of including them in diets. In the course of the work, an analysis of literary sources on the issues of apple processing in a retrospective of 2013-2022, indexed by the RSCI, Pubmed databases, as well as Google Scholar, ReserchGate systems, was carried out. The ability to eat apples in their natural form makes them a versatile micronutrient replenishment that perfectly satisfies hunger. At the same time, apple raw materials are used in the manufacture of a wide range of food products, from baby puree to biocatalysis products. Apple juice is used directly in food or for the production of fermented drinks (wine, cider, vinegar). Apple pomace is a raw material for obtaining organic acids, pectin, phenolic compounds. The introduction of apple pomace in the formulation of cereals, meat, dairy products, allows you to change the technological properties, as well as increase the content of dietary fiber in them and increase the antioxidant properties. It has been proven that apples and products of their processing have a hypolipidemic effect (reducing blood levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), help stabilize low blood pressure, and stimulate digestion. Apples and their processed products belong to the category of healthy foods. A by-product of apple processing, apple pomace, is a valuable raw material for the production of ingredients and food products.

1. Oyenihi A. B., Belay Z. A., Mditshwa A., Caleb O. J. An apple a day keeps the doctor away: The potentials of apple bioactive constituents for chronic disease prevention. Journal of Food Science. 2022;87(6):2291-2309. Doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.16155
2. Timakova R. T. Evaluation of the quality of wheat bread enriched with natural apple raw materials. Nauchniy zhurnal NIU ITMO. Seriya "Protsessi i apparati pischevikh proizvodstv" = Scientific journal of NIU ITMO. Series "Processes and devices of food production". 2020;2(44):22-28 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.17586/2310-1164-2020-10-2-21-28.
3. Akimov M. I. U., Bessonov V. V., Kodentsova V. M., et al. Biological value of Russian-made fruits and berries. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2020;89(4):220-232 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10055.
4. Koutsos A., Tuohy K. M., Lovegrove J. A. Apples and cardiovascular health is the gut microbiota a core consideration? Nutrients. 2015;7(6):3959-3998. Doi: 10.3390/nu7063959
5. Akimov M. Yu. New breeding and technological evaluation criteria for fruit and berry products for the healthy and dietary food industry. Voprosy pitaniia = Problems of Nutrition. 2020;89(4):244-54 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10057.
6. Riadinskaia A. A., Ordina N. B., Koshchaev I. A., Mezinova K. V., Chuev S. A., Zakharova D. A. Research of technological properties of apples and their suitability for processing. Tekhnologii pischevoy i pererabativayuschey promyshlennosti APK - producti zdorovogo pitaniya = Technologies of the food and processing industry of the agro-industrial complex - healthy food products. 2021;(1):56-64 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24412/2311-6447-2021-1-56-64.
7. Kosheleva O. V., Kodentsova V. M. The content of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. Voprosy pitaniia = Problems of Nutrition. 2013;83(3):45-52 (In Russ.).
8. Aksic M. F., Nesovic M., Ciric I., Tesic Z., Pezo L., Tosti T., Gasic U., Dojcinovic B., Loncar B., Meland M. Polyphenolics and chemical profiles of domestic Norwegian apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2022;(9):941487. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.941487
9. Yang S., Meng Z., Li Y., Chen R., Yang Y., Zhao Z. Evaluation of physiological characteristics, soluble sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds in 'Orin'apples (Malus domestica) at different ripening stages. Molecules. 2021;26(4):807. Doi: 10.3390/molecules26040807
10. Wojdylo A., Nowicka P., Turkiewicz I. P., Tkacz K., Hernandez F. Comparison of bioactive compounds and health promoting properties of fruits and leaves of apple, pear and quince. Scientific Reports. 2021;(11):20253. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99293-x
11. Iaccarino N., Varming C., Agerlin Petersen M., Viereck N., Schutz B., Toldam-Andersen T. B., Randazzo A., Balling Engelsen S. Ancient danish apple cultivars - A comprehensive metabolite and sensory profiling of apple juices. Metabolites. 2019;9(7):139. Doi: 10.3390/metabo9070139
12. Tutel'yan V. A., Lashneva N. V. Biologically active substances of plant origin. Flavonols and flavones: prevalence, food sources, consumption. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2013;(1):4-22 (In Russ.).
13. Ulaszewska M., Vazquez-Manjarrez N., Garcia-Aloy M., Llorach R., Mattivi F., Dragsted L. O., Pratico G., Manach C. Food intake biomarkers for apple, pear, and stone fruit. Genes & Nutrition. 2018;13:29. Doi: 10.1186/s12263-018-0620-8.
14. Ivanova N. N., Khomich L. M., Perova I. B. Nutritional profile of apple juice. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2017;86(4): 125-13 (In Russ.). Doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2017-00068
15. Khomich L. M., Berezhnaia I. U. A., Shashin D. L., Poliakov S. A., Kutepova I. S., Perova I. B., Eller K. I. Comparative analysis of the total content of polyphenols in some types of juice products of industrial production. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2022;91(5):124-132 (In Russ.). Doi.org/10.33029/0042-8833-2022-91-5-124-132.
16. Du G., Zhu Y., Wang X., Zhang J., Tian C., Liu L., Meng Y., Guo Y. Phenolic composition of apple products and by-products based on cold pressing technology. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019;56(3):1389-1397. Doi: 10.1007/s13197-019-03614-y
17. Timakova R. T. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fresh apples of different pomological varieties after treatment with ionizing radiation. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2018;87(3):66-71 (In Russ.). Doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10033.
18. Sukhvir S., Kocher G. S. Development of apple wine from Golden Delicious cultivar using a local yeast isolate. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019;56(6):2959-2969. Doi: 10.1007/s13197-019-03771-0
19. Tsoupras A., Moran D., Pleskach H., Durkin M., Traas C., Zabetakis I. Beneficial anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory properties of Irish apple juice and cider bioactives. Foods. 2021;10(2):412. Doi: 10.3390/foods10020412
20. Kliks J., Kawa-Rygielska J., Gasinski A., Glowacki A., Szumny A. Analysis of volatile compounds and sugar content in three Polish regional ciders with pear addition. Molecules. 2020;25(16):3564. Doi: 10.3390/molecules25163564
21. Kesa A. L., Pop C. R., Mudura E., Salanta L. C., Pasqualone A., Darab C., Burja-Udrea C., Zhao H., Coldea T. E. Strategies to improve the potential functionality of fruit-based fermented beverages. Plants. 2021;10(11):2263. Doi: 10.3390/plants10112263
22. Bordalo M., Seabra I. J., Silva A. B., Terrasso A. P., Brito C., Serra M., Bronze M. R., Duarte C. M. M., Braga M. E. M., de Sousa H. C., Serra A. T. Using High-Pressure Technology to Develop Antioxidant-Rich Extracts from Bravo de Esmolfe Apple Residues. Antioxidants. 2021;10(9):1469. Doi: 10.3390/antiox10091469
23. Ousaaid D., Mechchat H., Laaroussi H., Hano C., Bakour M., El Ghouizi A., Conte R., Lyoussi B., El Arabi I. Fruits vinegar: Quality characteristics, phytochemistry, and functionality. Molecules. 2022;27(1):222. Doi: 10.3390/molecules27010222
24. Volob'eva E. S., Aniskina M. V., Fedorenko K. P. Technology for the production of feed additives from apple pomace. Selskokhozyaistvenniy zhurnal = Agricultural magazine. 2016;1(9):268-271 (In Russ.).
25. Shakhrai T. A., Viktorova E. P., Velikanova E. V., Kornei N. N. Modern research in the field of obtaining food ingredients from secondary apple processing resources. Novie tekhnologii = New Technologies. 2020;3(53):80-88 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/2072-0920-2020-10309
26. Perfilova O. V. Apple extractions as a source of biologically active substances in food technology. Novie tekhnologii = New technologies. 2017;(4):65-71 (In Russ.).
27. Erinle T. J., Adewole D. I. Fruit pomaces - their nutrient and bioactive components, effects on growth and health of poultry species, and possible optimization techniques. Animal Nutrition. 2022;9:357-377. Doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2021.11.011
28. Pollini L., Cossignani L., Juan C., Manes J. Extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh apple pomace by different non-conventional techniques. Molecules. 2021;26:4272. Doi: 10.3390/molecules26144272
29. Szabo K., Mitrea L., Calinoiu L. F., Teleky B. E., Martau G. A., Plamada D., Pascuta M. S., Nemes S.-A., Varvara R.-A., Vodnar D. C. Natural Polyphenol Recovery from Apple, Cereal, and Tomato-Processing By-Products and Related Health-Promoting Properties. Molecules. 2022; 27(22):7977. Doi: 10.3390/molecules27227977
30. Fernandes P. A., Ferreira S. S., Bastos R., Ferreira I., Cruz M. T., Pinto A., Coelho E., Passos C. P., Coimbra M. A., Cardoso S. M., Wessel D. F. Apple pomace extract as a sustainable food ingredient. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;8(6):189. Doi: 10.3390/antiox8060189
31. Popescu L., Cesco T., Gurev A., Ghendov-Mosanu A., Sturza R., Tarna R. Impact of Apple Pomace Powder on the Bioactivity, and the Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Yogurt. Foods. 2022;11(22):3565. Doi: 10.3390/foods11223565
32. Kovaleva A. E., Pianikova E. A., Tkacheva E. D. Improving the recipe and technology of wheat bread with apple pomace. Vestnik VGUIT = Proceedings of VSUET. 2020;2(82):61-66 (In Russ.). Doi: 10.20914/2310-1202-2020-2-61-66.
33. Antonic B., Jancikova S., Dordevic D., Tremlova B. Apple pomace as food fortification ingredient: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of food science. 2020;85(10):2977-2985. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15449
34. Pollin L., Blasi F., Ianni F., Grispoldi L., Moretti S., Di Veroli A., Cossignani L., Cenci-Goga B. T. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polyphenols from apple pomace, functional ingredients for beef burger fortification. Molecules. 2022;27(6):1933. Doi: 10.3390/molecules27061933
35. Choi Y. S., Kim Y. B., Hwang K. E., Song D. H., Ham Y. K., Kim H. W., Kim C. J. Effect of apple pomace fiber and pork fat levels on quality characteristics of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Poultry Science. 2016;95(6):1465-71. Doi: 10.3382/ps/pew096
36. Koriachkina S. I. A., Ladnova O. L., Godunov O. A., Kholodova E. N., Lazareva T. N. Investigation of the physiological effect of the use of fruit and vegetable powders in an animal experiment. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of Nutrition. 2016;85(5):48-56 (In Russ.).
37. Gayer B. A., Avendano E. E., Edelson E., Nirmala N., Johnson E. J., Raman G. Effects of intake of apples, pears, or their products on cardiometabolic risk factors and clinical outcomes: A systematic review and meta-Analysis. Current Developments in Nutrition. 2019;3(10):109. Doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz109
38. Dreher M. L. Whole Fruits and Fruit Fiber Emerging Health Effects. Nutrients. 2018;10(12):1833. Doi: 10.3390/nu10121833
39. Zhao C. N., Meng X., Li Y., Li S., Liu Q., Tang G. Y., Li H. B. Fruits for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Nutrients. 2017;9(6):598. Doi: 10.3390/nu9060598
40. Tenore G. C., Caruso D., Buonomo G., D'Urso E., D'Avino M., Campiglia P., Novellino E. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2017;97(7):2107-2115. Doi: 10.1002 / jsfa.8016
41. Koutsos A., Riccadonna S., Ulaszewska M. M., Franceschi P., Trost K., Galvin A., Braune T., Fava F., Perenzoni D., Mattivi F., et al. Two apples a day lower serum cholesterol and improve cardiometabolic biomarkers in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: A randomized, controlled, crossover trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2020;111:307-318. Doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz282.
42. Vallee Marcotte B., Verheyde M., Pomerleau S., Doyen A., Couillard C. Health benefits of apple juice consumption: A review of interventional trials on humans. Nutrients. 2022;14(4):821. Doi: 10.3390/nu14040821
43. Tsoupras A., Moran D., Pleskach H., Durkin M., Traas C., Zabetakis I. Beneficial anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory properties of Irish apple juice and cider bioactives. Foods. 2021;21:179. Doi: 10.1186/s12906-021-03351-w
44. Kim S. J., Anh N. H., Jung C. W., Long N. P., Park S., Cho Y. H., Yoon Y. C., Lee E. G., Kim M., Son E. Y., Kim T. H., Deng Y., Lim J., Kwon S. W. Metabolic and cardiovascular benefits of apple and apple-derived products: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2022;9:766155. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.766155
45. Kalemba-Drozdz M., Kwiecien I., Szewczyk A., Cierniak A., Grzywacz-Kisielewska A. Fermented vinegars from apple peels, raspberries, rosehips, lavender, mint, and rose petals: the composition, antioxidant power, and genoprotective abilities in comparison to acetic macerates, decoctions, and tinctures. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020;9(11):1121. Doi: 10.3390/antiox9111121
Kodentsova Vera M., Doctor of Biological Sciences
Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
2/14, Ust'inskiy lane, Moscow, 109240, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Risnik Dmitriy V., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1, bld. 12, Lenin Hills, Moscow, 119991, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Serba Elena M., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Corresponding Member of RAS,
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kononenko Valentin V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Krivchenko Vera A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kanochkina M. S., Tarasova V. V., Konovalova A. D.Antagonistic activity of peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria and yeast: mechanisms of their action and possibilities of targeted application in the food industry

P. 40-46 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.008

Key words
bacteriocins, lactic acid bacteria, properties, Lactobacillus, yeast, killer toxins, antibacterial activity, application, potential, food industry

Interest in the antagonistic activity of peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria and yeast does not subside, since their potential is great from an applied point of view. Indeed, on the one hand, it is widely recognized that the overall quality of agricultural and food products is negatively associated with the development of spoilage, mold and pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, the possibility of replacing chemical preservatives with natural antimicrobials corresponds to increased consumer demand and interest in food with minimal processing and "more environmentally friendly" additives to food and beverages. As a result, the number of studies that have focused on the role of bioactive molecules produced by antagonistic microorganisms continues to increase, and significant attention is paid to the use of natural approaches to counteract undesirable microorganisms in food matrices. In addition, the antagonistic effect of yeast and lactic acid bacteria in relation to other microorganisms attracts increasing attention and stimulates their use as means of general biocontrol to protect crops and as therapeutic agents for use in biological products for humans and veterinary medicine. The present study is aimed at generalizing information about the properties of lactobacillus bacteriocins and yeast killer toxins, which can be further used in the food industry. One hundred and ten scientific papers published in the period from 2017 to 2023 were selected using five search engines and official databases. A total of eighty-five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. To understand the nature of antibacterial peptides, their mechanism of action and biosynthetic systems are described. The data on the antibacterial properties of killer toxins and bacteriocins, the possibility of application in the food industry as bioconservants, bacteriocinogenic starter cultures, including the possibility of creating multicomponent starter cultures, are systematized. In order to establish better control over the obtained functional products, it is advisable to find out the nature, mechanisms of synthesis and interaction of the antimicrobial substances described. Examples and main directions of application of the described peptides with antagonistic activity are indicated. The revealed serious advantages of the presence of a killer effect in some yeast strains and the production of bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria make it advisable to multi-criteria screening and isolation of new strains with antagonistic properties. Such an approach is able to transform the functional potential of biological producers into real technologies for the development of food products with specified properties and characteristics.

1. Aitmanaite L., Konovalovas A., Medvedevas P., Serviene E., Serva S. Determination of specificity in systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer viruses. Microorganisms. 2021;23-9(2):236. Doi: 10.3390/microorganisms 9020236.
2. Kanochkina M. S. Development of technology of active polymicrobial seed materials for the production of yeast-bacterial functional products. Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences. 2012. 232 p.
3. Darbandi A., Asadi A., Mahdizade Ari M., Ohadi E., Talebi M., Khalaj Zadeh M., Darb Emami A., Ganavati R., Kakanj M. Bacteriocins: properties and potential use as antimicrobials. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2022;36(1):e24093. Doi: 10.1002/jcla.24093.
4. Hao K., Zhang Z., Wang B., Zhang J., Zhang G. Iran. Mechanism of recovery of Cr (VI) Pichia guilliermondii ZJH-1. Journal of Biotechnology. 2022;1-20(1):e3001. Doi: 10.30498/ijb.2021.275524.3001.
5. Jiang H., Zou J., Cheng H., Fang J., Huang G. Purification, characterization and mechanism of action of pentocin JL-1, a new bacteriocin isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus, against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biomedical Research. 2017:7657190. Doi: 10.1155/2017/7657190.
6. Keiha M. Is there a connection between the Helicobacter pylori vacA i1 or i2 alleles and the development of peptic ulcer and stomach cancer? Meta-analysis of the study of the Iranian population. New Microbes and New Infections. 2020;3(36):100726. Doi: 10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100726.
7. Cindy A., Badsha M. B., Nielsen B., Unlu G. Antimicrobial activity of six international artisanal kefirs against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, serovar Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Microorganisms. 2020;4-8(6):849. Doi: 10.3390/microorganisms 8060849.
8. Leslie V. A., Khalud Mohammed Alarjani, Arunkumar Malaysami, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian. Bacteriocin-producing bacteria with bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2021;14(12):1802-1809. ISSN 1876-034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.09.029 .
9. Adel Druvefors U., Schnurer J. Mold-inhibiting activity of various types of yeast during hermetic storage of wheat grain. Yeast FEMS Research. 2005;5(4-5):373-378. Doi: 10.1016/j.femsyr.2004.10.006.
10. Druvefors U., Jonsson N., Boysen M., Schnurer J. Efficiency of biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala during long-term storage of wet feed grain in various oxygen and carbon dioxide content regimes. Yeast FEMS Research. 2002;2(3):389-94. Doi: 10.1016/S1567-1356(02)00091-0.
11. Bass B., Perez V., Yang X., Tsai T., Holzgraf D., Chuning J., Maxwell S. The effect of Pichia guilliermondii on the immunity of sows, litters and weaning piglets. Journal of Animal Science. 2012;90(4):445-447. Doi: 10.2527/jas.53982.
12. Mead E., Slatter, M. A., Garvey M. Bacteriocins, powerful antimicrobial peptides and the fight against multidrug-resistant species: Is resistance useless? Antibiotics. 2020;(9):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010032
13. Muller E., Radler F. Caseicin a bacteriocin from Lactobacillus casei. Folia Microbiology (Prague). 1993;38(6):441-446. Doi: 10.1007/BF02814392.
14. Santos A., San Mauro M., Abruzzi S., et al. Cwp2p, plasma membrane receptor for the killer toxin Pichia membranifaciens. Mole microbiota. 2007;64:831-843.
15. Nissen-Meyer J., Oppeg?rd S., Rogne P., Haugen H. S., Christiansen P. E. Structure and mode of action of bipeptide bacteriocins (Class IIb). Probiotics, antimicrobial proteins. 2010;2(1):52-60. Doi: 10.1007/s12602-009-9021- z.
16. Orentaite I., Poranen M. M., Oksana H. M., et al. Physiological changes in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by the killer toxin K2. Yeast FEMS Research. 2016;16:8.
17. Belda I., Ruiz J., Alonso A., et al. Biology of the killer toxins Pichia membranifaciens. Toxins. 2017;9:112.
18. Pu J., Hang .S, Liu M., Chen Z., Xiong J., Li Y., Wu H., Zhao X., Liu S., Gu Q., Li P. Bacteriocin Class IIb Plantaricin NC8 modulates the intestinal microbiota of various enterotypes in vitro. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2022;30(9):877948. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.877948.
19. Carboni G., Fancello F., Zara G., Zara S., Ruiu L., Marova I., Pinna G., Budroni M., Mannazzu I. Production of freeze-dried ready-to-use yeast killer toxin with possible application in the wine and food industry. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2020;16(335):108883. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108883.
20. Mazzucco M. B., Ganga Massachusetts, Sangorrin M. P. Production of a new killer toxin from Saccharomyces eubayanus using waste from the agro-industrial complex and its use against yeast that causes wine spoilage. Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek. 2019;112(7):965-973. Doi: 10.1007/s10482-019-01231-5.
21. Shioran P., Tiwari S. K. Enterocin LD3 and Plantaricin LD4 act synergistically against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Probiotics, antimicrobial proteins. 2021;13(2):542-554. Doi: 10.1007/s12602-020-09708- w.
22. Giovati L., Ciociola T., De Simone T., Conti S., Magliani U. The use of toxins-killers of yeast Wickerhamomyces in medicine. Toxins (Basel). 2021;15-13(9):655. Doi: 10.3390/toxins 13090655.
23. Villalba M. L., Mazzucco M. B., Lopez California, Ganga Massachusetts, Sangorrin M. P. Purification and characterization of the killer toxin Saccharomyces eubayanus: the effectiveness of biocontrol against yeast causing wine spoilage. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2020;16(331):108714. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108714.
24. Soltani S., Hammami R., Cotter P. D., Rebuffat S., Said L. B., Gaudreau H., Bedard F., Byron E., Drider D., Fliss I. Bacteriocins as a new generation of antimicrobial drugs: aspects of toxicity and regulations. Microbiology FEMS Reviews. 2021;8-45(1):fuaa039. Doi: 10.1093/femsre/fuaa039.
25. Carboni G., Marova I., Zara G., Zara S., Budroni M., Mannazzu I. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of recombinant Kpkt on HaCaT cells: further steps towards biotechnological use of yeast killer toxins. Food products. 2021;8-10(3):556. Doi: 10.3390/foods10030556.
26. Timothy Bamgbose, Iliyasu Atta Habiba, Anvikar Anupkumar R. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their industrial application. Current Topics in Lactic Acid Bacteria and Probiotics. 2021;7(1):1-13. https://doi.org/10.35732/ctlabp.2021.7.1.1
27. Kirilenko M. A., Kuznetsov O. Yu. Patent No. 2661737 Russian Federation. A method for obtaining the drug eubiotic Lactobacterin; published 19.07.2018; application of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of the Ministry of Health of Russia. 6 p. (In Russ.)
28. Wang X., Xie Yi., Zhang X., Jin J., Zhang H. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the effect of plantaricin BM-1 on metabolic pathways and peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli K12. PLOS One. 2020;23-15(4):e0231975. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231975.
29. Pechinskaya M. D., Korona R., De Visser Ya. A. Experimental tests of coevolution of the host virus in natural strains of killer yeast. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2017;30(4):773-781. Doi: 10.1111/jeb.13044.
30. Neschislyaev V. A., Fadeeva I. V. Patent No. 2200566 Russian Federation. Method of obtaining lactobacterin; published 20.03.2003; application Perm Scientific and Production Association Biomed. 6 p. (In Russ.)
31. Zhilan Song, Xiaomeng Wang, Xinxiao Zhang, Haihong Wu, Ye Zou, Penpeng Li, Chong Sun, Weimin Xu, Fang Liu, Daoin Wang. Class III bacteriocin Helveticin-M causes sublethal damage to target cells due to damage to the cell wall and membrane. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;45(1)3:213-227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-018-2008-6.
32. Simoes L. A., Cristina de Souza A., Ferreira I., Melo D. S., Lopes L. A. A., Magnani M., Schwan R. F., Dias D. R. Probiotic properties of yeasts isolated from Brazilian fermented table olives. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2021;131(4):1983-1997. Doi: 10.1111/jam.15065
Kanochkina Mariya S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080
LLC "Microbial Nutrients Immunocorrectors",
2a, 2nd Likhachevskiy lane, Moscow, 125438, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tarasova Veronika V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Konovalova Anastasiya D.
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Smotrina Yu. V., Belykh Kh. S., Nityaga I. M. Analysis of survival of lactic acid microorganisms in conventional and fermented milk-containing products during storage

P. 47-51 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.009

Key words
lactic acid microorganisms, sour milk products, fermented milk products, fermented milk-containing, yogurt, microbiological safety, milk fat substitutes, fat replacer, vegetable fat, milk fat, species and numerical identification

Fermented milk products are among the most demanded in the consumer market. They are a complete source of easily digestible milk protein, medium-chain fatty acids, calcium and vitamins A, B and D. Lactic acid microorganisms, which are part of fermented milk products, have a beneficial effect on the intestinal microflora and suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. The range of fermented milk products on the Russian market is expanding due to the improvement of production technology. The key problem is not only ensuring microbiological safety in the production process, but also the compliance with quality indicators - the species composition of microorganisms declared on the product label. Taking into account the desire of manufacturers to diversify the market with fermented milk-containing products with milk fat substitute (SMFA), it is important to evaluate the composition and number of viable cells of starter microorganisms in these products, including in comparison with traditional fermented milk products during storage. The sanitary-microbiological, physico-chemical indicators of quality and safety were determined during the storage of sour-milk and fermented milk-containing products. By means of microbiological, biochemical identification and real-time PCR, a laboratory analysis was performed of the content of viable technological lactic acid microorganisms and their species ratios until the end of the declared shelf life in yogurt and sour cream, produced in the traditional way, without the use of milk fat substitute (BMF), as well as in cream on vegetable oils with the addition of yogurt and sour cream product SZMZH. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the milk fat substitute does not affect the level of lactic acid microorganisms during storage. The obtained species identification data showed the absence of bulgarian sticks in all the studied samples of yogurt and yogurt product, and also indicated a low level of the leading component of sour cream starter bacteria of the genus lactococcus in sour cream and sour cream product before the expiration date. This indicates the need to carry out work to identify the species composition and determine the number of lactic acid starter microorganisms in fermented dairy and milk-containing products when establishing their shelf life and storage conditions.

1. Kharitonov D. V., Dobriyan E. I., Il'ina A. M. Research microbiological background of plant ingredients and plant-milk compositions. Vestnik VGUIT = Bulletin of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2016;(3):1-6 (In Russ.). DOI: http://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2016-3-1-6.
2. Volkov R. A., Ezhkova A. M., Samigullin D. I. Sanitary and hygienic indicators of dairy products with milk fat substitute and their effect on the body of white mice. Dissertation Abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences / Samigullin Dinar Ilsurovich. Kazan, 2021. 23 p. (In Russ.)
3. MUK 4.2.1847-04. Sanitary and epidemiological assessment of justification of shelf life and storage conditions of food products. Methodical instructions. Moscow: Federal Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Ministry of Health of Russia, 2004. 31 p. (In Russ.)
4. GOST R 54669-2011. Milk and milk products. Methods for determination of acidity. Moscow: Standartinform, 2013. 14 p. (In Russ.)
5. GOST R 56145-2014. Functional food products. Methods of microbiological analysis. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. 32 p. (In Russ.)
6. GOST 33951-2016. Milk and dairy products. Methods of determination of lactic acid microorganisms. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 13 p. (In Russ.)
7. Zheng J., et al. A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. 2020;70(4):2782-2858.
8. Technological regulations. TR TS 033/2013 On the safety of milk and dairy products (In Russ.).
9. Ganatsios V., et al. Kefir as a functional beverage gaining momentum towards its health promoting attributes. Beverages. 2021;7(3):48.
10. Sviridenko G. M., Sorokina N. P. Protective cultures in the production of fermentable dairy products. Pererabotka moloka = Processing of milk. 2019;(6):10-13 (In Russ.).
Smotrina Yuliya V.
Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology,
2/14 Ust'inskiy lane, Moscow, 109240, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Belykh Khristina S.
Emperor Peter I Voronezh State Agrarian University,
1, Michurina str., Voronezh, 394087, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Russian Biotechnology University (BIOTECH University),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080
Nityaga Inga M., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Russian Biotechnology University (BIOTECH University),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Posokina N. E., Zakharova A. I., Kurbanova M. N. Investigation of the dependence of the titer of germinated spores on the concentration of calcium ions

P. 52-55 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.010

Key words
spores of microorganisms, delayed germination, food safety, calcium ions, capillary electrophoresis

Spore-forming bacteria and finding means to inactivate them continue to be a major challenge for the food industry. Although it is possible to potentially inactivate spores during heat treatment, prolonged heat exposure can lead to deterioration in the organoleptic properties of products. The search for a "sufficient" method of heat treatment can help food manufacturers achieve complete inactivation of spores, including heat-resistant ones. Since microbiological methods for determining the numbers of spores are laborious and time consuming, and there is also a risk of secondary growth of vegetative cells, which will affect the final result, we suggested that it is possible to quantify germinated spores by the concentration of Ca2+ released from spores during germination. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, strain ATCC 6633 were used as the object of research. Spore suspensions were heated at temperatures of 75, 85, and 95 °C, followed by thermostating at a temperature of 37 ± 1 °C. The concentration of Ca2+ was determined after 24, 48, 72 hours according to the method M 04-52-2008, by capillary electrophoresis on the Kapel-105M device. When the suspension of Bacillus subtilis spores was heated at a temperature of 75 °C, most of the spores were activated immediately after heating, the remaining spores germinated on the second day, and no spore germination was recorded on the third day. When the spore suspension was heated at a temperature of 85 °C, the germination of the main mass of spores was also observed immediately after heat treatment and a decrease in the number of spores on the first and second days. However, a slight increase on the third day indicates the ongoing process of germination of the remaining viable spores. When the suspension of Bacillus subtilis spores was heated at a temperature of 95 °C, the activation of the main part of viable spores occurred immediately after heat treatment, and the remaining spores germinated on the first day. On the second day, calcium release was no longer observed, which confirmed the end of the germination process. The data obtained allow us to conclude that the amount of released calcium correlates with the amount of germinated spores in the initial suspension. Heating the spore suspension at a temperature of 95 °C is most effective in reducing the number of germinated spores. This fact can be used in the selection of modes of processing food systems by physical methods.

1. Markland S. M., Hoover D. G. Bacillus cereus Mechanisms of Resistance to Food Processing. The Diverse Faces of Bacillus cereus. 2016; 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-801474-5.00004-9
2. Cho W., Chung M. Bacillus spores: a review of their properties and inactivation processing technologies. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2020;29(11):1447-1461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00809-4
3. Posokina N. E., Zakharova, A. I. Modern non-thermal methods of processing plant raw materials used to increase its storage capacity. Pischevie systemi = Food Systems. 2023;6(1).4-10 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771-2023-6-1-4-10
4. Dominguez D. C., Guragain M., Patrauchan M. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes. Cell Calcium. 2015;57(3).151-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2014.12.006
5. Nava A. R., Mauricio N., Sanca A. J., Dominguez D. C. Evidence of Calcium Signaling and Modulation of the LmrS Multidrug Resistant Efflux Pump Activity by Ca2+ Ions in S. aureus. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020:11. 573388. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.573388
6. Amon J. D., Yadav A. K., Ramirez-Guadiana F. H., Meeske A. J., Cava F., Rudner D. Z. SwsB and SafA are required for CwlJ-dependent spore germination in Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bacteriology. 2019; 202(6):e00668-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00668-19
7. Almatrafi R., Banawas S., Sarker M. R. Divalent Cation Signaling in Clostridium perfringens Spore Germination. Microorganisms. 2023;11(3):591. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11030591
8. Francis M. B., Allen C. A., Sorg J. A. Spore Cortex Hydrolysis Precedes Dipicolinic Acid Release during Clostridium difficile Spore Germination. Journal of Bacteriology. 2015;197(14):2276-2283. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.02575-14
9. Sinai L., Rosenberg A., Smith Y., Einat S., Sigal B. Y. The Molecular Timeline of a Reviving Bacterial Spore. Molecular Cell. 2015;57(4):695-707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2014.12.019
10. Colas de la Noue A., Natali F., Fekraoui F., Gervais P., Martinez N., Perrier-Cornet J. M., Peters J. The molecular dynamics of bacterial spore and the role of calcium dipicolinate in core properties at the sub-nanosecond time-scale. Scientific Report. 2020;10(1):8265. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65093-y
11. Setlow P. Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species: What We Know and Do Not Know. Journal of Bacteriology. 2014;196(7):1297-1305. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.01455-13
12. Bressuire-Isoard C., Broussolle V., Carlin F. Sporulation environment influences spore properties in Bacillus: evidence and insights on underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms. FEMS Microbiology Review. 2018;42(5):614-626. https://doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy021
13. Trunet C., Mtimet N., Mathot A. G., Postollec F., Leguerinel I., Couvert O., Broussolle V., Carlin F., Coroller L. Suboptimal Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Spore Incubation Conditions Increase Heterogeneity of Spore Outgrowth Time. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2020;86(6). https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-19
14. Franñais M., Carlin F., Broussolle V., Nguyen-The C., Schaffner D. Bacillus cereus cshA Is Expressed during the Lag Phase of Growth and Serves as a Potential Marker of Early Adaptation to Low Temperature and pH. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2019;85(14). https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.00486-19
15. Lamba S., Muthappa D., Seamus F., Scannell A. Sporulation and Biofilms as Survival Mechanisms of Bacillus Species in Low-Moisture Food Production Environments. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2022;19(7). https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0006
16. Checinska A., Paszczynski A., Burbank M. Bacillus and other spore-forming genera: variations in responses and mechanisms for survival. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. 2015;6:351-369. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-030713-092332
Posokina Nataly'a E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Zakharova Anna I.,
Kurbanova Madinat N., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkolnaya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kostyuchenko M. N., Martirosyan V. V., Peshkina I. P., Tyurina I. A., Karabinskaya Yu. I., Reinov M. V., Tyurina O. E.Substantiation of the application of the domestic vitamin-mineral complex in the technology of bakery products

P. 56-61 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.011

Key words
wheat flour, baking properties, bakery products, minerals, vitamins, quality, nutritional value

The article provides a rationale for the use of a vitamin-mineral complex of domestic production in the technology of bakery products from wheat flour. Experimental data are presented on the influence of dietary supplement "Premix 138-20" in various dosages on the quality of first-grade baking wheat flour, the rheological properties of wheat dough, organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators of the quality of finished products. It was established that "Premix 138-20" did not have a significant effect on the quantity and quality of gluten, moisture content and the falling number of wheat flour. At the same time, a decrease in the acidity of the flour was noted, which is probably due to the neutralizing effect of magnesium oxide, which is part of the additive. It was found that the introduction of "Premix 138-20" slightly reduced the gas-forming and gas-retaining abilities of the wheat dough, contributed to an increase in the stability of the dough. In a model experiment, the inhibitory effect of magnesium oxide on the activity of yeast cells was confirmed. Bakery products with the addition of "Premix 138-20", prepared by the sponge method, were characterized by a developed uniform porosity, a baked crumb, a taste and smell characteristic of wheat bread. The rate of staleness of the crumb of bakery products with the addition of "Premix 138-20" slowed down. A decrease in the color intensity of the crust of products with the introduction of "Premix 138-20" was noted due to the influence of the components that make up the premix on the ratio of reducing sugars in the dough, which led to a decrease in the intensity of the reaction of melanoidin formation. A decrease in the acidity of the crumb of experimental bakery products was established, which may be due to the neutralizing effect of magnesium oxide, which is part of the "Premix 138-20". To increase the acidity of products, it is advisable to use the method of preparing bakery products on sourdough. According to the results of the research in the production of bakery products, the dosage of "Premix 138-20" is recommended in the amount of 0.5 % by weight of flour. Bakery products made from wheat flour of the first grade with the addition of 0.5 % "Premix 138-20" to the mass of flour are an enriched product, as well as a source of magnesium, iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus.

1. Tsaloeva M. R. Functional bakery products with vitamin and mineral premix. Khleboproducti = Bakery products. 2018;(6):48-49 (In Russ.).
2. Tarasova V, Matveeva I., Nechaev A. Bakery products for functional purposes. Khlebopoducti = Bakery products. 2009;(6):54-55 (In Russ.).
3. Kosovan A. P., Turchaninova T. P. Optimization of technological processes when using improvers in bakery. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2003;(2):46-47 (In Russ.).
4. Spirichev V. B., Shatnyuk L. N. Enrichment of food products with micronutrients: scientific principles and practical solutions. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2010;(4):20-24 (In Russ.).
5. Collection of technological instructions for the production of bread and bakery products. Moscow: Preiskurantizdat, 1989. 497 p. (In Russ.)
6. Maslova I. N., Chizhova K. N., Shkvarkina T. I., et al. Technochemical control of bakery production. 4th edition. Moscow: Food Industry, 1966. 396 p. (In Russ.)
7. Koryachkina S. Ya., Berezina N. A., Khmelev E. V. Methods for studying the properties of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. Methods for studying the properties of semi-finished bakery products: a teaching aid for higher professional education. Orel: State University - UNPK, 2011. 49 p. (In Russ.)
8. SanPiN 42-123-4717-88. Recommended (regulated) levels of vitamins in fortified foods (In Russ.).
9. Osadchenko I. M., Lyabin M. P., Romanovskova A. D. Magnesium oxide: properties, methods of preparation and application (analytical review). Natural systems and resources. Series "Biology and Biotechnology". 2018;8(3):5-14 (In Russ.).
Kostyuchenko Marina N., Candidate of Òechnical Sciences,
Martirosyan Vladimir V., Doctor of Òechnical Sciences, Professor,
Peshkina Irina P., Postgraduate,
Tyurina Irina A., Candidate of Òechnical Sciences,
Karabinskaya Yulia I.,
Reinov Mikhail V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Tyurina Olga E., Candidate of Òechnical Sciences
Scientific Research Institute of the Bakery Industry,
26À, B. Cherkizovskaya str., Moscow, 107553, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , î This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kurasova L. A., Velyamov M. T., Velyamov Sh. M., Sarsenova A. Zh. Development of technology for obtaining lycopenecontaining dry powder from pomace of zoned tomato varieties for food purposes with a natural health effect

P. 62-65 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.012

Key words
tomatoes, pomace, lycopene, beta-carotene, drying

In industrial conditions, the processing of tomatoes using affordable technology with the preservation of valuable biologically active compounds is very relevant. This is also facilitated by the fact that tomato contains a biologically active substance like lycopene, the strongest carotenoid - an antioxidant present in human blood. Kazakhstan has not established an effective deep technology for processing vegetable products, including tomatoes, and the available technologies are not perfect, therefore, the project being developed is related to the technology of processing tomatoes, and obtaining a dry powder containing biologically active substances from pomace for the purpose of enriching food products is very relevant. The novelty and significance of the work: the development of an effective technology for obtaining lycopene-containing dry powder from pomace of zoned tomato varieties, in order to enrich food products with a natural health effect and ecological purity is new for Kazakhstan, and its introduction has great social and economic significance, as they have a beneficial effect on human health, labor productivity, they provide an effective basis for the development and improvement of the state's economy. The purpose of the study was to develop a technology for obtaining lycopene-containing dry powder from pomace of zoned tomato varieties for food purposes with a natural health effect and studying its qualitative indicators. During the work, the yield (2.35 %) of tomato powder from tomato pomace was determined. The drying modes (drying temperature, drying time) of tomato pomace have been worked out. In the resulting tomato powder, nutritional values were determined: proteins - 15.83 g / 100 g, fats - 9.3 g / 100 g, carbohydrates - 51.89 g /100 g. The quantitative content of vitamins, micro- and macroelements was determined in tomato powder. Vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B2, beta-carotene and lycopene account for a large content of vitamins in tomato powder. Toxic substances in tomato powder do not exceed the permissible norm.

1. Akhmedova P. M. Improvement of agricultural methods of growing precocious tomato varieties in the conditions of Dagestan. Dissertation Abstract of Candidate of Agricultural Sciences: 06.01.01 / Akhmedova Patimat Magomedovna; All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Vegetable Growing. Moscow, 2012. 27 p. (In Russ.).
2. Akhmedova P. M. Tomato varieties for seedless culture in Dagestan. Kartofel i ovoschi = Potatoes and vegetables. 2010;(1):10-11 (In Russ.).
3. Snezhkin Yu. F., Khavin A. A., Naumov S. E., Chalaev D. M. Drying of thermolabile materials with a low-potential coolant of low humidity. Promyshlennaya teplotekhnica = Industrial heat engineering. 2002;4:63-65 (In Russ.).
4. Chernyshev S. V. Development and scientific justification of the technology of dried tomatoes. Dissertation Abstract of Doctor of Technical Sciences. Chisinau, 2011. 29 ð. (In Russ.).
5. Shlyagun G. V., Chernyshev S. V. Kinetics of tomato heating during convective drying in a dense layer. Khranenie i pererabotka selkhozsir'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2010;(9):11-14 (In Russ.).
6. Altykhov I. V., Bykova S. M., Ochirov V. D. Prospects for the use of tomato powder in the shortbread recipe. Vestnik KrasGAU = Bulletin of KrasSAU. Krasnoyarsk, 2021. Ð. 254-259 (In Russ.).
7. Rusina I. M., Kolesnik I. M. Tomato powder as a promising additive for activating baking yeast in the production of crackers. Vestnik Grodnenskogo universiteta imeni Yanki Kupala = Bulletin of the Yanka Kupala Grodno University. 2020;10(1):75-85 (In Russ.).
8. Altukhov I. V. Technology of obtaining concentrated sugar-containing products using pulsed infrared processing and drying of root crops. Thesis of Doctor of Technical Sciences: 05.18.01. Irkutsk, 2016. 440 p. (In Russ.)
9. Patent 2494624 C1 RF: IPC A21D 13/00, A21D 2/00. Methods of making custard cakes with tomato powder from small-fruited tomatoes / Potapova A. A., Akishin D. V., Perfilova O. V., Eliseeva L. G. Applicant and patent holder Michurinsky State Agrarian University. No. 2012103 424/13; application 01.02.2012; published 10.10.2013. Bulletin No. 28. 6 ð. (In Russ.)
10. Voronina P. K. The use of dried tomatoes in the technology of making cupcakes. Innovatsionnaya tekhnica i tekhnologiya = Innovative technique and technology. 2016;(2):9-14 (In Russ.).
11. Lakin G. F. Biometrics. Moscow, 2015. 196 p. (In Russ.)
Kurasova Lyudmila A.,
Velyamov Alimzhan T., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
Velyamov Shukhrat M., Candidate of Philosophical Sciences,
Sarsenova Aidana Zh.
Kazakh Research Institute of Processing and Food industry,
238G, Gagarina str., Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 050060, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nguen B. Ch., Ionova I. I., Tikhomirova N. A. Papaya and its use in functional foods for vietnamese people

P. 66-70 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.013

Key words
papaya, vitamin A deficiency, functional product, low-lactose dairy product

To reduce the cost, increase the nutritional and functional value, expand the range and increase the production volumes of low-lactose fermented milk products, it is advisable to combine them with vegetable raw materials, taking into account national consumer preferences and resources. Lactose intolerance is common in many parts of the world, including Vietnam. At the same time, the Vietnamese face the problem of vitamin A deficiency. To solve these health problems, a low-lactose curd mass with papaya was developed. Papaya in combination with milk allows you to create a product with improved consumer and functional properties. The objects of research were papaya and papaya puree with yellow pulp Carica papaya L., low-lactose curd mass with and without papaya. The nutritional value and the integral score were determined by calculation according to the recipe for samples of low-lactose curd mass. The organoleptic indicators of control and experimental samples from low-lactose curd mass with papaya were scored which determined by tasting commission. The studies were carried out at the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Russian Biotechnological University (Moscow, Russian Federation), Nha Trang University and under production conditions of JSC Khapharco (Nha Trang, Vietnam). A recipe and technological scheme for low-lactose curd mass, which is obtained from cottage cheese according to traditional technology with the addition of pasteurized papaya puree, has been developed. The reduction of lactose is carried out by enzymatic hydrolysis of milk before fermentation. Low-lactose curd mass with papaya has a high nutritional value, with a calorie content of 175.03 kcal per 100 g of product. An important indicator of the developed product with functional properties is its antioxidant activity. The recommended daily intake of low-lactose curd mass with papaya for children is 225±25 g, teenagers - 375±25 g, the elderly - 375±25 g. The development of new products contributes to an increase in the consumption of fermented milk products among the population, helps to effectively use national plant resources and improves the health of consumers.

1. Kakimov A. K., Kakimova Zh. Kh., Baibalinova G. M., Mirasheva G. O., Amanzholov S. A. Study and selection of a plant component for fermented milk paste with probiotic properties. Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-practicheskaya conferentsiya, posvyaschennaya pamyati V. M. Gorbatova = International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the memory of V. M. Gorbatov. 2014:114-116 (In Russ.).
2. Kadieva T. A., Margieva F. T., Vanieva B. B., Kokoeva A. T. Selection of a plant component for fermented milk paste with probiotic properties. Materiali Vserossiyskoy nauchno-practicheskoy conferentsii "Dostizheniya nauki - selskomu hozyaistvu" = Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference "Achievements of Science for Agriculture". 2017;1:226-229 (In Russ.).
3. National Institute of Nutrition of Vietnam [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://viendinhduong.vn/ (date of access: 10.26.2022).
4. Papaya [Electronic resource]. Wikipedia. Free Encyclopedia. Access mode: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papaya (date of access 26.10.2022).
5. Getenesh T. Development of Fruit Flavored Yoghurt with Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Papaya (Carica papaya L.). Fruits Juices. Pischevaya nauka i upravlenie kachestvom = Food Science and Quality Management. 2017;67:40-45 (In Russ.).
6. Rajasekhar P. Nutritional and medicinal value of papaya (carica papaya linn.). Vsemirniy zhurnal farmatsii i farmatsevticheskih nauk = World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2017;6:2559-2578 (In Russ.).
7. Duangrutai T. Effect of Thai fruits on Sensory Properties of Fruit Yogurt and Survival of Yogurt Starter Culture added with Probiotic Strains in Fruit Yogurt. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2014;53:283-290 (In Russ.).
8. Àmal À. Ì., Eman À. Ì. Ì., Nahla S. Z. Fruit Flavored Yoghurt: Chemical, Functional and Rheological Properties. Mezhdunarodniy zhurnal ekologicheskih i selskohozyaistvennih issledovaniy = International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research. 2016;2(5):57-66 (In Russ.).
Nguen Bao Ch., graduate student,
Ionova Inna I., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
33, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tikhomirova Natal'ya A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
State University of Humanities and Social Studies,
30, Zelenaya str., Colomna, Moscow region, 140400, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Odintsova A. A., Dunchenko N. I., Yanchenko E. V. Scientific substantiation of the choice of herbal ingredients in the production of functional meat products for child nutrition

P. 71-74 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.014

Key words
baby food, fortification, butternut squash, potatoes, cauliflower, broccoli.

The article presents the results of studies of quality indicators of zoned samples of domestic varieties of potatoes, pumpkin and broccoli and cauliflower. The choice of herbal ingredients is scientifically substantiated, taking into account the functionality based on the requirements of regulatory documentation and their usefulness in the production of functional meat products for the nutrition of healthy young children. Based on the analysis of biochemical studies, it has been established that these vegetable crops should be used in the design of food products for children, since they contain vitamins and mineral components necessary for the child. Varieties of vegetable crops were studied; potatoes: Zhukovsky early, Meteor, Red Scarlet, Riviera, Vineta and Azart, nutmeg pumpkin: Vitamin, Pearl, Muscade Agro, Muscat, Family, broccoli: Agassi F1 and Children's delicacy F1 and cauliflower: Dachnitsa, Alpha, Guarantee, Skyvoker F1 of the collections of the FGBOU VO RGAU - MSHA named after K. A. Timiryazev and the Department of Agriculture and Agrochemistry of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing, a branch of the FGBNU FNTSO. On the basis of the Department of Quality Management and Commodity Science of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education RGAU - MSHA named after K. A. Timiryazev, an expert assessment of the selected varieties was carried out. Based on the results of the research, profilograms of taste descriptors for potatoes, nutmeg pumpkin, broccoli and cauliflower were compiled. Varieties with the most pronounced organoleptic characteristics were identified, which were noted by a commission of experts. The revealed characteristics make it possible to recommend the studied varieties of vegetable crops for the enrichment of meat products for children's nutrition. An analysis of the varietal characteristics of vegetable crops made it possible to conclude that they enrich meat-based products for children. It was established the content of basic nutrients in the proposed vegetable crops, which are necessary for the vital activity of the child's body in the first years of life. The conducted studies allow us to conclude that the selected varieties of potatoes, nutmeg pumpkin, broccoli and cauliflower, based on their biochemical and organoleptic data, are suitable for the production of meat products for children aged 1 to 3 years.

1. Turti T. V., Makarova S. G., Zimina E. P. Prevention of allergies in children during the introduction of complementary foods. Voprosi sovremennoy pediatrii = Questions of modern pediatrics. 2014;13(6):52-56 (In Russ.). EDN TGETPB.
2. Dorozhkina A. A., Osmolovsky P. D., Piskunova N. A., et al. Muscat pumpkin is a promising raw material for expanding the range of food products. Pischevie tekhnologii buduschego: innovatsionnie idei, nauchniy poisk, kreativnie resheniya = Food technologies of the future: innovative ideas, scientific research, creative solutions. Moscow: Buki Vedi, 2021. P. 69-74 (In Russ.). EDN AYNHOY.
3. Kozhevnikova E. N., Nikolaeva S. V., Elezova L. I. Complete complementary foods are an important component of healthy nutrition in children of the first year of life. Effective pharmacotherapy. 2012;(2):19-20 (In Russ.). EDN RCPAOV.
4. GOST R 52349-2005 Food products. Functional food products. Terms and Definitions (In Russ.).
5. Chemical composition of Russian food products: handbook / Institute of Nutrition RAMS; Editors Skurikhina I. M., Tutel'yan V. A. Moscow: DeLi print, 2002. 235 p. (In Russ.) ISBN 5-94343-028-8
6. GOST R 8756.1-2017 Processed products of fruits, vegetables and mushrooms. Methods for determining organoleptic indicators, mass fraction of constituents, net weight or volume (In Russ.).
7. Methodology of the state variety testing of agricultural crops. Moscow, 2019 (In Russ.).
8. GOST 28561-90 Fruit and vegetable processing products. Methods for determining solids or moisture (In Russ.).
9. GOST 8756.13-87 Fruit and vegetable processing products. Methods for the determination of sugars (In Russ.).
10. GOST 7194-81 Fresh potatoes. Acceptance rules and methods for determining quality (In Russ.).
11. GOST 33854-2016 Fresh broccoli. Specifications (In Russ.).
12. GOST 33952-2016 Fresh cauliflower. Specifications (In Russ.).
13. GOST 24556-89 Processed products of fruits and vegetables. Methods for determining vitamin C (In Russ.).
14. GOST 29270-95 Processed products of fruits and vegetables. Methods for the determination of nitrates (In Russ.).
Odintsova Arina A., postgraduate student,
Dunchenko Nina I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
49, Timiryazevskaya str., Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yanchenko Elena V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing - Branch of the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing,
bld. 500, Vereya village, Ramensky district, Moscow region, 140153, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Ryzhakova A. V., Goloviznin I. V.Patterns of consumer behavior when choosing a chocolate bar

P. 75-80 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.015

Key words
patterns, trends, preferences, consumer, taste

The confectionery industry and the chocolate bar market have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the pandemic. The new post-pandemic reality has had a significant impact on the main market players: producers, retailers and, above all, consumers. Producers and retailers were mainly influenced by price volatility of the main raw material for chocolate production (cocoa beans) and logistical problems related to border closures. These two factors had a significant impact on production costs and retail prices. Consumer demand against the backdrop of the pandemic also changed significantly. The dynamics of demand from the start of the pandemic through early 2021 were such that in the first phase consumers were buying in advance through offline and online channels. Then, by the fall of 2021, the situation stabilized, after which the consumer basket of consumers began to correspond to the period before the pandemic in terms of the number of investments in terms of filling, but the value of the basket according to the Romir report decreased due to changes in the income of the population. It is worth noting that the market is still evolving amid ever-changing conditions and market participants are reacting to this. Manufacturers and retailers are optimizing their costs in order to minimize the effect on the final cost of goods and develop their assortment taking into account key market trends. For consumers, changes on the market are related to their ability to purchase the product in the price range that is acceptable for the respective consumer segment, which significantly affects the final cost of chocolate bars on the demand for the product. Changes in market conditions affect consumer perception and behavior in the choice and purchase of goods. Relevance of the work is connected with changing criteria of choice of products in different consumer segments, because not for all categories of buyers the final price of the product is a determining factor in the purchase, because when the price rises, some consumers will change their choice in favor of a lower price segment in order to maintain regular consumption. Another group of consumers will prefer a less regular consumption of the product, but will switch to a higher price segment when buying chocolates.

1. Ryzhakova A. V., Goloviznin I. V. Assessing the current standing of commodity circulation sphere. Vestnik Rossiyskogo ekonomicheskogo universiteta imeni G. V. Plekhanova = Bulletin of Russian Plekhanov University of Economics. 2022;1(121):172-179 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21686/2413-2829-2022-1-172-179.
2. Goloviznin I. V. Production of personalized chocolate bars for targeted categories of consumers. XXXIV Mezhdunarodnie Plekhanovskie chteniya. Sbornik statey aspirantov i molodikh uchenikh na angliyskom yazike = XXXIV International Plekhanov Readings. Collection of articles by graduate students and young scientists in English. Moscow: Russian Plekhanov University of Economic, 2021. P. 31-34 (In Russ.).
3. Ryzhakova A. V., Goloviznin I. V., Goloviznina M. S. Analysis of sustainable practices in modern retail. Obschestvo. Doverie. Riski. Materiali 3-go Mezhdunarodnogo foruma v 3 knigakh = Society. Confidence. Risks. Materials of the 3rd Annual International Forum: in 3 books. Moscow: Russian Plekhanov University of Economics, 2021. P. 344-150 (In Russ.).
4. Goloviznin I. V., Ryzhakova A. V. The role of the main ingredients of chocolate in the formation of its beneficial properties for the consumer. Tovaroved prodovol'stvennykh tovarov = Commodity researcher of food products. 2021;(8):582-587 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.33920/igt-01-2108-04
5. Goloviznin I. V., Ryzhakova A. V. Impact of the "healthy lifestyle" trend on the range of retail (by the example of the category "board chocolate"). XXXIII Mezhdunarodnie Plekhanovskie chteniya. Sbornik statey aspirantov i molodikh uchenikh = XXXIII International Plekhanov Readings. Collection of articles by PhD students and young scientists. Moscow: Russian Plekhanov University of Economics, 2021. P. 179-184 (In Russ.).
6. Ryzhakova A. V., Goloviznin I. V. Competitiveness of russian chocolate bars in the confectionery market. Mezhdunarodnaya torgovlya i torgovaya politica = International trade and trade policy. 2019;2(18):84-96 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21686/2410-7395-2019-2-84-96
7. Trade statistics for international business development (ITC Trade Map) [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: https://www.trademap.org/Index.aspx
8. Nielsen [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: https://www.nielsen.com/ru/
9. Statista [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 30]. URL: https://www.statista.com
10. NeoAnalytics [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: http://www.neoanalytics.ru
11. GFK [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: https://www.gfk.com/ru/home
12. InfoLine [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: https://infoline.spb.ru/
13. Euromonitor International [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 July 29]. URL: https://www.euromonitor.com/analytics
Ryzhakova Alla V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Goloviznin Il'ya V., Postgraduate
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanny lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shcherbakova N. A., Taleysnik M. A., Rudenko O. S., Sharay N. I.Scientific principles for assessing the organoleptic quality indicators of flour confectionery products

P. 81-86 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.016

Key words
flour confectionery, quality indicator, score, cookies, biscuit roll, cupcake, eclair, cake

Sensory characteristics are essential for assessing the quality of any food product and are research in various industries. allowing to reduce the time for examination of product quality, without using lengthy physical and chemical studies. A professional assessment found not only positive taste characteristics, but also manufacturability. When collecting expert analyzes of organoleptic analyzes, conflicting assessments arose, isolated cases were found. and a problem in processing the results of expert measurements, associated with the selection of non-transitive subsets, reflecting the inconsistency of the judgments of the experiments. To obtain information about the information content and a higher assessment of the organoleptic profile, it is necessary to clarify the nomenclature of the indicators of the list of descriptors (quality indicators) and their classification. Analysis of the current regulatory framework of domestic, interstate and specialized products, according to organoleptic assessment, reveals the presence of signs characteristic of confectionery products, which are important food products that are in ever-growing demand among the population, especially among children of preschool and school age. The purpose of this work: the development of scientific research on organoleptic indicators of the quality of flour confectionery products. An analysis of the confectionery market revealed the most massive categories and possible objects of painful confectionery products, covering the largest part of the range of manufactured products available: cookies, biscuit rolls, muffins, eclairs, cakes. The procedure for developing a methodology for assessing the quality of flour confectionery products by organoleptic indicators is proposed. According to the results of the survey among VNIIKP specialists, weight coefficients are estimated, which are numerical sensitivity of the sensitivity of indicators and mass factors when calculating generalized estimates of indicators. The high evaluation score of the results was confirmed by the increased Kendall's concordance coefficient, which showed 0.72. A group of experiments proposed adjustments to the list of organoleptic results compiled on the basis of GOSTs, after which their implementation with a more complete implementation of the characteristics of the product and the pursued goal of descriptive characteristics of individual sensory indicators for each group of flour confectionery products. The development of a sensory analysis sensor for each group of confectionery products, it is necessary to increase the objectivity of the results and identify the influence of sensors on the sensory properties of confectionery products. The proposed method can be compiled both by technologists at enterprises for assessing the quality of products, experts in the field of quality control of confectionery products, and for evaluating competitive products.

1. Zhashkov A. A., Sorokina M. M., D'yakova A. A. Methods of organoleptic control of confectionery taste indicators and its disadvantages. Aktualnaya biotekhnologiya = Current biotechnology. 2014;4(11):10-13 (In Russ.).
2. Safronova T. M., Panchishina E. M. Organoleptic profile of a food product: objectification of the evaluation method. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Pischevaya tekhnologiya = News of universities. Food technology. 2017;4(358):88-91 (In Russ.).
3. Safronova T. M., Panchishina E. M., Kraschenko V. V., Karpenko Yu. V. Evaluation of fish raw materials as a way to increase the informativeness of its characteristics. Tekhnica i tekhnologiya pischevikh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2019;49(4):660-670 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.21603/2074-9414-2019-4-660-670.
4. Kuznetsova T. G., Lazarev A. A., Baburina M. I. Promising methods of organoleptic evaluation of meat products. Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-practicheskaya conferentsiya, posvyaschennaya pamyati V. M. Gorbatova = International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the memory of V. M. Gorbatov. 2016;(1):194-197 (In Russ.).
5. Ruban N. Yu., Reznichenko I. Yu. Descriptive analysis of sensory profiling of a new product for herodietic nutrition. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2022;(2):16-19 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.2.2.003.
6. Nikitina M. A., Kuznetsova T. G., Lazarev A. A., Zakharov A. N. Methodological support and development of a program for processing sensory data obtained using profile-descriptor analysis. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2018;(5):68-73 (In Russ.).
7. Khamkhanova D. N., Sharapova S. M. The concept of "non-transitive subsets" in the processing industries of the agro-industrial complex. Obrazovanie i nauka. Materiali mezhdunarodnoy coferentsii = Education and science. Materials of the national conference. Ulan-Ude, 2019. P. 301-305 (In Russ.).
8. Scherbakova N. A., Gerasimov T. V., Aleshina L. D. Expert assessment of the quality of confectionery products by organoleptic indicators with the exception of non-transitive subsets. Ekologicheskie, geneticheskie, biotekhnologicheskie problemi i ikh reshenie pri proizvodstve i pererabotke produktsii zhivotnovodstva. Materiali Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy conferentsii (posvyaschennoy pamyati academica RAN Sizenko E. I.) = Ecological, genetic, biotechnological problems and their solution in the production and processing of livestock products: materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference (dedicated to the memory of Academician of RAS Sizenko E. I.). Volgograd, 2017. P. 246-248 (In Russ.).
9. Analysis of the market of flour confectionery products in Russia in 2017-2021, forecast for 2022-2026. Market prospects in the context of sanctions [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 February 08] (In Russ.). URL: https://businesstat.ru/catalog/id8186 /
10. Lubenets Yu. V. Alternative coefficient of concordance in the presence of related ranks. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Voronezh State Technical University. 2021;17(1):40-45 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.36622/VSTU.2021.17.1.005.
11. Rodina T. G. Sensory analysis of food products. Uchebnik dlya studentov universitetov = Textbook for university students studying in the specialty "Commodity science and examination of goods" and other technological specialties of the food profile. Moscow: Academy, 2006. 2nd edition. 203 p. (In Russ.)
Scherbakova Natal'ya A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Taleysnik Michail A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Rudenko Oksana S., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Sharay Natal'ya I.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Confectionery Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
20, Elektrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107023, labmki.ru, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Tarasova V. V., Nikolaeva Yu. V., Kon'ko E. A., Tsymbalar' A. A.Trends in approaches to creating modern packaging solutions in the production of individual food products

P. 87-89 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.017

Key words
packaging, food, microencapsulation, food ingredients, dietary supplements

The main conditions for successful sales of food products include not only high quality products and affordable prices, but also reliable, safe and aesthetically attractive packaging. Various materials are currently used to transport, store and identify products - from traditional cardboard and glass to innovative polypropylene with a barrier layer. Progress in technological methods of packaging has made it possible to solve a number of problems facing manufacturers and suppliers of food products: to make the appearance of the product more attractive, to significantly extend its shelf life without losing consumer qualities, and to ensure the convenience of transporting products. Modern packaging technologies include aseptic and vacuum packaging, as well as packaging in a gas-modified environment. For liquid products (juices, dairy and soy products), aseptic packaging technology is most often used. For meat and fish products, vacuum packaging is suitable, and for vegetables and fruits, packaging technology using a gas-modified environment is increasingly being used. One of the modern and popular types of packaging today is the microencapsulation of food products (as individual packaging), as well as the creation of the foundations for the creation and development of the market for food and biologically active additives.

1. Solodovnik V. D. Microencapsulation. Moscow: Chemistry, 1980. 216 p. (In Russ.)
2. Davydov A. B., Solodovnik V. D. Microencapsulation. Encyclopedia of polymers / V. A. Kabanov, editor-in-chief, et al. L.-I. Moscow: Sovetskaya Encyclopediya, 1974. Vol. 2. P. 247-258 (In Russ.).
3. Industrial drug technology / Edited by Professor V. E. Chueshov, et al. Kharkov: MTK-Kniga, NFAU, 2002. Vol. 2. P. 383 (In Russ.).
4. Stepanova E. F., Kim M. E., Murzagulova K. B., Evseeva S. B. Microcapsules: perspectives of use in modern pharmaceutical practice. Sovremennie problemi nauki i obrazovaniya = Modern problems of science and education. 2014;(5) (In Russ.).
5. Chueshov B. I., Gladukh E. V., Saiko I. V. Technology of drugs for industrial production. Textbook for students of universities in 2 parts. Vinnitsa: Novaya kniga, 2014. 696 p. (In Russ.)
6. Pantyukhin A. V. Development of optimal technology and study of the process of microencapsulation of hydrophobic substances. Vestnik VGU. Seriya "Himiya. Biologiya. Farmatsiya" = Bulletin of VSU. Series "Chemistry. Biology. Pharmacia". 2006;(2):338-339 (In Russ.).
Tarasova Veronika V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Nikolaeva Yuliya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kon'ko Elizaveta A., graduate student,
Tsymbalar' Andrey A., graduate student
Russian Biotechnological University (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kirsh I. A., Tveritnikova I. S., Filinskaya Yu. A., Mamontova D. S., Bannikova O. A.Greenwashing in packaging: substitution or reality?

P. 90-93 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.018

Key words
greenwashing, eco-friendly packaging, biodegradable packaging, recyclable packaging, eco-friendly product

Currently, the demand for eco-friendly packaging for food and goods is growing more and more, as well as the naturalness of the product itself. The new trend has led to the development and greater use of biodegradable materials. And also the concept of environmental friendliness is reflected in the packaging design of goods. To date, greenwashing-style packaging has appeared. They do not carry any eco-characteristics, but when looking at such packaging, the consumer gets a different impression. That is, the appearance of environmental friendliness of the product itself is created, although everything may be different. Greenwashing is a marketing ploy when companies spend money on eco-image, but do nothing to reduce the negative impact on the environment. In Russia it is known as green camouflage. In simple words, it is a deception of the consumer, who is ready to overpay for eco-friendly goods, which in fact may not be such. People want to be involved in eco-companies. In addition, it has been insanely fashionable to be "green" lately. Progressive humanity has already learned: garbage must be sorted, go to the store with a string bag and try in every possible way to reduce its carbon footprint. The article describes the history of the origin of the concept of greenwashing, which indicators can indicate greenwashing: labeling, the use of green and non-existent eco-certificates, the inscription "Organic" depicted on the packaging, pseudo-ecological packaging. It is considered what is biodegradable packaging. Some design techniques for creating eco-packaging are considered. As a result, we can say that packaging is one of the important elements in the promotion of goods and brand; companies' claims that their product is environmentally friendly must be supported by evidence; development of eco-design of a new eco-friendly product, firstly, it is the optimal form of packaging for collection and processing after its use, recyclable material, minimum weight, and secondly, the ability to maintain the required properties of the product.

1. Greenwashing and its techniques: how manufacturers manipulate us and create a false image of an eco-friendly brand [Electronic resource]. Theory & practice (In Russ.). URL: https://theoryandpractice.ru/posts/18032-grinvoshing-i-ego-priemy-kak-proizvoditeli- manipuliruyut-nami-i-sozdayut-lozhnyy-obraz-ekologichnogo-brenda.
2. Greenwashing [Electronic resource]. Wonderzine (In Russ.). URL: https://www.wonderzine.com/wonderzine/life/life/241731-greenwashing.
3. What is greenwashing and how to stop it? [Electronic resource]. Agricultural news (In Russ.). URL: https://agri-news.ru/novosti/chto-takoe-grinvoshing-i-kak-ego-ostanovit.html.
4. Eco, bio, organic: how companies manipulate us in the supermarket (with examples) [Electronic resource]. Dzen. URL: https://rb.ru/opinion/eko-lico-vashego-brenda / (In Russ.).
5. Greenwashing: what is it and how to recognize it [Electronic resource]. Natur Product (In Russ.). URL: https://np-mag.ru/dela/otvetstvennyvybor/grinvoshing-chto-eto-i-kak-ego-raspoznat /.
6. The Korean cosmetic brand has released a product in a pseudo-eco-bottle. Photo fact. EcoPolitics(In Russ.). URL: https://ecopolitic.com.ua/news/korejskij-kosmeticheskij-brend-vypustil-sredstvo-v-psevdo-ekobutylke-fotofakt /
7. Greenwashing and its techniques: how manufacturers manipulate us and create a false image of an eco-friendly brand [Electronic resource]. Ecological Union (In Russ.). URL: https://ecounion.ru/press/grinvoshing-i-ego-priemy-kak-proizvoditeli-manipuliruyut-nami-i-sozdayut-lozhnyj-obraz-ekologichnogo-brenda /
8. The eco-face of your brand: how to create an eco-friendly packaging design and not slip into greenwashing [Electronic resource] Zen(In Russ.). URL: https://zen.yandex.ru/media/godno/eko-bio-organik-kak-kompanii-manipuliruiut-nami-v-supermarkete-s-primerami-5eb9876c95fafa 340932d457
Kirsh Irina A., Doctor of Chemical Sciences,
Tveritnikova Izabella S., graduate student,
Filinskaya Yulya A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Mamontova Dar'ya S.,
Bannikova Olga A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University (BIOTECH University),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,

Kochkina N. E., Lukin N. D., Butikova O. A.Study of the structure and properties of films based on starch acetate, low-molecular chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol mixtures

P. 94-99 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.7.7.019

Key words
starch acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, low molecular weight chitosan, films, biodegradability

The development of active polymer films is a modern trend in the polymer materials science. Active film and coating technologies are based on the idea of creating systems which not only protect a sheltered object from the environment, but also have a set of functional (antimicrobial, antioxidant, UV-blocking) properties. The aim of this work was to propose new inexpensive compositions based on a mixture of starch acetate (AcSt), low molecular weight chitosan (LwCh), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for preparation of active biodegradable films that can potentially be used for food packaging, pharmacology, medicine, etc. To this end, the influence of biopolymer concentrations in the mixtures on the structure of the films formed by casting was studied by the X-ray method. The crystallinity degree (Xc) of the samples was calculated. The Xc values increased as the concentration of PVA in the samples decreased. An analysis of the results led to the conclusion that, in these composite systems, LwCh interacts to a greater extent with PVA and, to a lesser extent, with AcSt. The swelling ratios of the films were also evaluated. It was revealed, that the LwCh content in the samples has the greatest effect on this parameter and positively correlates with it. The mechanical properties of the films were tested in accordance with the international standard ASTM D882-18. It was shown that among the studied samples, the films including 18-20 wt% PVA and 20-25 wt% LwCh had the best tensile strength and elongation at break. All the films were found to possess UV-protective properties, and the value of the SPF factor increases with an increase in the LwCh concentration in the materials. An analysis of the film ability to decompose in the soil (according to the international standard ISO 846:1997) showed that all the samples were biodegradable.

1. Prasad P., Kochhar A. Active packaging in food industry: a review. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;8(5):1-7. Doi: 10.9790/2402-08530107.
2. Pirsa S., Sani I. K., Mirtalebi S. S. Nano-biocomposite based color sensors: Investigation of structure, function, and applications in intelligent food packaging. Food Packaging and Shelf Life. 2022;31:100789. Doi: 10.1016/j.fpsl.2021.100789.
3. Colussi R., Halal SLMEl, Pinto V. Z., et al. Acetylation of rice starch in an aqueous medium for use in food. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2015;62:1076-1082. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.01.053.
4. Larotonda F. D. S., Matsui K. S., Paes S. S., et al. Impregnation of kraft paper with cassava-starch acetate - analysis of the tensile strength, water absorption and water vapor permeability. Starch-Staerke. 2003;55:504-510. Doi: 10.1002/star.200300179.
5. Tuovinent L., Peltonen S., Jarvinen K. Drug release from starch-acetate films. Journal of Controlled Release. 2003;91:345-354. Doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(03)00259-1.
6. Liu D., Wei Y., Yao. P., et al. Determination of the degree of acetylation of chitosan by UV spectrophotometry using dual standards. Carbohydrate Research. 2006;341:782-785. Doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2006.01.008.
7. Vilela C., Pinto R. J. B., Coelho J., et al. Bioactive chitosan/ellagic acid films with UV-light protection for active food packaging. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017;73:120-128. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.06.037.
8. Liu N., Chen X. G., Park H. J., et al. Effect of MW and concentration of chitosan on antibacterial activity of Escherichia coli. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2006;64:60-65. Doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.10.028.
9. Escamilla-Garcia M., Reyes-Basurto A., Garcia-Almendarez B. E., et al. Modified starch-chitosan edible films: physicochemical and mechanical characterization. Coatings. 2017;7:224. Doi: 10.3390/coatings7120224.
10. Choo K. W., Lin M., Mustapha A. Chitosan/acetylated starch composite films incorporated with essential oils: physiochemical and antimicrobial properties. Food Bioscience. 2021;43:101287. Doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101287.
11. Jimenez-Regalado E. J., Caicedo C., Fonseca-Garcia A., et al. Preparation and physicochemical properties of modified corn starch-chitosan biodegradable films. Polymers. 2021;13:4431. Doi: org/10.3390/polym13244431.
12. Siddaramaiah, Raj B., Somashekar R. Structure-property relation in polyvinyl alcohol/starch composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2004;91:630-635. Doi: 10.1002/app.13194.
13. Cano A. I., Chafer M., Chiralt A., et al. Physical and microstructural properties of biodegradable films based on pea starch and PVA. Journal of Food Engineering. 2015;167:59-64. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.06.003.
14. Tian H., Yan J., Rajulu A. V., et al. Fabrication and properties of polyvinyl alcohol/starch blend films: Effect of composition and humidity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017;96:518-523. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.12.067.
15. Alexander L. E. X-Ray Diffraction Methods in Polymer Science. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. 582 p.
16. ISO 846. Plastics-evaluation of the action of microorganisms. 1997.
17. AS/NZS 4399:1996. Sun protective clothing - Evaluation and classification. 1996.
18. Nguyen S. V., Lee B. K. PVA/CNC/TiO2 nanocomposite for food-packaging: Improved mechanical, UV/water vapor barrier, and antimicrobial properties. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2022;298:120064. Doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.120064.
19. Popescu M. C., Dogaru B. I., Goanta M., et al. Structural and morphological evaluation of CNC reinforced PVA/Starch biodegradable films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;116:385-393. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.036.
20. Domene-Lopez D., Garcia-Quesada J. C., Martin-Gullon I., et al. Influence of starch composition and molecular weight on physicochemical properties of biodegradable films. Polymers. 2019;11:1084. Doi: 10.3390/polym11071084.
21. Ren L., Yan X., Zhou J., et al. Influence of chitosan concentration on mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch/chitosan films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017;105:1636-1643. Doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.02.008.
22. Rhim J. W., Hong S. I., Park H. M., et al. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based nanocomposite films with antimicrobial activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54:5814-5822. Doi: 10.1021/jf060658h.
23. Liang S., Huang Q., Liu L., et al. Microstructure and molecular interaction in glycerol plasticized chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blending bilms. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 2009;210:832-839. Doi:10.1002/macp.200900053.
24. Tager A. A. Physical Chemistry of Polymers. Moscow: Khimiya, 1968. 536 p. (In Russ.).
25. Chan S. Y., Goh C. F., Lau J. Y., et al. Rice starch thin films as a potential buccal delivery system: Effect of plasticiser and drug loading on drug release profile. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2019;562:203-2011. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.03.044.
26. Larsson M., Johnsson A., Gardebjer S., et al. Swelling and mass transport properties of nanocellulose-HPMC composite films. Materials and Design. 2017;122:414-421. Doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.03.011.
27. Humbert S., Lame O., Saguela R., et al. A re-examination of the elastic modulus dependence on crystallinity in semi-crystalline polymers. Polymers. 2011;52:4899-4909. Doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2011.07.060.
28. Utracki L. A., Wilkie C. A. Polymer Blends Handbook. USA: Springer Reference, Milwaukee, WI, 2014.
29. Surov O. V., Voronova M. I., Rubleva N. V., et al. Cellulose nanocrystals as a compatibilizer for improved miscibility of water-soluble polymer binary blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2019;137(19):48662. Doi: 10.1002/app.48662
30. DIN EN 13432. Requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation - test scheme and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance of packaging. URL: https://www.en-standard.eu.
Kochkina Nataliya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences
G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of RAS,
Ivanovo, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Lukin Nikolay D., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch and Processing of Starch-Containing Raw Materials - Branch of the A. G. Lorch FRC of Potato,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo village, Lyubertsy, Moscow region, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Butikova Olga A., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
A. A. Blagonravov Institute of Machine Science of the RAS,
4, Bardina str., Moscow, 101990, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




The NCMU "Agrotechnologies of the Future" told on the results and plans for the development of the agro-industrial complex

Malting barley for Baltika will grow in 14 regions of Russia

Soy Connects: Results of the VIII International business forum "World Soya"

Research Institute of the confectionery industry in the second quarter of 2023 published three books that might interest you