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Food processing Industry №4/2023


Loose V. V., Beletskiy S. L., Karpov V. I., Khoroshilov A. V., Loose E. E.Export-oriented system of wheat grain clustering according to its intended purpose

P. 6-13 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.001

Key words
wheat, long-term storage, humidity, storage stability, storage potential, processability, storage, purpose, intramolecular moisture, adsorbed moisture, derivatorgaphy

The article analyzes the world market for the production and consumption of wheat grain in 2020-2021 in Russia and abroad. The creation of a new commodity nomenclature of grain, focused on the export production strategy and based on the storage stability of grain, suitability for long-term storage without enzymatic change and loss of quality of the protein-starch complex indicators and preservation of quality, allowing it to be attributed to the declared varieties and types with further use, is justified. It is proposed that this nomenclature, at the first stage, be determined taking into account a representative set of 16 "Critical quality indicators", reflecting the factors affecting the storage stability and functional predisposition of grain. To identify batches of grain with different target suitability, the method of clustering multidimensional objects was used. To develop a clustering methodology, 12 samples of wheat grain were selected, representing the entire range of grain quality characteristics, which were evaluated in two main target categories: "Storage" and "Manufacturability" by summing the rating positions and calculating the target integral rating. Using the method of synchronous thermal analysis on a STA 449 F1 Jupiter (NETZSCH) facility, which allows simultaneous recording of thermal effects and the corresponding changes in the mass of the sample, the structure of grain moisture, the most important physicochemical property for the specified target species and their application, was studied. It is shown that there are three types of moisture in the grain: 1 - weakly adsorbed, free moisture, 2 - strongly adsorbed moisture, bound moisture, 3 - intramolecular moisture. For different types of grain, the mass fraction of this moisture is different. At the same time, intramolecular moisture is contained in a fairly significant amount. Taking into account the danger of reducing the grain storage capacity depending on the amount of intramolecular moisture, it is proposed to form the suitability of grain for long-term storage by reducing the proportion of this moisture to values below the critical ones using a special conditioning process and, on the same basis, separate the grain according to its suitability for conditioning.

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Looze Valeriy V., graduate student,
Karpov Valeriy I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
K. G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of technology and management,
73, Zemlyanoy Val str., Moscow, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Beletskiy Sergey L., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of confectionery industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
20, Electrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107076, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Khoroshilov Andrey V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
N. S. Kurnakov Institute of Organic Chemistry,
31, Leninskiy avenue, Moscow, 119991, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Looze Ekaterina E.
Mozhaisky Palace of Sports,
15, Mira str., Mozhaysk, Moscow region, 141008, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Alekhina N. N., Bakaeva I. A., Borodkina A. S., Feofanova T. M. The effect of food additive on the duration of freezing of semi-finished products and the quality of grain bread

P. 14-18 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.002

Key words
bioactivated wheat grain, dry wheat gluten, increased readiness semi-finished product, grain bread, freezing, quality

In recent years there is a strong demand for frozen semi-finished products, including an increased degree of readiness. They are widely used in the HoReCa chain and mini-bakeries. To ensure a people's healthy diet, it is necessary to expand their range by using non-traditional types of raw materials, including bioactivated grain. It is not enough information about frozen semi-finished products from bioactivated wheat with food additives and bread based on them. The aim of the research was to study the effect of dry wheat gluten on the duration, the speed of freezing of semi-finished products of increased readiness from bioactivated wheat and the quality of grain bread based on them. The objects of the study were semi-finished products of increased readiness from bioactivated wheat with the use of dry wheat gluten and without its use, and bread samples prepared on their basis and without the use of freezing technology. In semi-finished products, researchers determined the duration and speed of freezing in finished products, organoleptic and physico-chemical quality indicators were determined by generally accepted methods, the digestibility of crumb proteins was determined by in vitro method under the action of digestive enzymes (pepsin, trypsin). It was established that the introduction of dry wheat gluten into the grain bread recipe led to an increase in the duration of freezing of the semi-finished product of an increased degree of readiness, to a decrease in the rate of its freezing compared to the corresponding sample without its use. Based on a comparative assessment of the quality of finished products, the advantages of obtaining grain bread based on frozen semi-finished products of increased readiness from bioactivated wheat with the use of dry wheat gluten have been revealed. In addition, the preparation of bread using this method will not only diversify the product range, but also make dietary and functional products more affordable to purchase due to production at enterprises of any capacity, as well as the possibility of further baking at the sale's points.

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Alekhina Nadezhda N., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Bakaeva Irina A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Borodkina Alina S.,
Feofanova Tat'yana M.
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology,
19, Revolution avenue, Voronezh, 394036, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Frolova N. A., Reznichenko I. Yu., Verkhoturov V. V.Investigation of the crystallization process of confectionery fats from palm oil

P. 19-21 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.003

Key words
strawberries, juice drying, microcapsulation, maltodextrin, antioxidant activity

Vegetable fats used in confectionery products to improve organoleptic characteristics to a large extent are characterized by rheological indicators that determine the course of the technological cycle. The main structural components of vegetable fats for confectionery are hazelnut oil, cocoa butter and palm oil. The filling for confectionery products is obtained by mixing two or more hydrogenated and /or refined vegetable fats. The article presents studies of microscopic images of the stages of crystal nucleation and growth during isothermal crystallization of palm oil. It has been established that the growth of palm oil crystals is influenced by three variables: temperature, the rate of molecular dispersion on the crystal surface and the time required for the inclusion of molecules in the growing crystal network. The duration of the growth of crystal "clusters" is determined by the energy of interaction between molecules as a consequence of Brownian motion. In "static" conditions (without mixing), Brownian motion and Van der Waals forces cause collisions and subsequent "sticking" of crystals, which leads to their agglomeration. The study of the crystallization behavior under stationary conditions indicates the structural characteristics of the crystal grid. The process of formation of a crystal lattice of fats used in the confectionery industry begins with polymorphism of crystals from an unstructured mixture of triacylglycerin. Morphological characteristics of confectionery fat based on palm oil were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. A special feature of microscopic examination of fats is the double refraction effect with a highly ordered molecular structure. In order to control the mechanism of formation of the crystal lattice of fat crystals, the samples were crystallized by cooling at a temperature range of 16 ° C±8 °C and were kept in isothermal conditions for up to 12 hours. In the course of the research, the formation of crystal nuclei of the correct shape was established as a result of isothermal crystallization of palm oil at a temperature of 18±2 °C for 4 hours. A change in the temperature range leads to an increase in the crystallization time, which is an important factor in the formation of organoleptic characteristics of semi-finished products for confectionery.

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Frolova Nina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Amur State University,
21, Ignat'evskoe highway, Blagoveshchensk, Amur region, Russia, 675027, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Reznichenko Irina Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy,
5, Markovtseva str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650056,
Verkhoturov Vasiliy V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
Kaliningrad State Technical University,
1, Sovetsky avenue, Kaliningrad, Russia, 236022

Minevich I. E., Abramov D. V., Uschapovskiy V. I., Goncharova A. A.Hydrocolloids of flax seeds and prospects for their industrial production

P. 22-27 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.004

Key words
flax seeds, polysaccharides, food hydrocolloids, functional and technological properties, extraction

Currently, the growing demand for a variety of functional and healthy foods is driving the use of natural ingredients of plant origin. Among a wide range of food ingredients, hydrocolloids are universal processing aids that regulate the structure of food systems. Flax seeds are a promising domestic source of food ingredients, including hydrocolloids. The use of flax seed hydrocolloids is limited by the lack of their industrial production, as well as the lack of information about their functional properties and interaction with food ingredients. The purpose of the work is to obtain flax seed hydrocolloids and assess the prospects for their industrial scaling. The objects of the study were the seeds of oil flax and fiber flax varieties of Russian selection. Polysaccharide products were obtained under laboratory conditions at the FNTs LK (Tver, Russia) and in the experimental workshop of the All-Russian Research Institute of Butter and Cheese Making (VNIIMS) (Uglich, Russia). The extraction of polysaccharides from whole flax seeds was carried out in distilled water at a temperature of 45…50 °C, with constant stirring for 2 h, with varying the hydromodulus in the range of 10-15. Under the conditions of the experimental workshop, after separating the polysaccharide extract from the raw material, it was concentrated using a rotary evaporator to 1/3 of the volume, then subjected to spray drying. Under laboratory conditions, the polysaccharide extract was dried in a thin layer on baking sheets in an oven at a temperature not exceeding 70 °C. The polysaccharide complex was obtained under laboratory conditions by treating the polysaccharide extract with a threefold excess of ethyl or isopropyl alcohol and subsequent drying in an LG Intellowave (MS-1724U) microwave oven at a power of 500 W for 3-4 min. Despite the increase in yield with an increase in the process temperature to 80 °C, such indicators as the color of the polysaccharide complex and the characteristics of the oil contained in the final product deteriorated: the product darkened due to the Maillard reaction, which involves proteins extracted in complex with polysaccharides. The output of the polysaccharide complex was determined for 30 varieties of flax seeds. It was shown that the yield of the polysaccharide complex varied for the studied flax varieties in the range of 2.20-7.25 %. An analysis of the technological parameters of the extraction of mucus polysaccharides from flax seeds revealed that in order to obtain the target product of satisfactory quality, the process should be carried out at a temperature not exceeding 50 °C for no more than 3 hours. in the form of finely dispersed powders, are characterized by high water-retaining capacity - not less than 30 g/g. Linen hydrocolloids are a new product, the introduction of which requires the study of the entire spectrum of their rheological and functional-technological properties.

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Minevich Irina E., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Uschapovskiy Valentin I.,
Goncharova Agata A.
The Federal Research Center for Bust Fiber Crops,
17/56, Komsomolskiy avenue, Tver', Russia, 170041, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Abramov Dmitriy V., Candidate of Biological Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
19, Krasnoarmeyskiy boulevard, Uglich, Yaroslavskiy region, 152613, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Seregin S. N., Karavaeva M. S.Commercial aquaculture in the balance of production and consumption of fish products

P. 28-34 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.005

Key words
production and consumption of aquaculture products, development incentives and barriers to domestic production

The main problems of the modern world are related to the solution of the issues of providing the population with food. Population growth on the planet, increasing inequality leads to growth of the hungry people, who counted today by different estimates up to one billion people. Today, agricultural production resources are not enough to ensure the rational nutrition of the population, aquatic biological resources mined in open water areas are also experiencing a significant shortage. Excessive fishing of aquatic biological resources in marine and freshwater waters leads to their depletion, leaving no long-term hopes for providing future generations with products mined in free natural waters. One of the important alternatives for providing the population of the Earth with fish products has become commercial aquaculture, the production of which is constantly growing in the world. Food products from commercial aquaculture are cheaper in cost than products produced from aquatic biological resources harvested in the open waters of the seas and oceans. The fisheries and aquaculture make a major contribution to food security in many parts of the world, especially where food is most in short supply. Fish farming is one of the sectors that provides and creates new jobs for both men and women. Fresh fish, due to its limited shelf life, is an excellent raw material for industrial processing to produce a wide range of diverse products. The growth of aquaculture production and the extraction of aquatic biological resources creates the necessary conditions for expanding the scale of world trade in these types of products. Russia, being one of the world leaders in capture fisheries production, also has all the necessary arsenal for increasing the production of commercial aquaculture. The provision of state support to this sector of the fishing industry will become the basis for the growth of aquaculture production.

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Seregin Sergey N., Doctor of Economical Science, Professor
All-Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
19, Okruzhnoy lane, Moscow, 105187, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Karavayeva Mariya S., postgraduate
Branch for the Freshwater Fisheries of the Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
40A, Rybnoe, Dmitrovsky district, Moscow region, 141821, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kanochkina M. S. Pichia guilliermondii - a promising type of yeast for the production of biological products with antagonistic, detoxifying, immunomodulatory properties and probiotic potential

P. 35-41 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.006

Key words
biopreparation, Pichia guilliermondii yeast, mannanooligosaccharides (MOS), functional product, stimulation, immunomodulation, growth, anti-inflammatory properties, starter cultures, clinical studies

The purpose of this study was to use analytical methods to assess the prospects of using Pichia guilliermondii yeast culture as a basis for biological products with detoxifying, antagonistic, immunomodulatory properties and probiotic potential. Fifty-nine research publications over the past 20 years (published journal articles, published abstracts and technical reports, patents) were selected by reviewing the literature and searching it using 9 search engines and official databases, as well as applying methods of step-by-step evaluation of literary sources for compliance with the declared direction. Forty-five separate studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in this review. The prospects of using yeast of the Pichia guilliermondii species in the food industry for the production of probiotic biologics and products are shown due to the great potential in improving the organoleptic characteristics of fermented products by producing active flavor compounds. At the same time, yeast cultures should be used as detoxifying components of biological products or biological products for humans and animals. At the same time, data on detoxification properties are systematized and are most likely related to the structure of the Pichia guilliermondii yeast cell and the content of mannanooligosaccharides in it, undesirable metabolic products and heavy metals can be removed into the sediment, can be fixed on the cell surface and accumulate in the cell. Repeatedly confirmed facts of the presence of antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens, salmonella, parasitic diseases, including avian coccidiosis, causing significant economic damage, have been revealed. A correlation has been found between various studies, which allows us to conclude that Pichia guilliermondii yeast has a killer phenomenon, which is defined as the ability of some strains to secrete toxins that are fatal to other sensitive yeasts and mycelial fungi. Systematization and analysis of data from clinical studies and in vitro modeling led to the conclusion that Pichia guilliermondii yeast affects the immune response of animals and body weight gain, demonstrates resistance to 37 °C, pH 2.0 and bile acid salts and survives digestion. Thus, yeast cultures of this type have probiotic potential for use in the manufacture of functional products. Such characteristics in the complex allow us to conclude about the relevance of the development of technologies for the use of Pichia guilliermondii yeast in the food, feed, pharmaceutical and other industries, as well as the feasibility of multi-criteria screening and isolation of new probiotic strains with antagonistic properties.

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Kanochkina Marya S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080
LLC "Microbial Nutrients Immunocorrectors",
2a, office 47, 2nd Likhachevsky lane, Moscow, 125438, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tsugkieva V. B., Tsugkiev B. G. Dzantieva L. B., Tokhtieva L. H., Doev D. N., Shabanova I. A., Datieva B. A.Production of yeast on a nutrient medium from jerusalem artichoke of the Skorospelka variety

P. 42-45 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.007

Key words
substrate, cultivation, yeast, biomass, reducing sugars, jerusalem artichoke, Skorospelka

The possibility of using girasol tubers of the Skorospelka variety as one of the components of the substrate for growing yeast has been studied. The chemical composition of girasol tubers of the Skoropelka variety was determined (dry matter, %, hygroscopic moisture, %, initial moisture, %, raw protein, %, raw fat, %, raw fiber, %, raw ash, %, BEV, %, inulin, %, sugar, g/l). It was revealed that girasol tubers of the Skorospelka variety have a rich chemical composition, and from girasol tubers you can prepare a nutrient medium for yeast production. A culture medium based on girasol tubers was prepared. Samples of girasol plants (tubers) were ground and heat treated. The resulting culture medium filtrate was autoclaved for 30 minutes at 0.5 atm. Yeast was cultured in a fermenter at a temperature of 37 ?Ñ and a medium reaction of 4.5, under continuous aeration. Carbamide was added as nitrogen feed. Dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used for testing. During the culture of yeast, the dynamics of the change in yeast cells and the accumulation of biomass were observed. The dynamics of yeast accumulation based on girasol tubers was studied. The numbers of yeast cells were counted using the Goryaev counting chamber. The presence, or absence, of reducing sugars and total nitrogen in the residual culture medium was studied to analyze its balance with respect to these components. The content of reducing sugars in the nutrient medium during the production of yeast decreased by 3.7 times. The greatest growth activity of yeast cells is observed in the first hours of cultivation, i.e. from 3 to 8 hours. Growth activity occurred in all three generations, resulting in an increase in yeast cell concentration. Yeast cell growth is slowed after 8 hours of culture. The growth of yeast biomass on the nutrient medium from girasol tubers was 21 g/l.. The effectiveness of using girasol tubers of the Skoropelka variety as one of the components of the substrate for growing yeast was revealed.

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Tsugkieva Valentina B., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Tsugkiev Boris G., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Dzantieva Larisa B., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Tokhtieva Larisa H., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Doev Dzambolat N., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Shabanova Irina A., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Datieva Bela A.
Gorsky State Agrarian University,
37, Kirova str., Vladikavkaz, Russia, 362040, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Serba E. M., Sharikov A. Yu., Overchenko M. B., Serba V. V., Rimareva L. V., Ignatova N. I., Mashentseva N. G.Obtaining concentrated enzyme preparations for the conversion of protein and polysaccharides of agricultural raw materials in biotechnological industries

P. 46-50 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.008

Key words
culture liquid, enzyme preparations, protease, ?-amylase, ultrafiltration

The key factor in modern biotechnological production is enzymes of microbial origin, which contribute to the directed regulation of the functional and technological properties of processed raw materials in the preparation of nutrient media for the cultivation of microorganisms - producers of industrially significant products (bioactive peptides, valuable polysaccharides, protein, ethanol, etc.). The growing interest in the development of resource-saving biotechnologies using domestic ingredients confirms the prospects for expanding the production of competitive enzyme preparations, especially for preparations that are sources of proteases and amylases, as they are most in demand in the industry. The solution to this problem is to obtain concentrated forms of enzyme preparations that are resistant to the preservation of enzymatic activity, based on productive and safe industrial strains of microorganisms. The aim of the work was to compare different methods for obtaining concentrated enzyme preparations for the conversion of agricultural raw materials from the culture fluid of the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 011334, a protease and alfa-amylase producer. The article presents a comparative analysis of the level of proteolytic and amylolytic activity in enzyme preparations obtained from the culture liquid of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 011334 by various methods of concentration. It was found that the highest enzymatic activity was contained in the preparations obtained by the method of precipitation of enzymes with ethanol and ultrafiltration. It was shown that with an increase in the degree of concentration of the culture liquid filtrate, the level of activity of proteases and amylases in the ultraconcentrate increased proportionally and decreased in the permeate. The results of studies of changes in the level of proteolytic and amylolytic activity in concentrated enzyme preparations confirmed their stability for 9 months. The data of comparative studies of the level of activity of major and minor enzymes in concentrated preparations of domestic and foreign production are presented. The results of the work indicate the prospects of using the obtained enzyme preparations in biotechnological industries in the preparation of nutrient media for the cultivation of microorganisms - producers of industrially significant products.

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3. Serba E. M., Rimareva L. V., Overchenko M. B., Ignatova N. I., Pogorzhelskaya N. S. The role of biocatalysis in technologies for processing grain raw materials. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2022;(5):13-15 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.5.5.003.
4. Rimareva L. V., Serba E. M., Overchenko M. B., Shelekhova N. V., Ignatova N. I., Pavlova A. A. Enzyme complexes for activating yeast generation and ethanol fermentation. Foods and Raw Materials. 2022;10(1):127-136. DOI: 10.21603/2308-4057-2022-1-127-136
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12. Serba E. M., Overchenko M. B., Rimareva L. V., Pogorzhelskaya N. S., Davydkina V. E., Polyakov V. A. Screening of active populations of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae by the ability to synthesize industrially significant metabolites. Mikologiya i fitopatologiya = Mycology and Phytopathology. 2017;(1):47-53 (In Russ.).
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14. Serba E. M., Sokolova E. N., Borscheva Yu. A., Rimareva L. V., Overchenko M. B. Influence of chemical mutagenase on the physiological characteristics and productivity of the micromycete Aspergillus oryzae. Mikologiya i fitopatologiya = Mycology and Phytopathology. 2018;52(1):49-54 (In Russ.).
15. Rimareva L. V., Serba E. M., Overchenko M. B., Ignatova N. I., Krivova A. Yu., Kurbatova E. I., Sokolova E. N. Multi-purpose use of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae - a producer of a complex of hydrolases for the food industry. Vestnik rossiyskoy selskohozyaystvennoy nauki = Bulletin of the Russian agricultural science. 2018;(5):29-33 (In Russ.).
16. Serba E. M., Overchenko M. B., Ignatova N. I., Sokolova E. N., Kurbatova E. I. Development of national standards for methods for determining the activity of enzyme preparations for the food industry. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2013;(7):40-44 (In Russ.).
17. Serba E. M., Overchenko M. B., Ignatova N. I., Tadzhibova P. Yu., Rimareva L. V. On the issue of quality control of enzyme preparations for the food industry. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2019;(4):87-88 (In Russ.). Doi:10.24411/0235-2486-2019-10044
18. Rimareva L. V., Overchenko M. B., Ignatova N. I., Tadzhibova P. Yu., Serba E. M. Some aspects of the methodology for monitoring the safety, quality and authenticity of enzyme preparations for the food industry. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2022;(4):87-88 (In Russ.).
Serba Elena M., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS, Corresponding Member of RAS,
Sharikov Anton Y., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Overchenko Ìarina B., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Rimareva Lyubov V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS,
Ignatova Nadezhda I.
Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of Federal Research Center of Food, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Serba Victor V., graduate student,
Mashentseva Nataliya G., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of RAS
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Naymushina L. V., Zykova I. D., Kolpakova D. A.Minced meat products with additives vegetable raw materials cruciferous family - brasica rapa l.

P. 51-57 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.009

Key words
vegetable raw materials, cruciferous, turnip (Brasica Rapa L.), meat and vegetable products, functional and technological characteristics, multisensory analysis, "Electronic nose", organoleptic and tasting quality assessment

The introduction of a vegetable ingredient - turnip Brasica Rapa L. (variety Petrovskaya-1) on the functional, technological and rheological characteristics of the cutlet mass and finished chopped meat products was investigated. It is shown that the optimal dose of the introduced vegetable ingredient is 20 wt.%. Recipes of minced meat-containing products with the introduction of 20 wt.% of fresh chopped turnips instead of meat base and 3 wt.% of the complex food additive "RX Plus hot dog" have been developed. It was revealed that the value of the water binding capacity (WBC) of minced meat samples with the introduction of turnips decreased by 9.5 % compared with the control that did not contain vegetable raw materials; with the introduction of a food additive, the values of the WBC of minced meat returned to control. For heat-treated products, the introduction of turnips led to a slight increase in active acidity (from 5.8 to 6.3) and water- and fatbinding capacity (by 1-2 %); the introduction of the ingredient "RX Plus hot dog" minimized the mass loss of finished products by up to 12 %, compared with the control (19 %) or meat-growing products only with turnips (14 %). The study of the cut-off stress index of finished products determined a more "soft biting" of samples with a vegetable additive compared to the control (28,33 H/m2): 15,90 H/m2 - for cutlets with the addition of 20 % turnip and 21,40 Í/m2 - for cutlets with a complex additive "RX Plus hot dog" and 20 wt.% turnip. Conducting a multisensory organoleptic analysis with the "electronic nose" device showed that the introduction of turnips practically does not affect the formation of the aroma of cutlet meat / minced meat, but the smell was significantly enhanced for finished products. The introduction of the additive "RX Plus hot dog", which has good absorbent properties, allowed to reduce the intense smell of finished products with turnips. The nutritional value and the PFC index (ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates) were determined: for samples with the introduction of 20 wt.% of turnips the index was 2.5:1.0:1.0; with the introduction of 20 wt.% of turnips and additives "RX Plus hot dog" - 4.5:1.7:1.0 in comparison with the index for control - 8.5:4.0:1, which allows us to attribute the developed combined products to protein products. The data of the multisensory analysis correlated well with the data of the classical organoleptic and tasting quality assessment, which in general allowed us to conclude about the good consumer properties of the developed combined products enriched with biologically active substances of the Brassica Rapa L. culture.

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Naymushina Liliya V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Zykova Irina D., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kolpakova Dar'ya A.
Siberian Federal University, 79,
Svobodniy avenue, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Byzov V. A., Puchkova T. S., Pikhalo D. M.The Evaluation of Quality Parameters of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers for Processing into Inulin

P. 58-62 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.010

Key words
jerusalem artichoke, inulin, diffusion, extract, dry matter, carbohydrate composition

The researches of the specification of dry solids and carbohydrate composition of different Jerusalem artichoke breeds and hybrids for inulin processing were carried out. The samples of freshly harvested Jerusalem artichoke were cut into chips in the food processor and their dry solids were specified. The inulin extraction was carried out by diffusion of the chips in water under the temperature of 80…85 °C, at water of duty 1:2 and duration of 30 min. The inulin extract was separated by filtration through the filter separator. For impurity removal containing in the extract the pH amount was brought up to 4.5-4.8 by hydrochloric acid and was filtrated. The dry solids and carbohydrate composition was specified in the extract. The dry solids weight ratio extract in the samples was 7.4-8.5 %. The precipitate was rinsed with hot water for the complete removal of soluble substances and was dried at the temperature of 60…105 °C till the constant mass for specifying of insoluble substances. The precipitate was weighed and the insoluble substances were specified in the raw material. It was discovered that the breed Sireniky and the hybrids PBB, PBKR-U, PBK have a high dry solid content (21.6; 22.8 and 24.7 %) and inulin content (91.04; 93.10 and 91.17 %) and meet the requirements to Jerusalem artichoke quality for the processing into inulin. It was determined that the breed Dietary by its dry solids content (26 %) meets the required datum for processing into inulin but the inulin weight ratio is 63.4 % and the amount of mono- and disaccharides is 32.60 %. It was discovered that particularly this breed due to its gustatory quality is offered for eating the tubers fresh and cooked and not for industrial processing. According to the requirements to breeding for processing into inulin the breeds were chosen - Hasting, Sireniky, Shpindel, Interest, The Favourite and Violet De Rennes. The straight-line correlation of inulin content from the dry solids of juice in freshly harvested tubers was discovered with the help of correlation analysis and the express method determination of inulin at the vegetation period was suggested.

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Byzov Vasiliy A., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Puchkova Tat'yana S., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Pikhalo Daniya M.
Russian Research Institute of Starch and Starch-containing Raw Material Processing - Branch of the A. G. Lorkh Federal State Research Center,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo, Lyubertsy district, Moscow region, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kiselev V. M., Kiseleva T. F.Flavored wines: an analytical basis for identification

P. 63-67 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.011

Key words
flavored wines, wine identification, organoleptic evaluation, chemical composition, gas-liquid chromatography, isobutanol, ethyl acetate

The problem of merchandise assessment of taste food products is the most important in terms of establishing their identity with the declared quality. This uniqueness underlies their fair selling proposition and pricing. This is especially true for flavored wines, which are valued by the target audience for their uniqueness and recognition: both in terms of trade name, brand, and place of origin, the totality of their flavor and aroma parameters. When making a purchase at a retail point of sale from buyers, there is no guideline about the presence of specific flavor and aroma parameters in flavored wines, except for the indication on the label of the trademark and the place of origin of the goods. This is often used by unscrupulous producers of this group of wines, endowing their products with false labels, giving them out under world-famous trademarks produced in regions with an undeniable business reputation. In terms of deliveries in the parallel import format, when retail chains do not have the possibility of direct deliveries from legitimate commodity producers, the purchase of a "pig in a poke" is more than likely, and the disappointment of the target consumer group is predetermined. The likely consequences of such uncertainty are quite obvious - the loss of legitimate commodity producers of their impeccable business reputation, the replacement of their trade offer with the proposals of competitors who are able to protect the authenticity of their trade offer due to the absence of restrictions on both supply and traceability of supply chains from third parties. The solution of the indicated problem is possible if the national bodies of commodity examination have effective methodological and hardware support for identifying the trade offer of the designated product group in terms of its authenticity and originality of origin. Previously, we described a methodical approach to solving a similar problem using organoleptic evaluation methods, in this publication we will describe the results of our analytical physicochemical studies of flavored wine samples, uniquely identified for the originality of trademarks and places of origin of goods [1]. The result of these studies was the statement about the possibility of establishing the typicality of flavored wines declared on the labels of the names of trademarks and places of origin of goods. These results, of course, can become the basis of a commodity examination in the customs assessment of flavored wines of world-famous trademarks.

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Kiselev Vladimir M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kiseleva Tat'yana F., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, 650000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M.Currant approaches to assessing the nutritional value of processed products of plant origin (review)

P. 68-74 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.012

Key words
methodology, food products, nutritional value

Plant-based products are the most important components in the daily diet. According to epidemiological studies, their beneficial effect has been demonstrated in relation to the vital activity of many organs and systems of the human body. At the stages of cooking at home or as a result of industrial processing, the nutritional value of individual components of these products can vary significantly. These changes may be positive in some conditions, and negative in others. Modern approaches to assessing the quality indicators of food products are based on the development of methods that determine the authenticity of food nutrients, their chemical composition, structure and digestibility. In this review, these approaches are considered in relation to the main plant groups of macro- and micronutrients, namely, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibers and phytochemical compounds. The amino acid composition and functional properties of proteins are the determining indicators in assessing the nutritional value of proteins. The heat treatment of these products has a significant impact on the composition of sugars and dietary fibers, due to both their losses and degradation. A characteristic feature of recent studies conducted in relation to biologically active compounds such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, carotenoids is the identification and quantification of previously unexplored individual compounds in the context of their use as indicators of nutritional value, as well as the study of their degradation processes during heat treatment and storage. An important aspect is the assessment of the complex antioxidant potential of plant products based on measurements of the level of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. In general, modern research is aimed at studying the indicators of the nutritional value of plant products after all stages of processing and storage, taking into account the bioavailability and bioactivity of macro- and micronutrients.

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Samoylov Artem V.,
Suraeva Natal'ya M., Doctor of Biological Sciences
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkolnaya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Vanina L. V., Yaitskikh A. V., Volkova O. V., Verezhnikova I. A.Establishment of norms for freshness and suitability of semolina according to FAV

P. 75-77 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.013

Key words
semolina, acid number of fat (FAV), complex organoleptic evaluation, storage, freshness rate, shelf life rate

In accordance with GOST 26791-2018 "Grain processing products. Packaging, marking, transportation and storage" expiration dates of grain processing products are established by the manufacturer of products in accordance with the regulatory documents in force in the territory of the state that adopted the standard. At the same time, in GOST 7022-2019 "Semolina. Specifications" to determine the suitability of cereals, the manufacturer is recommended to control the indicator "acid number of fat". However, to date, the standards for safe storage and suitability for FAV for semolina have not been established. As a result, there are no scientifically based storage periods, which does not sufficiently guarantee the preservation of its quality and does not ensure safety during implementation. The current storage periods don't take into account the initial value of the FAV of a grain product, while a grain product with different initial quality can be stored for storage; storage conditions may vary depending on the type of storage, storage area, as well as on the packing and packaging of the product, therefore, when speaking about the safe storage time, it is necessary to take into account the totality of all the effects and conditions created during the storage of grain products. We have established the norms of freshness and suitability in terms of FAV, which will allow us to predict further conditions and expected periods of safe storage. Exceeding the norm of freshness established for cereals indicates the appearance, due to hydrolytic processes, of an unusual smell, taste, and loss of color. Such cereals are not subject to further storage and must be sold before reaching the shelf life. It should be noted that upon reaching the value of FAV equal to the norm of freshness, the organoleptic properties of the final product, porridge, change slightly. However, with a significant increase in the implementation time or under unfavorable storage conditions during the implementation, the FAV values can reach large values and affect the organoleptic properties of the final product - porridge. In this regard, the issue of determining the shelf life of cereals is also relevant. Groats that have a FAV value above the shelf life should not be used for their intended purpose.

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Vanina Lyudmila V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Yaitskikh Artem V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Volkova Ol'ga V.,
Verezhnikova Irina A.
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kryukova, E.V., Berketova, L.V., Goryacheva, E.D., Dariy S.G.Development of the concept of a milk drink using the method of morphological analysis

P. 78-81 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.014

Key words
morphological analysis, dairy product, sensory studies

In conditions of high competition, it is not enough for manufacturers to produce products that meet regulatory requirements. It is necessary to increase the product range and to offer new, original products from the consumer's point of view. The article considers the possibility of using such a heuristic method as morphological analysis in the development of a new food product. This methodology is widely used to solve business problems, in particular, when developing a nomenclature list of products or designing new technical products. The purpose of morphological analysis is to find the most expanded search area for a solution to the problem and to form the most complete set of alternatives, covering all possible ways to solve it. On the basis of morphological analysis, the selection of possible solutions for the development of a new formulation of the milk drink "banana milk" was made. The main elements that describe the basic requirements for this type of product were chosen: color, consistency, aroma, taste, filling and additives. These elements were subsequently systematized and their various combinations were defined. It was established that at least 85 different combinations of ingredients are possible, and, consequently, 85 different formulations of the proposed product. As a result of the analysis of the most promising proposed combinations, the optimal list of basic elements was selected. The most appropriate drink seems to contain the following elements: sweet + liquid + yellow + banana + calcium. The formulation of a milk drink with a banana enriched with the trace element calcium is proposed. Banana as an ingredient in a milkshake has a number of advantages: it does not belong to allergenic products, which is an important factor against the background of increasing food allergies, especially in children; it is rich in trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron); it creates a delicate "full" texture of the drink. Calcium is introduced into the finished product in the form of calcium gluconate (powder), which is well dispersed in milk, and has better digestibility with these ingredients. The chemical composition of the resulting drink and its energy value are calculated.

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Kryukova Elizaveta V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Goryacheva Elena D., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Dariy Sergey G.
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Berketova Lidiya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Oganesyants L. A., Sevost'yanova E. M.Methodical approach to the identification of mineral waters

P. 82-86 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.015

Key words
identification, mineral water, identification indicators, distinguishing features, biologically active components, hydrochemical type, counterfeit

One of the serious problems of our time is the falsification of food products, which fully applies to packaged natural mineral water. The development of the production of packaged natural mineral waters requires a detailed study of their multi-element composition, the development of identification indicators to protect against counterfeit and falsification, as well as a scientifically based methodological approach to identification. The purpose of this work is the scientific substantiation of a methodical approach to the identification of mineral waters of specific names and the development of an identification algorithm based on complex organoleptic, physicochemical and isotopic analyzes of mineral water. The work was carried out by specialists of the direction of mineral and drinking waters of VNIIPBiVP - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems RAS with the participation of Research Center VNIIPBiVP, Moscow. The objects of study were industrially bottled natural mineral waters Essentuki No. 4, various manufacturers, packaged in consumer packaging made of polyethylene terephthalate, glass and an aluminum can (bottled from well No. 71), as well as native water from a well (total 12 samples). Water quality and compliance with established standards were assessed by organoleptic (transparency, color, taste and smell) and physico-chemical parameters (basic composition, mineralization, biologically active components, toxic metals). The indicators were determined according to approved methods registered in the prescribed manner. Analytical studies of the isotope characteristics of water were carried out on a Delta V Plus isotope mass spectrometer with a GasBench II module. A methodical approach to the identification of packaged mineral waters is proposed. A comprehensive analysis of the natural mineral water Essentuki No. 4 was carried out according to organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators, which made it possible to determine the main and additional identification indicators of the mineral water Essentuki No. 4 (well No. 71). It has been established that, according to the chemical composition, the studied water samples belong to medium-mineralized waters (M 8.4-9.6 g/dm3) of the chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium, boron group of waters. According to the content of silicon - to the low-siliceous group of waters. The obtained experimental data made it possible to isolate the falsified sample. To establish the authenticity of packaged mineral water, the accuracy of establishing the identification indicators of both macro- and microcomponents is of great importance, the content standards of which can be set for specific wells based on the results of seasonal monitoring. The identification of packaged mineral water Essentuki No. 4 made it possible to establish the presence of falsification in the studied samples of mineral water Essentuki No. 4 by the discrepancy between some components of the main salt composition and the concentration of biologically active components.

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Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS,
Sevost'yanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Non-Alcoholic and Wine-making Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Lisitsyn A. A., Zhanataev A. K., Chernukha I. M., Durnev A. D.Red beetroot as a source of antigenotoxicants for functional foods

P. 87-94 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.016

Key words
Beetroot, antigenotoxicants, betaine, betanin, functional foods

Genotoxic effects are considered as an important etiopathogenetic factor underlying and/or accompanying diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, severe combined trauma, miscarriage, fertility disorders, oncological, hereditary, cardiovascular, mental, autoimmune and many other diseases. It is almost impossible to avoid contact with genotoxicants. They are widely distributed in the environment and can enter the body with food, air, water, drugs, and also form endogenously as a result of oxidative stress, which is characteristic of a wide range of diseases and borderline conditions. The action of genotoxicants is prevented by antimutagens (antigenotoxicants), which are predominantly natural compounds capable of reducing or completely eliminating the damaging effect of genotoxicants on the genetic structures of cells. The composition of the beet includes a large number of compounds that have shown antigenotoxic properties in the experiment and are generally recognized antimutagens. These are, first of all, vitamins A, C, E and phenolic compounds. However, their content in beets cannot ensure the supply of these antimutagens in the dosages necessary for the manifestation of a protective effect. It has been suggested that osmolyte betaine and the pigment betanin, which are part of beetroot, can claim the role of components providing antimutagenicity of beets. These available compounds can be considered as promising antimutagenic constituents of specially designed functional foods. However, in general, the question of the antimutagenicity of beet, betaine and betanine has not been studied enough. The aim of this work was to review the data on the antigenotoxicity of betaine osmolyte and betanin pigment, the components that are the parts of the beetroot, and to assess the potential for their use. The relevance of research in this direction is emphasized by the availability and prospects for the use of beets, betaine and betanine in the composition of functional foods that preserve health.

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Lisitsyn Artem A., postgraduate student
Russian Biotechnological University (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zhanataev Aliy K., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Durnev Andrey D., Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of RAS
V. V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology,
8, Baltiyskaya str., Moscow, 125315, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Chernukha Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS
Russian Biotechnological University (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080,
V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
26, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Velyamov M. T., Kurasova L. A., Velyamov Sh. M., Sarsenova A. Zh., Tagaeva A. B.Biologically active additive based on a pectin-containing concentrate obtained from sugar beet intended for the production of products with the functional properties of fruits and vegetables

P. 95-99 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.4.4.017

Key words
processing, sugar beet, pectin-containing extract, concentrate

Products obtained from apples, table beets and carrots because of the carbohydrates, vitamins, pectin (0.6-1.1 g per 100 g) and other vital compounds contained in them are very useful in the prevention and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system that favor the process of hematopoiesis, in the treatment of malignant neoplasms, treatment of eye diseases, liver, polyarthritis, disorders of mineral metabolism, intestinal dysbiosis, nephritis, etc. As can be seen, the production of food products with the addition of pectin-containing concentrates extracted from pectin-rich vegetable products (sugar beet pomace, etc.) contributes to the production of products with functional, very useful properties for the body. At the same time, the use of pectin as a biologically active food additive is necessary for the population of Kazakhstan, especially for regions with an increased level of environmental pollution. In this case, one of the most important directions of increasing the efficiency of modern production is a wider involvement in the processing of secondary raw materials. When processing vegetable or fruit and berry raw materials, the logical conclusion of the technological process is the use of waste for the production of pectin, therefore, the development of a resource-saving technology for obtaining pectin-containing extracts using effective technology in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in the CIS countries is very relevant and promising.As a result of the conducted research, optimal technological modes (parameters) have been developed, the technology and technological scheme of deep processing of sugar beet pomace to obtain pectin-containing extracts (concentrates) and studied its nutritional value, physico-chemical and safe indicators. As a result, the suitability of the pectin-containing concentrate for food purposes was established. The development of technology for obtaining biologically valuable products based on deep processing of vegetable products and their introduction, in particular, petin-containing extract, has great social and economic significance, since safe, naturally health-improving products have a beneficial effect on people's health, labor productivity and provide an effective basis for the development and improvement of the state's economy.

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Velyamov Alimzhan T., Academician of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Velyamov Shukhrat M., Doctor of Philosophy,
Kurasova Lyudmila A.,
Sarsenova Aydana Zh.,
Tagayeva Aziza B.
Kazakh Research Institute of Processing and Food industry,
238G, Gagarina str., Almaty, Kazakhstan, 050060, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,




Results of the exhibition "Prodexpo-2023"

Senators held a meeting in RGAU-MSHA named after K.A. Timiryazev