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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №3/2023


Zverev S. V., Polytukha O. V., Korobeynikova M. M. Functional composite cereals of increased nutritional value

P. 6-10 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.001

Key words
multicomponent, cereals, nutrition, glycemic index, chickpeas, beans, protein

Traditional cereals, from the point of view of the concept of adequate nutrition, have a number of disadvantages, in particular, incomplete protein (the minimum score is less than one), an imbalance in the carbohydrate-protein ratio and a high glycemic load (more than 30), which is not recommended for people with impaired metabolic (metabolic) diseases, which in turn lead to excessive weight, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity. In this work, the calculation method determined the possibility of obtaining composite (multicomponent, combined) cereals with an increased content of high-grade protein, a balanced ratio of "carbohydrates-protein" and a reduced glycemic index. Traditional cereals (barley, rice, millet, corn) were considered as the basic component, the protein component was provided by crushed cereals from legumes (lentils, peas, chickpeas, beans), dry jerusalem artichoke allowed to significantly reduce the glycemic load of the mixture. The evaluation of the culinary merits of cereal mixtures was carried out by tasting porridges cooked in water without salt. The results of the tasting showed that the addition of up to 30 % of cereals from lentils, chickpeas and beans does not give the mixtures a bean flavor. Porridge with peas have such a specific taste. The addition of Jerusalem artichoke gives the porridge a weak sweet taste and a legible consistency (when chewing, grains of jerusalem artichoke are felt). The proposed method of combining traditional cereals with crushed cereals from legumes and Jerusalem artichoke makes it possible to obtain multicomponent cereals with the following characteristics: increased content of high-grade protein, balanced ratio of "carbohydrates-protein", functionality. Of interest is such an analogue of Jerusalem artichoke as yacon, which has an even lower glycemic load. Given the technological and recipe flexibility, the process can be significantly simplified and expanded by using extrusion and raw materials in the form of flour.cereals with the following characteristics: functionality, reduced cooking time.

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3. Zverev S. V., Bondarev Yu. V., Glukhova E. V. The use of mixtures based on legume grains in the baking industry. Khleboprodukti = Bread products. 2021;(10):36-40 (In Russ.). Doi: 10.32462/0235-2508-2021-30-10-36-40.
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6. Saibel O. L., Dargaeva T. D., Zelenkov V. N. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a promising source of raw materials for the production of preventive and therapeutic agents. Butlerovskie soobscheniya = Butler's messages. 2017;51(8):58-64 (In Russ.). URL: https://doi.org/10.37952/ROI-jbc-01/17-51-8-58 (accessed 06.11.2022).
7. Romanova H. S., Simakova I. V., Maradudin M. S., Kazydub N. G. Investigation of the amino acid composition of flour from bean seeds of the varieties "Omichka" and "Luker'ya" of the Omsk State Agrarian University. Resursosberegayuschie ecologicheski bezopasnie tekhnologii khraneniya i pererabotki selskokhozyaystvennoy produktsii. Sbornik statey po materialam mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy conferentsii, posvyaschennoy 75-letiyu Kurganskoy oblasti = Resource-saving environmentally safe technologies for storage and processing of agricultural products. Collection of articles based on the materials of the international scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Kurgan region. 2018:281-284 (In Russ.). URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=34911234 (accessed 06.11.2022).
8. Pyr'eva E. A., Safronova A. I. The role of dietary fibers in the nutrition of the population. Voprosi pitaniia = Problems of Nutrition. 2019;88(6):5-11 (In Russ.). Doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10059
Korobeynikova Margarita M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Zverev Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Politykha Olga V.
Russian Research Institute of Grain and its Processing Products - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for food systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ermolin D. V., Zaytsev G. P., Ermolina G. V. Evaluation of the content of iridoid glycosides in the Ajuga chia Schreb. and Ajuga laxmannii L. as a possible plant raw material for the production of biologically active drugs

P. 11-15 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.002

Key words
iridoid glycosides, dietary supplements, anti-inflammatory agent, anticancer effect, HPLC

The purpose of the research: to compare the plant raw materials of the Ajuga chia Schreb. and Ajuga laxmannii L. growing in the Republic of Crimea in terms of the content of iridoid glycosides to assess the possibility of producing biologically active drugs. Research objectives: to study the composition and content of iridoid glycosides, to compare the results obtained with other literature data on biologically active supplements containing iridoid glycosides. The research materials were the above-ground part of the following plants: Ajuga laxmannii L. collected in July 2021 near the village of Perevalnoye of the Republic of Crimea and Ajuga laxmannii L collected in November 2021 in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic of Crimea. The content of iridoid glycosides was determined in water-ethanol extracts (80 vol.%) by HPLC. As a result of the research, it was found that in terms of the quantitative total content of iridoid glycosides, Ajuga chia exceeds that of Ajuga laxmannii by more than 2.5 times. Both plants are similar in qualitative iridoid composition, with the exception of 8-O-(2-hydroxy-cinnamoyl) harpagide, which was identified and determined for the first time in Ajuga laxmannii. Identify 8-O-(2-hydroxycinamoyl) harpagid in the Crimean Ajuga laxmannii and to distinguish it from the most probable harpagoside according to the literature data, the peculiarity of the UV spectra of the standards of cinnamic and o-coumaric acids obtained by us using HPLC study, since the UV spectrum of harpagoside should be more similar to the UV spectrum of cinnamic acid. The total content of iridoid glycosides is 1.27 % and 0.48 % of the dry mass of raw materials in Ajuga chia Schreb. and Ajuga laxmannii L., consistently, commensurate with the most famous raw materials containing iridoid glycosides - the tubers of the Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), where there are up to 1 iridoid substances % dry weight. A review of the literature on these plants and some plants containing iridoid components, as well as our data, gives an optimistic forecast for obtaining biologically active drugs based on Crimea's Ajuga species.

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Ermolin Dmitriy V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Zaytsev Georgiy P., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ermolina Galina V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University,
4, Vernadsky avenue, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, 295007, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kurapova K. F., Smertina E. S., Fedyanina L. N., Lyakh V. A. Justification of the use of Eleutherococcus prickly in the production of new bread

P. 16-19 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.003

Key words
Eleutherococcus prickly, bread, minerals, adaptogen

The research is devoted to the development of a new bread with the use of Eleutherococcus prickly. The results of the study of the possibility of using non-traditional vegetable raw materials in baking are presented. When choosing eleutherococcus, the following criteria were followed: the plant has a unique chemical composition; it is widespread in the Russian Federation in the Far East; it has significant reserves of raw materials. Considering this fact, manufacturers are expanding the range of products with Eleutherococcus: lactic acid products; beverages; dry beverage concentrate; soft cheeses; confectionery; herbal tea; meat products; alcoholic beverages; soy sauce. Experimental work was carried out in the laboratory of the basic Department of Bioeconomics and Food Security of the Advanced Engineering School "Institute of Biotechnology, Bioengineering and Food Systems" of the Far Eastern Federal University. Experimental samples of bakery products have been developed: control - without the addition of eleutherococcus, and experimental samples with eleutherococcus content: 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 % by weight of flour. The effectiveness of the vegetable additive in the composition of the bread recipe is shown and its effect on the consumer properties of the finished product is investigated. The obtained results of organoleptic and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of the new bakery product indicate positive dynamics. Experiments have shown that Eleutherococcus prickly allows you to enrich the developed product with important mineral components, such as iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium, the content of which satisfies the daily requirement from 18 to 82 %. Research in the field of the development of new bread with the introduction of eleutherococcus, allows you to obtain products that favor the optimization of the diet of the population, which absolutely meets the ND: "Strategies for improving the quality of food products in the Russian Federation until 2030" and "Strategies for the formation of a healthy lifestyle of the population, prevention and control of non-communicable diseases for the period up to 2025". The developed product can be recommended for use in the diet of the adult population. The data obtained substantiate the importance of developing a new bread made from wheat flour with the introduction of crushed eleutherococcus.

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Kurapova Kristina F., graduate student,
Smertina Elena S., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Fedyanina Lyudmila N., Doctor of Medical Sciences,
Lyakh Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Far Eastern Federal University,
10, Ajax, Russian Island, Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, 690922, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kuz'mina E. I., Egorova O. S., Akbulatova D. R., Rozina L. I. Phenolic compounds of apples and their influence on the quality characteristics of cider

P. 20-25 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.004

Key words
cider, physico-chemical composition, polyphenolic compounds, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, dihydrohalcones, organoleptic characteristics

Currently, there are many ways to prepare cider, which largely depend on traditions, consumer preferences, seasonality and peculiarities of the legislation of a particular country. The use of special technical varieties of apples in the cider's production contributes to the formation of specific organoleptic characteristics of the drink. The main criteria for the chemical composition of apples used for the production of cider are the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. It is noted that the content and composition of polyphenols play an important role in the formation of color, astringency, bitterness and colloidal stability of ciders. This article provides an overview of the main classes of polyphenolic compounds characteristic of apples and changes in their content during the production of cider. The main representatives of hydroxycoric acids, the most common group of polyphenols of apple husks, are chlorogenic and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids. High concentrations of hydroxycoric acids can slow down the rate of fermentation and affect the formation of the aroma of ready-made ciders. Flavan-3-ols found in ciders are represented by catechin and epicatechin, as well as proanthocyanidins. Flavan-3-ola polymers are responsible for the specific bitter taste and tartness of cider. Floridzin (floretin glucoside) and floretin 2'-O-xyloglucoside belong to the main representatives of the dihydrochalcone class, which may account for up to 40% of the total number of polyphenolic compounds in ciders. The color of most ciders is due to the oxidation of flavan-3-ols, chlorogenic acid and floridzine under the action of polyphenol oxidase enzymes. At the same time, the concentration of some colored products formed as a result of oxidation reactions or condensation of phenolic compounds may decrease as a result of adsorption by yeast during fermentation. During the aging and storage of ciders, various biochemical transformations of polyphenolic compounds also occur, including those caused by the processes of oxidation, condensation and polymerization. Which, in turn, can influence the change in the quality characteristics of ciders.


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Kuz'mina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Egorova Olesya S.,
Akbulatova Dilyara R.,
Rozina Larisa I., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zverev S. V., Politukha O. V., Begeulov M. Sh., Bayda I. D., Merkur'ev N. V., Temirbekova, S. K. Afanas'eva Yu. V. Groats from new varieties of ancient types of wheat

P. 26-30 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.005

Key words
spelled wheat, turgid wheat, varieties, processing, groats

Spelled wheat (T. Spelta L.) is an ancient species that has almost disappeared from cultivation. Now it is cultivated in limited quantities in Astoria (Spain), Bavaria (Germany), Austria, Switzerland and Belgium. Spelled is one of the most ancient grain crops associated with the Sumerian, Babylonian, ancient Jewish and ancient Greek civilizations. Interest in spelt and spelt is growing as an environmentally friendly species that surpasses common wheat in world agriculture in terms of protein, fiber, B vitamins and minerals. At present, in the countries of Western Europe and the USA, interest in filmy wheat - spelled and spelled has increased. Evidence has emerged that their use in food reduces the risk of cardiovascular and some cancers, which is explained by the higher content of fiber in it than in flour of other types of wheat. The technological characteristics of spelled varieties Runo, Gremme, Gremme 2U, spelled variety Alkoran and promising variety Znamenie, durum wheat variety Pobeda 70 and turgid wheat variety Kanysh were determined. The possibility of their use in the production of whole and crushed cereals obtained by abrasive grinding is evaluated. It is obvious that with an increase in the grinding time, as the surface layer is removed, the flour yield will increase and, accordingly, the grit yield will decrease. The indicators are significantly affected by the vitreousness of the grain - the higher it is, the greater the yield of whole and crushed cereals. The indicators of the yield of whole and crushed cereals from the spelled grain of the Gremme 2U variety are comparable with those of the Gremme variety and turgid wheat of the Kanysh variety and are superior to other studied varieties. Laboratory tests of spelled varieties Alkoran, Znameniye (chaffy), spelled Gremme 2 U, on the expediency of their use in cereal production showed a clear superiority of the variety Gremme 2 U, over the Runo spelled variety previously included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements, as well as the spelled variety Alkoran and promising variety sample Znamenie.

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Zverev Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Politukha Olga V.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Begeulov Marat Sh., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Bayda Ivan D.,
Merkur'ev Nikolay V.
Russian State Agrarian University - K. A. Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy,
49, Timiryazevskaya str., Moscow, 141434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Temirbekova Sulukhan K., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology,
village 5, Institute str., Bolshie Vyazemi, Odintsovo district, Moscow region, 143050, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Afanas'eva Yuliya V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal Horticultural Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery,
4, Zagor'evskaya str., Moscow, 115598, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu., Shterman V. S., Sidorenko Yu. I. Athletes need sulfur: nutraceutical methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

P. 31-35 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.006

Key words
sports nutrition, nutraceuticals, sulfur, methylsulfonylmethane, musculoskeletal system, arthritis, oxidative stress, antioxidants, anti-allergens, hair, skin, nails

Sulfur is one of the most important biogenic, i. e. elements involved in human life. When a sulfur deficiency is formed in the body, the joints begin to "creak" and hurt, the skin ages, hair falls out, and many vital functions and body systems begin to fail. In recent years, there has been a great interest in nutraceuticals, food products and dietary supplements, which allow you to adjust the chemical composition of food and provide the human body with the necessary amount of macro- and microelements. One of these nutraceuticals, which can be a bioavailable source of sulfur, is the compound named - methylsulfonylmethane. MSM is its international English abbreviation. MSM is a natural compound found in a large group of vegetables and fruits, in the body of animals, including humans, in cow's milk, cereals, tea, coffee, beer and wine. The aim of the work was to assess the prospects of using MSM in sports nutrition and to identify the main directions of its application to solve the problems that athletes face. The work found that taking MSM as a biologically active food supplement for arthritis, sprains of tendons, ligaments and other injuries of the musculoskeletal system of athletes provides relief from pain, improves joint flexibility, reduces their swelling and leads to the restoration of collagen synthesis in these organs. and connective tissues. MSM contributes to the preservation of cartilage, which is one of the key elements of the joints that ensure their normal functioning. MSM also reduces the destruction of muscle tissue, for example, after a long run, and accordingly reduces the resulting pain, reduces overall fatigue after intense training and competition, maintains a cheerful mood and energy, and also accelerates the recovery process after eccentric physical exertion. Within the framework of the concept of "beauty from within", which has gained popularity in recent years, i. e. use of food and nutraceuticals for cosmetic purposes, MSM has been shown to improve skin, hair and nails. The paper concludes that MSM can be considered as a promising tool for the prevention and recovery after many types of disorders of the body of athletes, including those associated with elite sports. It also makes it possible to positively influence the increase in the external attractiveness of a person, regardless of his age.

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Shterman Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Sidorenko Mikhail Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shterman Valeriy S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Sidorenko Yuriy I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
1, Obolenskoe highway, Obolensk village, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142279, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Looze V. V., Beletskiy S. L. Study of conditions for long-term storage of food products in permafrost on the Taimyr peninsula

P. 36-41 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.007

Key words
long-term storage, permafrost, testing, packaging, quality, safety, Arctic, food preservation, temperature, relative humidity, microclimatic storage conditions, long-term storage nomenclature, autonomous container, permafrost, remote control

The article describes the history of the organization of a "native experiment" for the long-term storage of food products, begun in 1900 on the western coast of the Taimyr Peninsula, by the first Russian polar expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the leadership of the geologist and geographer Eduard Vasilyevich Toll. The main tasks of scientific work on the study of physicochemical and organoleptic quality indicators of food and industrial products during long-term storage in conditions of unregulated negative temperatures in the permafrost of the Arctic zone of Russia are presented. A historical note is given on the course of a scientific experiment from the moment the warehouse was discovered in 1973 to the present. The technical data and settings of the highly economical two-channel autonomous loggers of TR-5L thermometers used for measuring storage conditions since 2010 are indicated. The results of studies of temperature and relative air humidity indicators inside containers with food products placed in permafrost at a depth of 0.5 meters for long-term storage at Cape Depot of the Taimyr Peninsula are presented. Statistical processing and analysis of temperature and relative humidity values in the storage facility for the periods of 2010-2016 and 2016-2022 was carried out. The dynamics to the general increase in temperature both in summer and in winter months is revealed. Analysis of the humidity of storage conditions made it possible to determine that the absolute humidity of the air decreased from 1.5 g/m3 at the time of laying the product to 0.1 g/m3 during the initial cooling process and then had an upward trend, reaching a maximum value of 5 g/m3 in 2022. The reasons for the increase in moisture content, as well as the divergence of the process of increasing the relative humidity of the air in the upper and lower parts to the antiphase mode, are revealed. The depth of the new repository was determined based on the results of thermal imaging of the exposed soil. The possibilities for analyzing the storage conditions of products in permafrost on the Taimyr Peninsula in the next observation period of 2022-2027 have been expanded due to the installation of an additional logger. The results of the work performed in the framework of the experiment are summed up. It is proposed to develop the technology of compact long-term storage by designing computerized chests and expand the experiment in terms of increasing the volume of stored products when placed in the mines of "permafrost" in the Arctic.

1. Shparo D. I., Semenova A. A., Rogova A. N. Permafrost guards the quality of products (from Eduard Toll's expedition to the future). Istoriya, rezultati i perspective unicalnogo experimenta po dlitelnomu khraneniyu pischevikh produktov v usloviyakh vechnoy merzloti = History, results and prospects of a unique experiment on long-term storage of food products in permafrost conditions / edited by A. B. Lisitsyn, D. Yu. Gogin. Moscow: Editorial Service, 2011. 222 p.
2. Shparo D. I., Semenova A. A., Beletsky S. L. Permafrost guards the quality of products. (Treasure of Eduard Toll). Istoriya, rezultati i perspective unicalnogo experimenta po dlitelnomu khraneniyu pischevikh produktov v usloviyakh vechnoy merzloti = History, results and prospects of a unique experiment on long-term storage of food products in permafrost conditions. Moscow: Paulsen, 2021. 248 p.
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Looze Valeriy V.
Scientific Research Institute of storage problems (of the Federal Reserve),
40, bld. 1, Volochaevskaya str., Moscow, 113033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Beletskiy Sergey L.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of confectionery industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
20, Electrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107076, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Boyarineva I. V., Zambalova L. A., Kachanina L. A. Stydy of extracellular metabolites, produced by a microbial consortium based on lactic and propionic acid bacteria

P. 42-45 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.008

Key words
lactic acid microorganisms, propionic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant protection, antimutagenic properties

Recent studies of the relationship between the macroorganism and its normal intestinal microbiota convincingly prove that the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the formation and functioning of organs and systems with the help of unique mechanisms for the synthesis of metabolites, enzymes, vitamins, biologically active substances. Microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract form colonization resistance against opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms due to the formation of such metabolites as short-chain fatty acids, hydrogen peroxide, histamine, and others, reducing bacterial toxins. The beneficial properties of lactic acid microorganisms and probiotic cultures for human health are being actively studied. The positive effects of normal intestinal microflora and probiotics are mainly due to bifidobacteria and lactobacillus. It should be noted that propionic acid bacteria, unlike other probiotic microorganisms, are capable of producing metabiotics with different mechanisms of action, antimutagenic and antioxidant substances, bacteriocins, are technologically advanced and easily survive in the aggressive environment of the gastrointestinal tract. On the basis of propionic acid bacteria, it is possible to create new effective probiotic fermented milk products. Lactic acid and propionic acid microorganisms comprehensively perform an immunomodulatory function and have high antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms. When co-culturing, based on biocompatibility, strains of propionic acid bacteria and microflora of kefir fungal starter culture, active production of metabiotics is observed. The article presents the results of studying the exopolysaccharide potential and biochemical activity of a consortium of kefir fungal starter culture and propionic acid bacteria. Co-cultivation of lactic acid and propionic acid bacteria makes it possible to increase the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and form symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and improve their rheological properties. A high antioxidant protection of propionic acid bacteria due to the activation of SOD and catalase enzymes has been established, which ensures their active growth when co-cultivated with kefir fungal sourdough under aerobic conditions. It was revealed that a consortium based on kefir fungal starter and propionic acid bacteria has a high antimutagenic activity.

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Boyarineva Irina V., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Far Eastern Federal University,
10, Ajax village, Russian island, Vladivostok, Russia, 690922, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zambalova Natal'ya A., Candidate of Economic Sciences,
Kachanina Ludmila M., Candidate of Technical Sciences
East-Siberian State University of Technology and Management,
40, Kluchevskaya str., Ulan-Ude, Russia, 670013, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tomgorova S. M. Trofimchenko V. A. Selection of yeast race for fermentation of fruit raw materials

P. 46-51 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.009

Key words
fruit raw materials, pulp of cherries, raspberries, black currants, yeast races, fermentation, strength, concentration of volatile components

Fermentation is the main process in the production of fruit distillates. It determines the quality of the finished product. The aim of the work was to identify the influence of the type of yeast races on the content of volatile components of fermented fruit pulp. Samples of pulp from cherries, raspberries and black currants, as well as yeast races: "K-72", "Cherry-33", "Raspberry-10", "Blackcurrant-7", "SIHA Aktivhefe-3" were used as objects of research in the work. The volume fraction of ethyl alcohol in was determined according to GOST 32095-2013, the composition and concentration of the main volatile components by gas chromatography. The dependence between the concentration of individual groups of pectin substances and the pectolytic ability of the studied types of fruit raw materials and the content of methanol in the samples of fermented pulp was revealed. The maximum content of methanol, regardless of the type of raw material, was characterized by samples of fermented fruit pulp obtained using yeast of the K-72 race. Of the listed types of raw materials, the highest concentration of methanol was detected in samples from black currant. The minimum content of acetaldehyde, which worsens the organoleptic characteristics of fruit distillates and alcoholic beverages based on them, was found in samples of fermented cherry pulp. Higher alcohols depended more on the race of yeast used than on the type of fruit raw materials. Calculation of the ratio "mass concentration of 1-propanol / sum of isobutanol and isoamylene" for all types of fruit raw materials showed that the optimal value of this indicator in samples obtained using dry yeast SIHA Aktivhefe-3 or yeast of the same race. The results obtained will allow domestic producers of alcoholic beverages based on fruit raw materials to regulate the processes occurring at the stage of fermentation, which will contribute to improving the safety of manufactured products and improving its taste and aroma characteristics.

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Tomgorova Svetlana M., Candidate of Engineering Sciences,
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Engineering Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Maksimova S. N., Poleschuk D. V., Podlenniy L. Yu., Kalinina N. S., Volkov V. V., Goryacheva E. D. Production of a biologically valuable proteins from caviar production waste by their biomodification

P. 52-55 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.010

Key words
caviar production, by-products, proteins, enzymatic hydrolysis, enzyme preparation, hydrolyzate, biological value, low molecular weight peptides

The relevance of the use of collagen-containing fish by-products for the production of valuable protein products is substantiated in this article. Presence of low molecular weight peptides under 10 kDa with high biological activity and opportunity of their production from hydrobionts processing by-products are shown. The rationality of the use of enzymatic hydrolysis with specific proteolytic enzymes under controlled conditions and the advantages of enzymatic hydrolysis allowing maximum preservation of the biologically valuable potential of aquatic biological resources in the final products have been proven. The results of the analytical and experimental studies on the justification of the use of enzymatic treatment with the use of the industrial enzyme Protamex in relation to caviar production by-products generated during the punching of ovaries of salmon species are presented. Rational technological parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis have been established: temperature 55 °Ñ, enzyme concentration 0.5 %, hydromodulus 1:0.5, duration 30 minutes. Method for protein hydrolysate powder production is described. It consists of fine grinding of the by-products, enzymatic processing of the mass in the presence of the enzyme Protamex, inactivation of the enzyme at 80 °C during 15 minutes, separation of the mixture into two fractions after centrifugation in a separating funnel, freeze-drying of the water-soluble protein fraction. Protein hydrolysate powder has high protein content (77.9 %). According to the tests results the amino acid composition the proteins have high biological value due to the high content of certain essential amino acids: lysine, threonine, methionine with cysteine and tyrosine with phenylalanine. According to the results of the protein molecular weight distribution tests by high performance liquid chromatography the content of the biologically active low molecular weight peptides with a molecular weight under 10 kDa in hydrolyzate is about 37 %. Based on the results the protein hydrolysate made from the caviar processing by-products generated in significant quantities at industrial enterprises processing Pacific salmon fish species during the punching of ovaries has high biological value and the prospects for its industrial production.

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Maksimova Svetlana N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Poleschuk Denis V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Podlenniy Lev Yu., graduate student
Far Eastern State Technical fisheries university,
25, Svetlanskaya str., Vladivostok, 690091, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kalinina Natal'ya S., head of laboratory
Volkov Vladimir V., Director of the Center for Advanced Technologies in the Use of Proteins
Kaliningrad State Technical University,
1, Sovetskiy avenue, Kaliningrad, 236022, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Goryacheva Elena D., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Smirnova J.A., Kupaeva N.V., Kotenkova E.A. Study on cellular antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of red, yellow and white onion husks

P. 56-61 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.011

Key words
free radical oxidation, antioxidants, HT-29, fluorimetry

Methodological approaches with cell cultures application are an intermediate stage between in vivo and in vitro studies, allowing to determine the antioxidant activity, which takes into account the distribution of antioxidants, partly their metabolism and the effect on the resistance of the cellular system to the impact of artificially added free radicals. The aim of the study was to assess the cellular antioxidant activity of red, yellow and white onions husks. To prepare ethanolic extracts of onion husks, a chopped sample was mixed with 70 % ethanol in a ratio of 1:15 (g:ml) and infused at a temperature of 22±2 °Ñ within 24 hours. The intensity of free radical oxidation and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of ethanolic extracts of red, yellow and white onion husks were evaluated using a HT-29 cell line on the Fluoroskan Ascent FL (TermoLabsystems, Finland). It has been shown that incubation time and dilution have a significant effect on the percentage of free radical oxidation. When analyzing the CAA, it was also noted that dilution increase led to gradually decrease of % CAA, but at diluting by more than 87 times the % CAA values for white onions were below the detection limit, an increase in dilution up to 127 times led to a sharp decrease in % CAA of red onion extract, and for yellow onions only at diluting by 167 times % CAA dropped below the detection limit. The CAA values expressed in quercetin equivalent for red and yellow onion husk extracts were 132.8±28.5 and 137.8±28.1 ?mol-equiv. Q / g of raw materials, respectively, differing from the value of white onions by 4-fold approximately (P<0.05). The intensity of free radical oxidation and cellular antioxidant activity changed more smoothly with increasing dilution for red and yellow onion husk extracts. The obtained results indicate that the antioxidants of red and yellow onions husks have shown high efficiency in the model bio-test system, which allows them to be considered as promising raw materials for use in various applied fields.

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Smirnova Yutta A.
V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
26, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316,
D. I. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia,
9, Miusskaya square, Moscow, 125047, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kupaeva Nadezhda V., graduate student,
Kotenkova Elena A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
26, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Dement'eva N. V., Boytsova T. M., Bokov A. A., Shadova D. O., Kolesnikova O. A., Avramenko V. S. Study of the quality of low-salted delicacy products from sockeye salmon without preservatives using herbal supplements

P. 62-66 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.012

Key words
sockeye salmon fillet, salting, phyto-components, technology, quality

Getting salted products from their Pacific salmon fish is a traditional way of processing them. The production of low-salted fish currently dominates the world market. The production of such products causes difficulties in maintaining its quality during storage. In fish with a low salt content (3-5%), discoloration of muscle tissue, a weakening of the consistency, and the rapid development of microbiological spoilage of the finished product can occur. In the production of lightly salted products from salmon, frozen fish is used as a raw material, since fresh fish in most cases contains parasites dangerous to humans. Freezing raw materials contributes to the death of dangerous parasites and microorganisms, therefore, with the help of it, it is possible to stabilize the quality of both frozen and low-salted sockeye salmon products. At the same time, to reduce the need for the use of preservatives in the technology for the production of low-salted products, it is possible to use a mixture of plant phyto-components, such as bay leaf, black pepper, chili pepper, dill, garlic, lemon, etc. Plant raw materials are rich in biologically active substances that have antiseptic, fungicidal, antioxidant effect. For the pronounced multifunctionality, plant components are classified as barriers of complex action. The purpose of this work is to study the quality of low-salted gourmet products from sockeye salmon without preservatives using herbal supplements. According to the results of the totality of the studied indicators (organoleptic, physicochemical, mycological), the recommended shelf life of low-salted fillet with spices is 8 months (244 days). The novelty of scientific research is substantiated by the possibility of producing low-salted sockeye salmon fillets without the use of preservatives. Barrier properties are performed by vegetable components for deboning fillets, freezing and low-temperature storage. The guaranteed death of parasites in sockeye salmon is determined by the freezing and refrigeration storage of raw materials until delivery to consumers and until the release of low-salted products. When combining the process of defrosting and ripening of salty products, it is necessary to control the temperature and duration of the process. The recommended mode is temperature minus 2-0 °C for 4 days.

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Dement'eva Natal'ya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Boytsova Tat'yana M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Shadova Dar'ya O., undergraduate,
Kolesnikova Olga A.,
Avramenko Vladislav S.
Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University,
52B, Lugovaya str., Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, 690087, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Bokov Andrey A., Head of Technology Department
1, Nikolaevka village, Elizovsky district, Kamchatsky krai, 684032

Guseva T. B., Soldatova S. Yu., Karan'yan O. M. The effect of freezing on the change in the quality characteristics of common carp meat

P. 67-69 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.013

Key words
fish, freezing, common carp, rheology, histology, active acidity, acid number, peroxide number

Refrigeration treatment of fish, in particular freezing, is an effective method of canning. However, in terms of organoleptic characteristics and value for the production of fish products, frozen fish is inferior to fresh or chilled. To date, there are no simple and accessible control methods to determine that the products have been frozen. Therefore, the problem of identifying differences between chilled and re-frozen fish by available analytical methods is of significant practical interest. The aim of the study was to study the changes occurring in fish meat during its single and double freezing. The meat of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), chilled, frozen and re-frozen, was used as the object of the study. The physicochemical parameters of meat (mass fraction of moisture, moisture-retaining capacity, active acidity, acid number, peroxide number, mass fraction of protein) and its rheological properties (elasticity, deformation) were selected for control. Histological characteristics of muscle tissue during single and repeated freezing were also studied. It is shown that repeated freezing of fish is accompanied by an increase in biochemical parameters characterizing the safety of lipid and protein fractions. These data correlate with the results of rheological tests and deformation characteristics of fish: general, plastic and elastic deformation. When determining the deformation characteristics, a significant decrease in the elasticity of fish meat after freezing was noted. Repeated freezing led to a less significant change in elasticity. Histological studies have shown that changes in the microstructure of the muscle tissue of fish can also serve as a confirmation sign of repeated freezing of fish raw materials. Thus, it can be stated that there are critical indicators that make it possible to distinguish chilled fish from thawed fish and identify the fact of repeated freezing. In complex and controversial cases, a comprehensive study with the use of physico-chemical and histological methods, and the determination of indicators that directly or indirectly reflect destructive processes in fish raw materials, gives greater objectivity to the results.

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Guseva Tat'yana B., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Soldatova Svetlana Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Karan'yan Olga M., Chief Specialist of food products expertise of the Department of food products
Research Institute for Storage Problems of the Federal Reserve,
40, bld. 1, Volochayevskaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Moiseeva A. A., Andrievskaya D. V., Uljanova E. V., Zaharova V. A. Methodology for assessing the quality of raw wine materials for red sparkling wines

P. 70-75 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.014

Key words
red sparkling wines, dry wine materials, physico-chemical indicators, quality assessment, methodology, evaluation algorithm

Improving the quality and competitiveness of red sparkling wines is one of the priority areas of scientific research. The purpose of this work was to create a methodology for evaluating wine materials for the production of red sparkling wines based on a comprehensive study of their quality indicators and the impact of the latter on the quality of the finished product. The objects of the study were samples of industrial red dry wine materials (varietal and blended) obtained from the leading wineries of Krasnodar and Stavropol Krai in 2019-2022, as well as experimental samples of red sparkling wines made according to classical technology by the bottle method, including in laboratory conditions. The purpose of the methodology is an objective assessment of the suitability of a particular batch of dry red wine material for the production of sparkling wine. The basic principle underlying the methodology is the complex application of methods for assessing the quality characteristics of both raw wine materials and finished red sparkling wines. When developing the methodology, a scheme was used that provides for a number of successive stages - from the formulation of the problem to the development of an algorithm for assessing the quality indicators of the initial wine materials intended for the production of red sparkling wines, which includes: organoleptic evaluation of wine materials, control of physico-chemical indicators established in GOST 33336-2015, as well as determining the values of additional physico-chemical indicators. The use of the developed evaluation algorithm in production practice will allow more carefully selecting wine materials for red sparkling wines, thereby contributing to improving the quality of the final product. The analysis of the literature data and the results of the study of the quality indicators of wine materials and sparkling wines obtained from them made it possible to identify additional indicators that directly affect the quality of the finished product, to determine the limits of their variation. The results of mathematical processing showed the highest correlation between the organoleptic evaluation of red sparkling wine and the following indicators: the mass concentration of carbonyl compounds, glycerin, ammonia nitrogen, the ratio alcohol/glycerin, the content of higher alcohols, the proportion of polyphenols in the composition of phenolic substances, color intensity, color shade, the proportion of lactic acid in the composition of free organic acids and the value of the redox potential.

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Moiseeva Alexandra A.,
Andrievskaya Dar'ya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ul'yanova Ekaterina V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Zakharova Varvara A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
Moscow, 7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Meleshkina E. P., Vanina L. V., Zhiltsova N. S., Kolomiets S. N. Comprehensive organoleptic scoring of oatmeal

P. 76-78 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.015

Key words
porridge, organoleptic indicators, tasting, quality, scoring, complex organoleptic evaluation

Standards for product control methods, designed to provide a comprehensive verification of mandatory product quality requirements, should be objective and accurate. Scientifically organized tasting analysis surpasses many methods of laboratory research in sensitivity, especially in relation to such indicators as taste, smell and texture. The existing methods of laboratory analysis are more complex and time-consuming compared to the methods of organoleptic evaluation and allow characterizing particular features of quality. The organoleptic method quickly and, with the correct preparation of the analysis, objectively and reliably gives an overall impression of the quality of the products. Tasting or organoleptic assessment, carried out with the help of human senses, is the most ancient and widespread way to determine the quality of food products. The article systematizes and supplements the results of our own research on the characteristics of organoleptic indicators of oatmeal with the rationale and characteristics of each assessment, the algorithm for conducting it. Ratings were given on a five-point scale, which were then summed up and their average values were determined for appearance, color, smell, texture and taste. The scoring method in Russia is one of the main methods of tasting analysis. The evaluation results are expressed as points on a conditional scale with an increasing sequence of numbers, each of which corresponds to a certain intensity of a particular quality indicator. The calculation of a comprehensive organoleptic assessment (CEA) of the products under study was carried out. The purpose of the study was to establish, according to organoleptic indicators, the compliance of the quality of cereals with the requirements of regulatory documents. The work was carried out at VNIIZ, a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems named after V.I. V. M. Gorbatov, Russian Academy of Sciences. The objects of research were 5 samples of oatmeal with various additives from different manufacturers. To eliminate the preference of members of the commission for a particular manufacturer and brand, each sample was assigned numbers. According to the results of the research, it was found that oatmeal of domestic producers in all indicators of cereals met the requirements of regulatory documents.

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8. Meleshkina E. P., Priezzheva L. G., Leonova T. A., Pankrat'eva I. A., Ocheretenko T. I. Complex scoring organoleptic evaluation of grain products. Kontrol kachestva productsii = Product quality control. 2017;(5):40-43 (In Russ.).
9. Methodology for assessing the organoleptic indicators of baking wheat flour and bread baked from it. Voronezh region: FGBNU VNIIZ, 2014. 15 p. (In Russ.)
Meleshkina Elena P., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Vanina Lyudmila V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Zhiltsova Natal'ya S.,
Kolomiets Svetlana N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Zakladnoy G. A., Yaitskikh A. V., Stepanenko D. S. Distribution of uric acid in the grinding products of grain affected by rice weevil

P. 79-81 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.016

Key words
grain, grinding products, insects, uric acid

The aim of the work was to examine the possibility of reducing the content of uric acid in food grains derived from insect-affected grains. To this end, the distribution of uric acid in wheat grinding products and the possibility of improving the flour by removing from the final product the most contaminated uric acid grinding fractions were experimentally investigated. The grain with a humidity of about 14% was populated by rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae at the rate of 50 specimens/kg and stored at a temperature of 25 °C for the formation of infection in different stages of the development of the pest. Regularly monitored the number of beetles in this grain. When the density of beetles was 62 specimens/kg, i. e. began to appear beetles of a new generation, grain was placed in frost at a temperature of about 10 °C. Then we have grinded this grain of wheat at bench mill "B?hler" with formation of fractions of flour and bran with production of products with 1st, 2nd and 3rd tattered systems, bran, and products with 1st, 2nd and 3rd grinding systems and bran. The product yield was 6.75, 9.75, 1.25, 11.25, 34.50, 14.25 and 6.25 % respectively. The losses (spray) were 6.75 %. Uric acid content in flour and bran fractions was analyzed. Of the 460 mg of uric acid (as the sum of its quantity in all grinding fractions), 252 mg or 55 % came from the product of the 1st ripped system, which is only 6.75 % of the mass of all products. Experimental data obtained on the distribution of uric acid by the flows of wheat grinding products show that it is possible to recover the insect-contaminated grain by more than half, Reduction of uric acid content in grinding products by donating a small amount (less than 7 %) of first-class flour yield with the 1st tattered system. This technique is especially important when the contamination of grain by harmful insects exceeds the permissible level of 15 specimens/kg by total pollution density (TPD) but not more than double (30 specimens/kg). In this case, using the technology of product selection and recycling from the first tattered system, it is possible to process insect-contaminated grain, having previously calculated how much product from the 1st tattered system should be selected and recycled. If you remove 100 % of the product from the first system, then the amount of uric acid in the remaining products will be reduced by at least 50 %. Since the permissible level of contamination of the grain by pests is 15 specimens/kg it is possible to reprocess grains with a contamination value of 30 specimens/kg by TPD with the condition of complete removal and disposal of the product from the 1st fucked-up system. In this case, in the remaining products, the milling of the grain content of uric acid will be half as low and will correspond to the amount that will be produced when processing grains with a permissible TPD - 15 specimens/kg. The calculations showed that for TPD = 30 specimens/kg each reduction of grain contamination by 1 specimens/kg to 15 specimens/kg reduces the uric acid content in grinding products by 6.7 %. The equation for calculating the quantity of the product to be removed from the 1st ripped system, necessary to reduce the uric acid content to a level, Grain is ground with a permissible contamination of 15 specimens/kg.

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5. Gevorkyan I. S. Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus, 1763) and its economic value. Modern Science. 2020;8(2):14-24 (In Russ.).
6. Zakladnoy G. A., Yaitskikh A. V. Dependence of Uric Acid Content in Stored Grain on the Population Density of the Rice Weevil Sitophilusoryzae L. (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae). Entomological Review. 2020;100(2):170-172. DOI: 10.1134/S0013873820020049.
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Zakladnoy Gennadiy A., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Yaitskikh Artem V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Stepanenko Dmitriy S.
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 117624, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kandrokov R. Kh., Bekshokov K. S. Simulation of bakery grinding of soft wheat using a 4-roll roller machine

P. 82-87 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.017

Key words
wheat, 4-roll roller mill, grain-forming capacity, yield, wheat flour

The caryopsis of the main cereal crop in Russia - wheat, is one of the main sources of nutrients - proteins, carbohydrates, lipids; biologically active substances - vitamins, enzymes, minerals, micro- and macronutrients. One of the modern ways to increase the efficiency of processing grain of soft wheat at flour mills is the use of 4-roll twin roller machines instead of traditional 2-roll roller machines on I and II tattered systems and 1 and 2 grinding systems. The results of a study to determine the effect of using a 4-roller roller mill compared to the use of a 2-roller roller mill on the output of varietal baking flour and on the groat-forming ability when grinding wheat grains of various varieties and grinding mixtures are presented. As an object of research, we used varieties of winter wheat grain Orlovskaya 32 and Sineva, Timiryazevskaya Yubileynaya, Moskovskaya 56 and Nemchinovskaya 24 harvested in 2021. It was revealed that when grinding the grain of winter wheat of the Timiryazevskaya Yubileinaya variety using a 2-roll roller mill, the total wheat flour yield was 78.5 %, which is 1.0 % more than the yield of wheat flour using a 2-roll roller mill. At the same time, the yield of wheat flour of the highest grade was 31.7 % when using a 2-roll roller machine and 48.4 % when using a 4-roll roller machine, which is 16.7 % more compared to the traditional method of grinding wheat grain. Despite the fact that the total yield of wheat flour when using a 4-roll rolling machine is 1.0 % less compared to using a 2-roll rolling machine, due to the higher yield of premium flour by 16.7 %, it is the most efficient 4-roll roller machine. It has been established that when grinding the grinding mixture of winter wheat grain, consisting of 50 % of the Moskovskaya 56 variety and 50 % of the Nemchinovskaya 24 variety using a 2-roll r olling machine, the total wheat flour yield was 81.2 %, which is 0.7 % less than with using a 4-roll roller mill. At the same time, the yield of wheat flour of the first grade was 61.3 % when using a 2-roll roller machine and 71.9 % when using a 4-roll roller machine, which is 10.6 % more compared to the traditional method of grinding wheat grain. Despite the fact that the total flour yield when using a 4-roll roller mill is less by 0.6 %, due to the higher yield of flour of the 1st grade by 10.6 % compared to using a 2-roll roller mill, it is most efficient. 4-roll roller machine.

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Kandrokov Roman Kh., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Bekshokov Kerim S., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Dagestan State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia,
1, V. I. Lenina square, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Mokrushin S. A., Besfamilnaya E. M., Zabenkova N. A., Galkin N. S., Terekhin A. R. Plc-based filling machine control system

P. 88-91 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.018

Key words
technological process, quality of production, economy of power resources, control system, automation, microprocessor technics, programmed logic controller, automated workplace

The article raises the problem of introducing automated control systems, and considers methods for using automated control systems. A technique for developing control algorithms based on classical control theory is proposed. The main tasks of automation from the point of view of the founders of automatic control are: increasing the productivity of equipment, expanding technological capabilities and ensuring safety requirements for the operation of the installation. The paper considers a class of single-line (single-strand) vertical automatic machines for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing. The paper considers the problem of automating the automatic machine for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing. The principle of operation of a single-line (single-strand) vertical automatic machine for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing is given. In the device under consideration, the product is poured into plastic bags, since this method of packaging ensures the minimum cost of the goods. Recommendations for choosing a programmable logic controller (PLC) are given. An algorithm for the operation of an automatic machine for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing has been developed. The possibility of using new software to improve the performance of the machine for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing is being considered. The automation program of the automatic machine for packaging in plastic bags with volumetric dosing is given. The PLC work program is implemented in the language of ladder diagrams. Options for solving the problem posed are proposed both from the side of developing control algorithms and from the side of using an original software solution. Conclusions are drawn about the economic efficiency of software application and improving the quality of finished products.

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Mokrushin Sergey A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Besfamilnaya Ekaterina M., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Zabenkova Nataliya A., postgraduate,
Galkin Nikita S.,
Terekhin Alexander R.
Russian Biotechnological University, 11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zarubin N. Yu., Lavrukhina E. V., Bredikhina O. V., Grinevich A. I. Prediction of parameters of biotransformation of fish raw materials by bacterial starter cultures using mathematical models

P. 92-96 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.019

Key words
bacterial starter cultures, biotransformation, fish, probiotics, biopreservation, mathematical modeling

The strategy for improving the quality of food products in the Russian Federation until 2030 outlines the goals and objectives to promote the principles of healthy nutrition and create conditions for the production of new generation food products with specified quality characteristics, as well as the development of modern technologies for the production of food ingredients and food processing technologies, including biotechnologies. In this regard, in food biotechnology, special attention is paid to biotransformation by perspective strains of bacterial starter cultures to produce food products with improved quality characteristics and functional orientation. Biotransformation using bacterial starter cultures can be a way to increase the shelf life of fish products, improve its organoleptic properties and increase nutritional value due to the formation of metabolites of their vital activity, which are the main factor in the bioconservation and synthesis of vitamins and other biologically active substances. Probiotic properties of bacterial starter cultures will have a significant impact on the optimization of the indigenous microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby strengthening the organism of man and its immune system as a whole to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The development of this trend is due to the interest of the population of the Russian Federation in products with a probiotic orientation.In this regard, the analysis of data on the justification of the use of bacterial starter cultures for the biotransformation of fish raw materials was carried out, and the necessary strains of microorganisms were selected. Based on the theoretical and practical basis, mathematical models of the process of biotransformation by bacterial starter cultures are constructed depending on the properties of fish raw materials and biotechnological features of the introduced strains of microorganisms. The used mathematical modeling algorithm based on the Python programming language using NumPy, Matplotlib, and SciPy libraries will allow predicting optimal conditions and parameters of biotransformation of fish raw materials by bacterial starter cultures. The conducted research will be used to develop technological modes of biotransformation of fish raw materials by bacterial starter cultures for its subsequent use in the formulations of "fast food" products containing functional components, which is justified by the accelerated rhythm of life and the desire of modern society to monitor their nutrition by eating products that support a healthy lifestyle.


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Zarubin Nikita Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Lavrukhina Elizaveta V.,
Bredikhina Olga V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Grinevich Alexandra I.
Russian Federal Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
19, Okruzhnoy passage, Moscow, 105187, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Reznichenko I. Yu., Shafray A. V., Donchenko T. A., Ruban N. Yu. Ranking of sensory characteristics of food products using neural networks

P. 97-101 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.3.3.020

Key words
cottage cheese products, sensory characteristics, ranking, mathematical modeling, artificial neural networks

Sensory evaluation of food products has a wide practical application in conducting quality expertise, because it allows you to get information about the qualitative characteristics of the product that are important to the consumer. Sensory evaluation is important in the development of new food products, it is important in assessing consumer satisfaction with products sold by retail. Identification of quality criteria that satisfy consumer demand allows manufacturers to obtain valuable information for the development of a new product, optimization of the formulation of the manufactured product to improve sensory qualities that satisfy consumer demand. Traditional methods of sensory evaluation allow us to give a qualitative assessment and cannot give objective quantitative information necessary for the formation of qualitative indicators of the product. In this connection, various artificial intelligence methods have recently been used, such as fuzzy logic, machine learning, artificial neural networks and others that mimic human behavior when making a purchase decision, allowing to determine the preferences of quality attributes and establish criteria for product acceptance. The objects of research were samples of glazed cottage cheese products sold on the consumer market of the city of Kemerovo. The study was aimed at identifying the best sample of a curd product from ten commercial types according to sensory characteristics. Five criteria for the quality of samples were analyzed by an expert group consisting of 14 people. The relationship between sensory data and the ranks assigned by the expert commission was investigated using a model of artificial neural networks. As a result of the research, new data were obtained on the sensory evaluation of samples of glazed cottage cheese presented by domestic retail, 10 samples were ranked in order of decreasing quality, the concordance coefficient indicates that the opinions of experts are consistent and the data can be considered reliable. The relationship between sensory characteristics and the ranks assigned by the expert commission and the processed data using the model of artificial neural networks is established. It was possible to simulate the evaluation of samples using a neural network.

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Reznichenko Irina Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy,
5, Markovtseva str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650056, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shafray Anton V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ruban Natal'ya Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Donchenko Tat'yana A.
Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kemerovo Region,
56, Kuznetsky avenue, Kemerovo, Russia, 650025




Winners of the AgroInvestor of the Year 2022 Award Announced

Development of rural bakery in Russia: problems and their solution dishes