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Food processing Industry №1/2023


Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Ageykina I. I.Predicting the applicability of PCR-RFLP analysis for testing grape varietal diversity

P. 6-9 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.001

Key words
Vitis vinifera L., grape, wine material, nucleic acid, PCR, RFLP, electrophoresis, SNP, identification

For the genoidentification of industrial grape varieties, molecular genetic analysis can be used for the locus of the UFGT gene (UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) Vitis vinifera L. 705 nucleotides long, with 34 polymorphic positions (1 INDEL and 33 SNPs). Whereas, for DNA authentication of wine materials and wines, it is advisable to analyze a shorter locus (due to strong fragmentation of residual grape nucleic acids extracted from wine debris), affecting 5 detectable polymorphic positions (1 INDEL and 4 SNPs), the interpretation of which can characterize 13 UFGT-gene-associated groups not only by direct sequencing of a specific PCR product, but also by other approaches that require development. Therefore, the aim of this study was a predictive assessment of the applicability of PCR-RFLP analysis for the detection of 5 diagnostically significant polymorphic positions and the subsequent identification of 13 UFGT-gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L. when testing the grape varietal diversity, as well as the wine material produced from it. Isolation of DNA from the sample prepared biomaterial can be performed using the commercial kit "innuPREP Plant DNA Kit", and PCR with primers UFGT-F1 and UFGT-R2 can be performed using the "Phire Plant Direct PCR Master Mix". RFLP analysis is performed with selected restriction endonucleases (PstI, BsaXI, BtsIMutI and HinfI). Detection of PCR-RFLP fragments is performed by visualization of electrophoregrams in a UV transilluminator. Alignment and restriction mapping of the reference nucleotide sequences of the UFGT locus of the Vitis vinifera L. gene was carried out using the BLAST, ClustalW, and NEBcutter V2.0 programs, followed by modeling of the corresponding PCR-RFLP profiles. As a result of the study, it was found that the applicability of PCR-RFLP analysis for the identification of 13 UFGT-gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L. is predictably achieved by the selection of diagnostically valuable restriction endonucleases, each of which is able to discriminate a certain polymorphic position, including the last one, detected due to the modification of the reverse primer UFGT-R2, leading to an artificially created restriction site for HinfI in SNP with the replacement of cytosine by guanine.

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2. Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Semipyatniy V. K., Gilmanov Kh. Kh., Bigaeva A. V., Lazareva E. G. Raw Materials Identification and Manufactured Products Authentication Technologies. News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series "Chemistry and Technology". 2020;6(444):119-126. https://doi.org/10.32014/2020.2518-1491.106.
3. Galstyan A. G., Semipyatniy V. K., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Gilmanov K. K., Bigaeva A. V., Vafin R. R. Methodological Approaches to DNA Authentication of Foods, Wines and Raw Materials for Their Production. Foods. 2021;10(3):595. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030595.
4. Pereira L., Gomes S., Castro C., Eiras-Dias J. E., Braz?o J., Gra?a A., Fernandes J. R., Martins-Lopes P. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity. Food Chemistry. 2017;216:80-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.185.
5. Teixeira R. J. S., Gomes S., Malheyro V., Pereira L., Fernandes J. R., Mendes-Ferreira A., Gomes M. E. P., Martins-Lopes P. A. Multidisciplinary Fingerprinting Approach for Authenticity and Geographical Traceability of Portuguese Wines. Foods. 2021;10(5):1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051044.
6. Catalano V., Moreno-Sanz P., Lorenzi S., Grando M. S. Experimental Review of DNA-Based Methods for Wine Traceability and Development of a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assay for Quantitative Varietal Authentication. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2016;64(37):6969-6984. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02560.
7. Oganesyants L. A., Vafin R. R., Galstyan A. G., Semipyatniy V. K., Khurshudyan S. A., Ryabova A. E. Prospects for DNA authentication in wine production monitoring. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6(2):438-448. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018-2-438-448.
8. Gomes S., Castro C., Barrias S., Pereira L., Jorge P., Fernandes J. R., Martins-Lopes P. Alternative SNP Detection Platforms, HRM and Biosensors, for Varietal Identification in Vitis vinifera L. Using F3H and LDOX Genes. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):5850. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24158-9.
9. Vignani R., Lio P., Scali M. How to integrate wet lab and bioinformatics procedures for wine DNA admixture analysis and compositional profiling: Case studies and perspectives. PloS ONE. 2018;14(2):e0211962. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211962.
10. Pereira L., Gomes S., Barrias S., Gomes E. P., Baleiras-Couto M., Fernandes J. R., Martins-Lopes P. From the Field to the Bottle - an Integrated Strategy for Wine Authenticity. Beverages. 2018;4(4):71. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040071.
Vafin Ramil R., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS,
Mikhaiylova Irina Yu.,
Ageykina Irina I.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shevchenko T. V., Ustinova Yu. V., Popov A. M., Uzunov G. B., Proskunov I. V.Ways of light stabilization of natural dyes using fullerene C60

P. 10-13 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.002

Key words
anthocyanin dyes, light resistance, shungite, extraction, carbohydrates, proteins, fullerene, food additives, light resistance

Among the technical functional products in various industries, a special place is occupied by dyes, the number of which currently amounts to more than 10 thousand individual substances of various classes (azo dyes, anthraquinone, xanthene, thiazine, acridine, etc.). For practical purposes in the food industry, bright, light-resistant and harmless dyes of natural and synthetic origin are in demand. The available number of types of such dyes is not enough to meet all the needs of various industries. Dyes with increased light resistance are especially in demand. Therefore, at present, the production of new types of light-resistant dyes and the development of technologies for their production are very relevant. The results of experiments on the selection of initial plant raw materials for the isolation of natural anthocyanin dyes by water extraction from berry cake with water that was previously infused on shungite crushed stone containing fullerene are presented. The intensifying effect of shungite water on the degree of anthocyanin extraction by extraction has been established. The mechanism of extraction of dyes is proposed. For light stabilization and dyes isolated during extraction, their adsorption was carried out on powdered materials consisting of carbohydrates and proteins. The resulting colored powders had high light resistance. The mechanism of light stabilization of dyes and ways of using light-stabilized dyes are proposed. Based on the conducted analytical review, the most rational direction of isolation of anthocyanin dyes from available natural raw materials in the presence of an innovative nanomaterial - fullerene, which has antioxidant and antiradical properties, has been determined. In order to increase the efficiency of water extraction, studies have been conducted to study the methods of preliminary preparation of raw materials necessary to increase the degree of isolation of red natural dyes. A new method has been developed for the isolation and long-term preservation of anthocyanin dyes by applying them to solid forms of carbohydrates and proteins of various chemical structures in the presence of fullerene. An antiradical mechanism for increasing the light resistance of anthocyanin and betalain dyes is proposed.

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Shevchenko Tat'yana V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Ustinova Yuliya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Popov Anatoliy M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Uzunov Gleb B., graduate student,
Proskunov Igor V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650043, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kondrat'ev N. B., Kazantsev E. V., Osipov M. V., Petrova N. A. Forecasting the rate of moisture transfer processes in confectionery products packed in polypropylene film

P. 14-17 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.003

Key words
confectionery, chocolate coating, polypropylene film, glazed marshmallow, moisture transfer processes, storage

With an increase in the volume of production of confectionery products, their transportation over long distances, it is of particular importance to preserve their structure and freshness without changing their taste. During storage, various confectionery products are subject to staling or wetting, changes in chemical composition, crystallization of sugars as a result of dehydration and melaidin formation reactions. To solve such problems, the reasonable use of packaging technologies is necessary. During the storage of confectionery products, various physicochemical, structural-mechanical and microbiological processes occur, including those caused by moisture transfer processes, while for glazed products the moisture transfer rate slows down significantly compared to unglazed ones. The purpose of this work is to identify patterns of moisture transfer processes in confectionery products using the example of glazed marshmallows packed in polypropylene film with different thicknesses. During storage of products, moisture is lost and sucrose crystallizes, leading to changes in the internal structure and appearance of products. The objects of the study were samples of glazed marshmallows, made using agar as a structure-forming agent, containing maltose syrup. The samples were packed in polypropylene film with a thickness of 20, 30 and 40 µm. Mathematical dependencies have been obtained that make it possible to predict the loss of mass fraction of moisture in confectionery products depending on the duration of storage and the thickness of the packaging film. Thus, it is possible to calculate the film thickness at which the rate of moisture transfer processes is minimal. In the case of using a film with a thickness of 40 microns or more, the rate of moisture transfer is significantly reduced, and the risk of microbiological deterioration increases. The possibility of using the IR-spectroscopy method for assessing the quality of a polypropylene film is shown. It has been established that the use of chocolate glaze can reduce the rate of moisture transfer by 1.5-2.0 times. The results obtained allow us to correctly justify the use of packaging materials and to manufacture products with a given shelf life.

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9. Kondrat'ev N. B., Kazantsev E. V., Rudenko O. S., Osipov M. V., Petrova N. A. On the influence of the properties of packaging materials on the rate of moisture transfer during storage of jelly marmalade. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2020;(11):48-51 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0235-2486-2020-10127.
10. Kazantsev E. V., Kondrat'ev N. B., Osipov M. V., Rudenko O. S. Influence of different types of hydrocolloids on the structure and preservation of jelly-like sugary confectionery products: a review. Vestnik VGUIT = Bulletin of VSUET. 2020;2(82):107-115 (In Russ.).
11. Kazantsev E. V., Kondrat'ev N. B., Osipov M. V., Rudenko O. S., Linovskaya N. V. Control of moisture transfer processes in storage of confectionery gelatinous consistency. Vestnik VGUIT = Bulletin of VSUET. 2020;82(4):47-53 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2020-4-47-53.
12. Kondrat'ev N. B., Kazantsev E. V., Petrova N. A., Osipov M. V., Svyatoslavova I. M. Influence of properties on the change in the taste of raw gingerbread with fruit filling. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2019;(7):16-18 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0235-2486-2019-10096.
13. Kondrat'ev N. B., Kazantsev E. V., Savenkova T. V. Influence of packaging on the rate of moisture transfer during storage of sugar cookies. Konditerskoe i hlebopekarnoe proizvodstvo = Confectionery and bakery production. 2018;(5-6):12-13 (In Russ.).
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Kondrat'ev Nikolay B., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kazantsev Egor V.,
Osipov Maxim V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Petrova Natal'ya A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Confectionery Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
20, Elektrozavodskaya str., Moscow, 107023, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Titov S. A., Klyuchnikova D. V., Chusova A. E., Gvozdenko A. A., Velitchenko K. A. Microfiltration of apple juice for apple-whey drinks

P. 18-22 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.004

Key words
microfiltration, apple juice, apple-whey drinks, ceramic membranes, pectin, whey

Whey drinks are currently not only a popular functional product, but also make it possible to implement waste-free and environmentally friendly production, in particular, whey processing. Drinks based on milk whey, undoubtedly, can positively influence both the emotional state of a person and physiologically favorably contribute to the prevention and improvement of the population of various age groups. Of interest are not just whey drinks, but juice-containing drinks, which have a pleasant and refreshing taste and, along with this, are additionally enriched with micro- and macroelements, vitamins. Traditionally, apple whey drinks are made from reconstituted juices and dry cheese whey. The technology for obtaining concentrated or dry juices involves heat treatment, during which vitamins are destroyed, primarily vitamin C and other biologically active substances. The possibility of replacing heat treatment (pasteurization) with microfiltration in the technology of apple-whey drinks has been studied. Studies have been carried out to study the effect of countercurrent on a layer of sediments during microfiltration. The dynamic scattering of light by particles was studied on the Zetasizer instrument. The study of apple juice microfiltration was carried out on model media containing elements of the structure of apple juice. To imitate various fractions of suspension in apple juice, apples were first subjected to coarse grinding, then, after obtaining juice and dilution with water, they were subjected to cuttering with a knife rotating at high speeds, after which they were subjected to discharge-spark processing. It has been established that microfiltration makes it possible to purify directly squeezed juice from suspended particles and microorganisms, and its further use in the formulation of whey drinks ensures the stability of the product during storage. It has been proven that microfiltration can be successfully applied in the technology of apple-whey drinks, when using direct-pressed juices. During the filtration process, apple pomace particles and pectins form a dynamic membrane, which additionally has a filtering effect. Periodically increasing the speed of the tangential flow over the membrane surface allows the dynamic membrane to be cleaned, and the periodic counterflow of the filtrate is an effective way to prevent particle clogging of the pores.

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Titov Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Klyuchnikova Dina V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Chusova Alla E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Velitchenko Konstantin A.
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19, Revolution avenue, Voronezh, Russia, 394036, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gvozdenko Alexey A.
North Caucasus Federal University,
2, Kulakov avenue, Stavropol, Stavropol Territory, 355017, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Volkov I. E., Romanchikov S. A., Leu A. G., Alekseev G. V. Possibilities of using ultrasonic vibrations in the homogenization of food media

P. 23-27 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.005

Key words
mathematical model, innovative technology, bakery products, churned dough, ultrasonic field

The solution to the problem of food quality and safety depends not only on the change in the composition of the ingredients and the balance of the nutrition structure, but also on the equipment that provides the required indicators. This task is especially acute in the baking industry when using innovative technology for the production of bakery products based on aerated dough. The most energy-intensive processes in the preparation of whipped semi-finished products are mixing and churning, which largely reflect the quality and cost of the finished product. Scientific achievements in this field have prepared the conditions for numerical and analytical modeling of this process with the possibility of using the results obtained in the design of new generation kneading machines. At the same time, modern scientific achievements in the field of mixing and churning processes in the production of aerated dough have not been properly applied. So, for example, there are no convincing data on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on the processes of knocking down. Among the important nonlinear phenomena that occur during the propagation of intense ultrasound in liquids is acoustic cavitation - the growth in an ultrasonic field of bubbles from existing submicroscopic nuclei of gas or vapor in liquids up to fractions of a millimeter in size, which begin to pulsate with the frequency of ultrasound and collapse in the positive phase of pressure. When gas bubbles collapse, large local pressures of the order of thousands of atmospheres arise, and spherical shock waves are formed. Acoustic microflows are formed near the pulsating bubbles. Phenomena in the cavitation field lead to a number of both useful and harmful phenomena. The frequencies of ultrasound at which ultrasonic cavitation is used for technological purposes lie in the region of low frequency ultrasound. The intensity corresponding to the cavitation threshold depends on the type of liquid, sound frequency, temperature and other factors. The article presents the results of analytical modeling of the influence of processing semi-finished products in the field of ultrasonic vibrations on the main indicators of the quality of aerated dough. For the kinetics of foaming of the flour-water system, numerical estimates were made, based on the developed mathematical models, and measures were determined to ensure rational modes for preparing aerated bread dough.

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Volkov Ivan E., postgraduate student,
Romanchikov Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Military Academy of Logistics named after General of the Army A. V. Khrulev,
8, emb. Makarova, St. Petersburg, 199034, volkovivan36@yandex, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Leu Anna G., postgraduate student
National Research University ITMO,
49, Kronverksky avenue, St. Petersburg, 197101, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Alekseev Gennadiy V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
University at the Interparliamentary Assembly of the EurAsEC,
14/1, Smolyachkova str., St. Petersburg, 194044, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kanochkina M. S., Tarasova V. V., Smirnov N. B.Screening of new strains of lactic acid bacteria to create functional fermented milk products

P. 28-32 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.006

Key words
probiotic, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), functional product, fermented milk product, identification by MALDI-TOF MS, hemolytic activity, degree of adhesiveness

Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was carried out from samples of natural cow's milk of fresh milk from the main breeds used for industrial milk production. Bacteria were isolated purposefully on selective liquid-phase and agar media. As a result of research, 24 strains of bacteria with fermenting ability were obtained. A preliminary assessment of the safety and expediency of using isolated bacterial strains as probiotics was carried out: Gram staining, the study of catalase and hemolytic activity, as well as the degree of adhesiveness and growth rates in milk. Six LAB strains showed the best results in terms of a combination of indicators, while growth in a nutrient milk medium during the production of functional drinks reached high values and amounted to 1.5x1013 CFU/cm3. These microorganisms were identified using the MALDI-TOF MS method and belong to the genera Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, promising from the point of view of their use as probiotics.

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10. Kieliszek M., Pobiega K., Piwowarek K., Kot A. M. Characteristics of the Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria. Molecules. 2021;25,26(7):1858. Doi: 10.3390/molecules26071858.
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13. Rai R., Tamang J. P. In vitro and genetic screening of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from naturally fermented cow-milk and yak-milk products of Sikkim, India. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2022;6,38(2):25. Doi: 10.1007/s11274-021-03215-y.
14. Liu Z., Xu C., Tian R., Wang W., Ma J., Gu L., Liu F., Jiang Z., Hou J. Screening beneficial bacteriostatic lactic acid bacteria in the intestine and studies of bacteriostatic substances. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 2021;15,22(7):533-547. Doi: 10.1631/jzus.B2000602.
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Kanochkina Mariya S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LLC "Microbial Nutrients Immunocorrectors",
125438, 2a, 2nd Likhachevsky lane, Moscow, office 47
Veronika V. Tarasova, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Nikolay B. Smirnov, graduate student ÈRussian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Normakhmatov R. Persimmon is a valuable source of carotine

P. 33-35 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.007

Key words
persimmon, carotene, carotenoid, vitamin, biological value, medicinal properties

The article presents the results of studies on the content of carotene in four pomological varieties of persimmon fruits: Khiyakume, Zenji-maru, Denaus sugar and Tamopan, grown in the weather and climatic conditions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Studies have shown that persimmons grown in the weather and climatic conditions of Uzbekistan have a high content of carotene. Studies have established that the accumulation of carotene by fruits is significantly affected by pomological varieties of persimmon fruits. According to our research, persimmon fruit varieties Zendzhi-maru and Denaussky sugar were the richest in carotene content, where the average content is about 2.5 mg per 100 g of fresh weight. The content of carotene in other studied varieties of persimmon fruits Khiyakume and Tamopan is about 1.5 mg per 100 g of fresh weight. The content of carotene in these varieties is 4-5 times higher than the average content of carotene in pome fruits. As you know, persimmon as a biological object has a very short shelf life and transportability. In this regard, overripe persimmons, which are not suitable for further storage and transportation, can be successfully used as a rich source of carotene to obtain a number of canning products. The work was carried out in the laboratory for the examination of the quality of food products of the Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service.

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Normakhmatov Ruziboy, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service,
9, Shokhrukha str., Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 140100, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Strizhko M. N.Technological aspects of analogues dairy systems based on vegetable raw materials

P. 36-40 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.008

Key words
beverages based on vegetable raw materials, protein-polysaccharide complexes, enzymatic hydrolysis, amylolytic enzymes

It is known that the products stability is due to the functional characteristics of the composition and the technological compatibility of the macro- and micro-component composition, as a result of which the latter are in the focus of close study. Especially important is the issue of product stability and safety in the context of opening new horizons of development for the food industry. In particular, vegetable-based beverages, positioned as analogues of dairy systems, are becoming increasingly popular among consumers. The knowledge intensity of the direction is due to the possibility of observing a full-fledged diet by those consumers who have allergies or enzyme deficiency. That is why the creation of high-tech technologies-analogues of dairy systems becomes an urgent task. The article presents the classification of beverages based on vegetable raw materials. A description of the structure of the protein-polysaccharide plant matrix is presented from the perspective of the prospects for further involvement of various components of the plant matrix at the stage of the technological process. The analysis of the multivariance of the technological stages of the production of beverages on vegetable raw materials is carried out. The analysis of the problem of fermentation of grain raw materials, depending on the type of task: the formation of rheological parameters and/or organoleptic characteristics, and/or technological properties, etc. Separately, attention is paid to the structure of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch with an emphasis on the enzymes used and the temperature characteristics of their course, and the features of enzymatic hydrolysis of both the starch part of vegetable raw materials and non-starch polysaccharides are analyzed.

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Strizhko Mariya N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sviderskaya D. S., Krasnoperova E. F., Toleubekova S. S., Shulenova A. M. The use of a protein-containing component in the production of dairy and vegetable curd mass

P. 41-44 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.009

Key words
dairy-vegetable curd mass, component of plant origin, protein hydrolyzate from chickpeas

It is known that the nutritional value of proteins is primarily characterized by the composition of essential amino acids and is determined by their accessibility. Not just proteins are necessary for the good functioning of the human body, but a certain amount of essential amino acids. Since the lack or absence of any of them causes serious health problems. The problem of protein malnutrition is global for many reasons and to solve it, it's necessary to study the prospects for the possible use of non-traditional sources of dietary protein, namely vegetable protein. Considering this, the article presents the results of studies conducted over several years, the objects of which were dairy and vegetable products and protein hydrolyzate from chickpea flour. At the same time, the possibility of its use as a filler of plant origin to improve the physicochemical and structural-mechanical properties of a new type of finished product was determined. The purpose of these studies is to develop a recipe and determine the technological stages of production of a new type of product of dairy and vegetable origin, which has a functional focus, in which vegetable products are used together with dairy components. It should be noted that when selecting components, preference is given to raw materials grown in the local region. When developing the recipe, the optimal amount of chickpea protein hydrolyzate to be added was determined, which makes it possible to give the finished product not only attractive commercial characteristics, which the modern consumer primarily pays attention to, but also to obtain such product properties that will help strengthen the immune system and the resistance of the human body to adverse conditions environment, what is especially important for the younger generation. When developing the technology of a new dairy-vegetable curd mass, the optimal modes of each technological operation and the stage at which it is most expedient to apply a vegetable component are determined. Launching the developed product into production, the manufacturer will not face the problem of the lack of the necessary equipment and its expensive acquisition, since the production organized according to the proposed technology is maximally adapted to the equipment available at enterprises engaged in the production of cottage cheese and curd products.

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Sviderskaya Diana S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Toraigyrov University,
64, Lomova str., Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, 140008, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Krasnoperova Elena F., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Shulenova Asem M.
Innovative University of Eurasia,
64, Lomova str., Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, 140008, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Toleubekova Sandugash S., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Shakarim University of Semey,
20a, Glinka str., Semey, Kazakhstan, 071442, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Bakin I. A., Egushova E. A., Reznichenko I. Yu. Rational use of food waste in dietary bread technology

P. 45-49 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.010

Key words
bread, food waste, recipe composition, quality indicators, breadcrumbs

Ensuring a more sustainable and highly efficient primary production in the sectors of the agro-industrial complex is achieved by using secondary raw materials and food waste. The purpose of the research was to develop the technology of dietary crispbread with increased nutritional value by replacing a part of the main raw materials with food waste and adding enriching additives. The quantitative and qualitative ratio of the recipe ingredients is substantiated based on the characteristics of the raw materials used. The technological methods of breads based on wheat and rye flour are described in the paper. The possibility of replacing rye whole-meal flour by food waste in the form of breadcrumbs for 5 % was studied. The influence of the introduced breadcrumbs' amount on the quality indicators has been established. It was noted that at a breadcrumb dose of more than 5 % there is a sweetish taste and smell, unusual for rye bread; and if it is more than 10%, there is taste of a rye base. It was found that when the bread crumbs were added, the product fracturability increased with an increase in acidity from 7,9 to 8,2 deg. and an increase in humidity from 8,9 to 9,1 %. Based on the requirements of availability and high nutritional value for all consumer groups, it is proposed to use the powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthustuberosus) as an enriching additive. Analysis of organoleptic characteristics showed that with an increase in the dose of Jerusalem artichoke, the product acquired a gray shade. The results of the research showed that the optimal dosage in the recipe of dietary crispbread with Jerusalem artichoke powder is up to 3 %, when replacing rye whole-meal flour by breadcrumbs up to 5 %. Regulated indicators of quality and safety have been determined for the product, and the product nutritional value has been calculated as well. Additives allow increasing the daily requirement for protein by 11 %, dietary fiber by 13 %, vitamins B1 and B6 by 26 %. It has been established that the addition of secondary waste and enriching additives to the bread recipe implements a strategy to increase nutritional value and ensure sustainable production.

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Bakin Igor A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
49, Timiryazevskaya str., Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Egushova Ålena À., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Reznichenko Irina Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy,
5, Markovtseva str., Kemerovo, 650056, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Frolova N. A. Microcapsulation of Fragaria ananassa fruit processing products is an effective method of preserving their antioxidant activity for food production

P. 50-53 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.011

Key words
strawberries, juice drying, microcapsulation, maltodextrin, antioxidant activity

The production of food products containing phytochemical components (antioxidants, minerals) is an urgent direction of modern industry. The processing of fruits and berries with certain functional and commodity properties with maximum preservation of biologically active substances during processing deserves close attention from processing and food enterprises. Strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa) are perishable and easily susceptible to mechanical damage. In this sense, various technological techniques are used to preserve them: obtaining juices, freezing, preparing semi-finished products and drying fruits. Spray drying is a fast and reliable method used to remove water from fruit juices, used to increase the shelf life and stability of the dried product. The use of maltodextrin as high-molecular additives during spray drying of juice contributes to the encapsulation of dried juice, enveloping the surface of the particles while preserving the antioxidant capacity during storage and processing. Microencapsulation of Fragaria ananassa juice was carried out in a spray dryer Mini Spray Dryer B290 (Switzerland) under the following operating conditions: supply temperature 40 °C, supply flow 7 cm3/ min, hot air flow 28 m3/h, aspiration 70 % and pressure 1.5 bar. The temperature at the entrance varied 150, 185 and 220 oC. The temperature range was chosen due to avoiding the destruction of the microstructure of powders, as well as the ability to stick together and agglomerate. The article defines the rational parameters of the process of drying Fragaria ananassa juice with the addition of maltodextrin for microcapsulation of its bioactive components. Spray drying of Fragaria ananassa juice using maltodextrin concentrations of 57.5 % and relatively low drying temperatures was the most favorable in terms of overall antioxidant activity and microscopy of the samples studied. Optimal drying conditions for the preservation of biologically active compounds were found using a maltodextrin concentration of 5 % and a temperature of 185 °C. These technological parameters of obtaining powders from Fragaria ananassa juice were the most preferable for microencapsulation of bioactive components.

1. Kalinina I. V., Bykov A. E., Ustinovich A. O., Yaschenko E. V. Development of products with antioxidant properties based on berry raw materials. Vestnik Yuzhno-uralskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya "Pischevie i biotehnologii" = Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series "Food and Biotechnology". 2018;6(3):33-41 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.14529/food180304.
2. Tarun E. I., Antonchik I. V. Antioxidant activity of berry juice. Ecology (Journal of the Belarusian State University). 2018;(2):129-135 (In Russ.).
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5. Celli G. B., Ghanem A. and Brooks M. S. L. Influence of freezing process and frozen storage on the quality of fruits and fruit products. Food Reviews International. 2016;32(3):280-304.
6. Contador L., Infante R., Shinya P. Texture phenotyping in fresh ?eshy fruit. Scientia Horticulturae. 2015;(193):40-46.
7. Karagodin V. P., Yurina O. V. The effect of an atmosphere with a high oxygen content on the quality of fresh strawberries (Fragaria viridis) during storage. Commodity specialist of food products. 2016;(3):37-42 (In Russ.).
8. Semenov G. V., Krasnova I. S., Khvylya S. I., Balabolin D. N. The influence of acoustic freezing on the indicators of the structure of freeze-dried strawberries. Hranenie i pererabotka selhozsi'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2019;(3):29-41 (In Russ.).
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11. Frolova N. A., Reznichenko I. Yu. Investigation of the chemical composition of fruit and berry raw materials of the Far Eastern region as a promising source of food and biologically active substances. Voprosi pitaniya = Nutrition issues. 2019;88(2):83-90 (In Russ.).
Frolova Nina A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Amur State University,
21, Ignat'evskoe highway, Blagoveschensk, Amur region, Russia, 675027, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tishkova A. I., Tarasova V. V., Nikolaeva Yu. V. Sauces as a product in modern technologies for the production of long-term food products

P. 54-58 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.012

Key words
sauces, cheese sauce, food additives, storage method, frozen sauces, organoleptic evaluation

The use of sauces produced at public catering establishments makes it possible to expand the range of sauces used in restaurants, cafes and bars. Many sauces that some establishments use, as well as those for sale in stores, have a long shelf life. It is extended by introducing various kinds of additives into the composition of the product, which do not always have a positive effect on human health with their frequent use. This article discusses cheese sauce as the most popular use among fast food consumers. In the course of the work, the composition of the product was analyzed, taking into account its application and effects on the body. An alternative method for extending the shelf life of sauces is presented. A range of sauces for various categories of products is offered. The freezing method is one of the possible options for food storage, which allows you to preserve the nutritional properties: minerals and vitamins, as well as preventing spoilage by mold, fungi, bacteria and viruses. Bacterial microflora contributes to a detrimental effect on the quality of frozen plant products in terms of food safety and technology. Not all frost-resistant microorganisms die at negative temperatures, therefore, in the process of processing and processing raw materials, it is necessary to carry out specialized procedures aimed at reducing the contamination by microorganisms. When choosing a sauce for a dish, you need to be based on what you are going to serve it with: meat, fish or vegetables. For repeated use of the prepared sauce, it is necessary to create conditions for prolonging its shelf life, which helps freezing. But since all products react differently to storage at low temperatures, it is necessary to select the appropriate parameters and food additives that contribute to the best conditions for staying in a frozen state.


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Tishkova Alexandra I.,
Tarasova Veronika V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Nikolaeva Yuliya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Russian Biotechnological University,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kruchinin A. G., Illarionova E. E., Turovskaya S. N., Bigaeva A. V. A study of the effect of protein profile on structural and mechanical parameters of dairy biosystems with intermediate moisture content

P. 59-62 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.017

Key words
milk systems, products with intermediate moisture, whey proteins, lactose crystallization, viscosity

This study of structure formation of products with intermediate moisture is important to improve the quality characteristics of canned milk in countries where this category of food products is widely introduced in the diet of the population. A certain structure of canned products, including sweetened condensed milk, is determined by the composition and properties of raw materials, technological production process and storage conditions. The defects of various origin can arise at all stages of manufacture, worsening indicators of a finished product in complex. Crystallization of lactose with formation of crystals larger than 15 microns by a sensory method is an open issue for canned condensed milk with sugar. Since the beginning of the century, production technology has not changed significantly; lactose "seed" is commonly added to condensed milk with sugar to obtain a homogeneous consistency. Thus, the influence of transformation of ratio of protein components in a biosystem on process of production of canned milk products is not studied up to the end. Replacement of a part of traditional protein profile by native whey proteins, their concentrates or hydrolysates is one of the most perspective solutions for forming of required organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of condensed milk systems including the stage of long-term storage. The paper presents the results of the investigation of the influence of different ratios of casein and whey proteins on the rheological characteristics of condensed milk with sugar in a wide pH range. The highest values of dynamic viscosity were fixed for all experimental samples at ðÍ 5.6, which can be explained by intensive interaction of protein particles in concentrated systems and gelation due to physical and chemical influence. Dynamic viscosity was 1.5-2 times higher in the systems with the traditional ratio of protein fractions, where whey protein concentrate and whey powder were the source of whey proteins. It can be explained by more intensive complexation of c-casein and b-lactoglobulin. However, a decrease in dynamic viscosity over the entire pH range was observed when whey proteins from the same sources dominated the sample. The introduction of whey proteins transformed under denaturing conditions recorded a 1.5-fold increase in dynamic viscosity at pH 5.6 and a 10-12-fold increase at pH 5.9 and 6.2. The obtained data confirmed the potential of a detailed investigation of the interactions of the system components in order to obtain the necessary product parameters stable during storage.

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6. Nilova L. P., Kambulova E. V. Effect of heat treatments on the chemical composition and properties of sweetened condensed milk. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya "Pishchevye i biotekhnologii" = Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series "Food and Biotechnologies". 2019;(2):54-61 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.14529/food190206
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Kruchinin Alexander G., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Illarionova Elena E.,
Turovskaya Svetlana N.,
Bigaeva Alana V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Eliseev M. N., Kosareva O. A., Gribkova I. N.New approaches principles to assessing the cognac products quality

P. 64-67 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.014

Key words
cognac, aging, organic compounds, mineral components, quality parameters

The article is devoted to the problem of cognac products quality evaluating, which is due to the influence of a factors combination such as raw materials, microorganisms, duration and conditions of exposure, etc. It is shown that the finished cognac sensory properties are formed due to furan, phenolic and other organic compounds that appear and transform during the technological process. The set goal of the work - the establishment of implicit links between organic compounds extracted and formed during exposure in contact with wood, cognac distillates using mathematical modeling methods - is achieved by instrumental research methods. It is shown that with an increase in the cognac products aging period, the volatile components concentration increases, except for methanol, isobutyraldehyde, isomethyl acetate and ethyl lactate, the content of which, on the contrary, decreases. The esters and higher alcohols amount decreases with increasing exposure time (from 3 to 7 years). The ratio of the mass fraction of lilac and vanillic aldehydes was established, which in the product samples was 1.7 (3 years), 2.3 (5 years) and 2.2 (7 years), respectively. It is shown that with an increase in the aging period of cognacs, the mass concentration of NH4+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ increases, but not Fe3+ ions, which reduce their concentration. In order to establish implicit correlations depending on the duration of exposure, the authors found correlation coefficients that describe the strength of the relationship between the duration of exposure and the amount of furan compounds, aromatic acids, aromatic aldehydes, cations, esters, which were in the range of -0.94…0.99. The equations of linear dependence between the parameters under study, the described processes of which have an elasticity coefficient in modulus greater than 1, are compiled, except for the dependence between the exposure time and the sum of aromatic acids. The authors separately evaluated the multifactorial relationship between individual phenolic acids and the aging time, which showed the lowest correlation coefficient between the aging time and gallic and lilac acids (r = 0.96 and 0.94, respectively), which correlated with the intensity of internal transformations in cognacs during aging.

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Eliseev Michail N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
G.V. Plekhanov Russian Economic University,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kosareva Olga A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow University of Industry and Finance "Synergy",
9/14, bld. 1, Meschanskaya str., Moscow, 129090, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Non-alcoholic and Wine-Making Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sheida E. V., Duskaev G. K., Miroshnikov S. A., Proskurin D. A., Ovechkin M. V.Solving the issue of waste disposal of food production in order to obtain microbial protein for use in agriculture

P. 68-73 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.015

Key words
microbial protein, food production waste, husk, husk, fermentation

The increase in the population, the change in the ecological and political situation in the world require serious measures to provide the population with high-quality and environmentally safe food. Agriculture by itself cannot meet the high protein needs that are required all over the world. Thus, the production of microbial protein can be considered as an effective technology in the fight against the global problem of food protein shortage. Microbial protein not only provides protein to animals, but can also use waste disposal technology to turn food production waste into animal feed. The production of microbial protein or single-celled protein revolutionizes protein farming and is indeed a key step in reducing the shortage of protein products. These unconventional sources of protein are products of biotechnological processing of agricultural, industrial and forestry waste. Microbial proteins are a dehydrated culture of microbial cells or purified protein obtained from a culture of microbial cells such as bacteria, yeast, algae or filamentous fungi. This type of protein was obtained by culturing the corresponding microbes on various substrates, including hard-to-hydrolyze carbohydrates. The production of microbial protein as an alternative source of protein has significant advantages over traditional sources due to the reduction of its production time, lower requirements for the land and the possibility of production in any climatic conditions. Despite the obvious advantages of this product, namely, its nutritional value in terms of protein, vitamins and lipids, it is taken with some concern, and its chances of replacing ordinary protein are still small, its main disadvantage is the high content of nucleic acids and low digestibility. This paper examines the production of microbial protein, its advantages, safety, acceptability and limitations associated with its use.

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Sheida Elena V., Candidate of Biological Sciences Federal Scientific Center of Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS, 29, 9th January str., Orenburg, Russia, 460000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Orenburg State University, 13, Pobedy avenue, Orenburg, Russia, 460000 Duskaev Galimzhan K., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Miroshnikov Sergey A., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Corresponding Member of RAS Federal Scientific Center of Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of RAS, 29, 9th January str., Orenburg, Russia, 460000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Proskurin Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Ovechkin Maksim V., Candidate of Technical Sciences Orenburg State University, 13, Pobedy avenue, Orenburg, Russia, 460000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Terentiev S. E., Romanova I. N., Ptitsyna N. V., Martynova K. V. Agroecological plasticity and productivity of intensive varieties of grain crops depending on soil and climatic conditions of the Non Chernozem zone of the Russian Federation

P. 74-77 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2023.1.1.016

Key words
winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, variety, yield, mineral nutrition backgrounds, grain quality, rheological properties, bakery evaluation

The basis of agricultural production in Russia, as is known, is grain farming. The main reserve for obtaining high grain yields is the fullest realization of the productivity potential of the zoned varieties. The object of research was new varieties of winter wheat, winter rye and winter triticale of domestic and foreign breeding. In the conditions of the Non Chernozem zone, all the studied varieties are plastic and in order to form a yield of more than 5.00 t/ha, they must be grown on an elevated background with fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers according to the schemes: N20+60+30 P110K110 (increased) and a yield level of more than 6.00 t/ha - on an intense background: N30+60+30+20 P110K110. In both dry and wet years, the yield level of winter grain varieties decreased by 1.70 t/ha (44 %) and 0.40 t/ha (18 %), respectively. It has been established that modern varieties of winter wheat and winter triticale of domestic breeding can form grain of high quality and suitable for food and bakery purposes. The highest quality grain was obtained for the varieties of winter wheat Nemchinovskaya 85 and winter triticale Consul with a mass of 1000 grains, respectively, 48.1-49.1 g; vitreousness 72-55 %; in kind 06-744 g/l; number of drops 12-261 units; protein content 14.4-13.0 %; gluten 24-20 %. According to physical and chemical quality indicators, the grain of winter wheat varieties was higher than the grain of triticale varieties. We found that according to the technological evaluation of winter wheat varieties Volzhskaya 22 and Nemchinovskaya 85 corresponded to the indicators of class 3, and the winter triticale Consul variety - class 4. The rheological properties of flour in winter wheat varieties were significantly higher than in winter triticale varieties. Thus, the varieties of winter wheat Volzhskaya 22 and Nemchinovskaya 56 were distinguished according to the bread and its shade and amounted to 1012-1018 mm, and their score was 4.8-4.9 points, respectively. To obtain high-quality bread from winter triticale varieties, it is necessary to use wheat flour as an improver, from 25 to 50 %.

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2. Torikov V. E., Shpilev N. S., Mameev V. V., Yatsenkov I. N. Comparative characteristics of grain quality of winter triticale varieties grown in the South-West of Russia. Vestnik Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian university. 2019;2(172):49-56 (In Russ.).
3. Terent'ev S. E., Labutina N. V., Romanova I. N. The use of deep freezing technologies in the production of bakery products. Tekhnicheskie kul'turi = Industrial crops. 2021;2(2):43-47 (In Russ.).
4. Tihonova O. S., Fatikhov I. Sh. The influence of the seeding rate on the grain quality of winter cereals in the middle Urals. Vestnik Bashkirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Bashkir State Agrarian university. 2012;4(24):14-16 (In Russ.).
5. Mamaev V. V., Torikov V. E., Petrova S. N., et al. The effectiveness of winter wheat fertilizing with various brands of nitrogen and complex fertilizers. Vestnik Kurskoy gosudarstvennoy sel'skohozyajstvennoy akademii = Bulletin of the Kursk State Agricultural Academy. 2021;(6):12-19 (In Russ.).
Terent'ev Sergey E., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Romanova Iraida N., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Ptitsyna Natal'ya V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Martynova Kseniya V.
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy,
10/2, Bolshaya Sovetskaya str., Smolensk, 214000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




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