+7 (916) 969-61-36



Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №10/2022

The results of the work ofFood and Processing industry Enterprises of Russia


Kobelev K. V., Gribkova I. N., Borisenko O. A., Kozlov V. I.The brewer's spent grain deep processing prospects. Part III. The comparison of different ways brewer's spent grain sorption activity

P. 8-11 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.001

Key words
brewer's spent grain, sorption activity, organic compounds, polythenols

The article is devoted to the issue of the prospects for the use of processed brewer's grains by physical methods as a sorbent. With the help of instrumental methods of analysis, the work achieves the goal of the study - to elucidate the interaction between the structure of the undermined grains and organic compounds of beer. It is shown that in 1 day of post-fermentation there is no change in the structure of the colloidal system of beer when ECA-treated spent grains are added, and by 7 days of post-fermentation there is a decrease in the level of the actual extract by 8-19 %, depending on the variant of the treated spent grains, and the largest decrease in the actual extract is observed. in beer with pellets treated with ECA water and at 1.5 atm. A correlation was noted between the decrease in the extractivity of the must samples and the amount of sedimenting yeast, which in the experimental samples (91-95 % of the control) is comparable to the control value (94% of the initial amount). The presence of organically treated grains in beer at 1.5 atm led to a decrease in the content of the actual extract to 5 % of the control, with the maximum amount of settled yeast (73% of the control). It was noted that by the 7th day of fermentation, the number of cells in the volume of beer with organically treated grains at 1.5 atm increased by 2 times, and by 14 days of fermentation, it exceeded the control by 33 %. There was an increase in acidity in the experimental samples with ECA grains by 14 days of after-fermentation by 47-53 % compared with 1 day of after-fermentation, which correlated with the vital processes of yeast, and in beer samples with organic grains, the acidity level was comparable to the control. It is shown that the color of beer in the test samples decreased by 7-14% in 1 day of fermentation compared to the control. The level of catechins in all samples with ECA pellets decreased by 6-8 % relative to the control, and in general the amount of catechins was 32.2-40.8 mg/dm3 in the test samples against 34.6 mg/dm3 in the control by 14 days of post-fermentation, and in beer with organic grains - the level did not change significantly and was within the measurement error (34.6-47.7 mg/dm3). It was shown that the level of anthocyanogens in comparison with the control decreased by 7 days by 32-44 % in the pellet samples treated with ECA-water at 1 and 1.5 atm, respectively, and by the 14th day of post-fermentation, the pellet treated at 1.5 atm contributed to a sharp an increase in anthocyanogens by 2.2 times compared with the first day of after-fermentation in the case of ECA treatment and by 3 times - with organic processing of pellets. The level of peptides in the experimental samples relative to the control did not change during the post-fermentation.

1. Pushkar À. À., Shtepa V. N., Kulakovskaya V. I., Solov'yov V. V. A method for reducing the protein load on beer wort by using electrocoagulation and ultrasound processes. Pischevaya promyshlennost': nauka i tehnologii = Food industry: science and technology. 2020;13(4):70-79 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.47612/2073-4794-2020-13-4(50)-70-79.
2. Tertychnaya Ò. N., Shevtsov À. À., Mazhulina I. V., Solntsev V. N. Prospects for obtaining and using glucoamylase for use in food technologies. Tehnologii i tovarovedeniye selskohozyajstvennoy produktsii = Technology and commodity science of agricultural products. 2018;2(11):74-83 (In Russ.).
3. Klyuchnikov À. I., Polyanskiy Ê. Ê., Klyuchnokova D. V. Comprehensive assessment of the quality indicators of beer obtained by microfiltration using ceramic membranes. Sorbtsionniye i hromotograficheskiye processi = Sorption and chromatographic processes. 2021;21(5):764-773 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.17308/sorpchrom.2021.21/3783.
4. Evdokimova Å. V., Panova Ò. M., Yur'ev Yu. L. The activated carbon influence on the extraction degree of beer wort polyphenols. Vestnik tehnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Technological University. 2017;20(6):124-126 (In Russ.).
5. Razan H., Meledina T. V., Chernikhovets E. A., Manshin D. V. The efficiency of using new brands silica gel for colloidal stabilization of beer. Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2021;83(4,90):169-174. https://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2021-4-169-174.
6. Ikram S., Huang L., Zhang H., Wang J., Yin M. Composition and Nutrient Value Proposition of Brewers Spent Grain. Journal of Food Science. 2017;82:2232-2242. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13794.
7. Su Y., Wenzel M., Paasch S., Seifert M., Bohm W., Doert T., Weigand J. J. Recycling of Brewer's Spent Grain as a Biosorbent by Nitro-Oxidation for Uranyl Ion Removal from Wastewater. ACS Omega. 2021;6(30):19364-19377. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00589
8. Vendruscolo F., Reis C. L. F. S., Silva J. G. Brewery spent grain: a potential biosorbent for hexavalent chromium. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2021;127:127-134. https://doi.org/10.1002/jib.638.
9. GOST 12787-2021. Brewing products. Methods for determining the volume fraction of ethyl alcohol, the mass fraction of the actual extract and the calculation of the extractivity of the initial wort. Ìoscow: Standartinform, 2020. 32 p. (In Russ.)
10. GOST 12788-87. Beer. The method of determining of acidity. Ìoscow: Standartinform, 1987. 5 p. (In Russ.)
11. GOST 12789-87. Beer. The method of determining color. Ìoscow: Standartinform, 2011. 10 p. (In Russ.)
12. Ma S., Kim C., Neilson A. P. Comparison of Common Analytical Methods for the Quantification of Total Polyphenols and Flavanols in Fruit Juices and Ciders. Journal of Food Science. 2019;84(8):2147-2158. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14713.
13. Wannenmacher J., Gastl M., Becker T. Phenolic Substances in Beer: Structural Diversity, Reactive Potential and Relevance for Brewing Process and Beer Quality. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Technology. 2018;17(4):953-988. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12352.
14. Maltsev P. M., Velikaya Å. I., Zazirnaya Ì. V.,Kolotusha P. V. Chemical-technological control of malt and beer production: textbook. Ìoscow: Food industry, 1976. P. 76-77 (In Russ.).
15. Zhvirbliyanskaya À. Yu. Microbiological control of the production of beer and soft drinks. - schoolbook. Ìoscow: Food industry, 1970. 159 p. (In Russ.)
16. Gribkova I. N., Sevostyanova Å. Ì., Zakharov Ì. À., Kozlov V. I. The brewer's spent grain deep processing prospects. Part I. The physical processing influencing on the brewer's spent grain low molecular organic compounds composition. Pischevaya promyshlennos = Food processing industry. 2022;9: (In Russ.).
17. Wang K., Cui J.-H., Xing S.-Y., Ren X.-W. Selective Recognition of Acidic Amino Acids in Water by Calixpyridinium. Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2017;6:1385-1389. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajoc.201700259.
18. Speers R. Brewing Fundamentals, Part 3: Yeast Settling-Flocculation. MBAA TQ. 2016;53(1):17-22. https://doi.org/10.1094/TQ-53-1-0302-04.
Konstantin V. KOBELEV, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Irina N. GRIBKOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Valeriy I. KOZLOV
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Non-Alcoholic and Wine-making Industry - Branch of the V. M. Gorbatov Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu., Shterman V. S., Sidorenko Yu. I.Taurine as an ergogenic factor in sports nutrition

P. 12-15 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.002

Key words
sports nutrition, taurine, fat metabolism, calcium ions, antioxidants, thermoregulation, sports endurance

Nowadays, the possibility of using taurine as an ergogenic agent has attracted increasing interest among specialists, i. e. nutritional component of athletes, which, when taken additionally, can have a positive impact on their athletic performance. The aim of this article was to analyze the effectiveness of the use of taurine on the aerobic and anaerobic performance of athletes, to expand the limits of the onset of their physical and mental fatigue and to accelerate the recovery processes after intense physical exertion. One of the important physiological functions of taurine in the human organism, which may be the biological basis for increasing the endurance of athletes, is its participation in the regulation of fat metabolism. Taking taurine before exercise was found to increase the use of fats to meet the energy needs of athletes. As a result, taurine can reduce the consumption of athletes' stores of glycogen, the endogenous polymer of glucose, which is the main source for their energy production during high-intensity and prolonged physical exertion. This effect makes it possible to increase the endurance of athletes during such aerobic kinds of sports as running, swimming, cycling, skiing, skating, etc. Taurine can also act in the human body as an osmolyte, i.e. such a low molecular weight organic substance that is able to stabilize the osmotic pressure in cells when osmotic stress occurs in them; maintain homeostasis of calcium ions to maintain the normal contraction of the muscle fibers of athletes during prolonged physical exertion; act as an antioxidant, inhibiting the formation of excess free radicals; prevent the development of inflammatory processes in athletes; to take an active part as a neuromodulator in the processes of thermoregulation in the body of athletes, etc. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the additional intake of taurine can be considered by athletes as a simple, inexpensive and safe way to improve their athletic performance.

1. Kurtz J. A., VanDusseldorp T. A., Doyle J. A., et al. Taurine in sports and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2021;18:39.
2. Walden M., Patterson S. D., Jeffries O. Oral taurine improves critical power and severe-intensity exercise tolerance. Amino Acids. 2019;51:1433-1441.
3. Baker J. S., McCormic M. C., Robergs R. A. Interaction among skeletal muscle metabolic energy systems during intense exercise. Journal of Nutrition Metabolism. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155./2010/905612.
4. De Carvalho F. G., Barbieri R. A., Carvalho M. B., et al. Taurine supplementation can increase lipolysis and affect the contribution of energy systems during front crawl maximal effort. Amino acids. 2018:50(Pt 1). Doi: 10.1007/s00726-017-2505-3.
5. Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu. Extreme sports nutrition (on the example of ultramarathon athletes). Moscow: Maska, 2022. 164 p. (In Russ.)
6. Walden M., Patterson S. D., Jeffries O., et al. The effects of an oral taurine dose and supplementation period on endurance exercise performance in humans: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018;48:1247-1253.
7. Balshaw T. G. Bampauras T. M., Barry T. G., et al. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle distance running. Amino Acids. 2013;44(2):555-561.
8. Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu., Shterman V. S., et al. Energy benefits of using carbohydrates during intense exercise. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2020;(4):22-25 (In Russ.).
9. Carvalho M. B., Brandao C. F., Fassini P. G., et al. Taurine supplementation increases post-exercise lipid oxidation at moderate intensity in fasted healthy males. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1540-1553.
10. Schaffer S. W., Long C. J. Ramila K. C., et al. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2010;17:S2.
11. Spriet L. L., Whitfield J. Taurine and skeletal muscle function. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2015;18(1):96-101.
12. da Silva L. A., Tromm C. B., da Rosa G. L., et al. Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2014;39(1):101-104.
13. Shirvani H., Nikbakht H., Ebrahim Kh. G. A. The effects of soccer specific exercise and Taurine supplementation on serum cytokine response in male elite soccer players. Annals of Biological Research. 2012;3(9):4420-4426.
14. Silva L. A., Silveira P. C. Taurine supplementation decreases oxidative stressing in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 2011;29(1):43-49.
15. Zang M., Izumi I., Kagamimori S., et al. Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino Acids. 2004;26(2):203-207.
16. Page L.K., Jeffties O., Waldon M. Acute taurine supplementation enhances thermoregulation and endurance cycling performance in the heat. European Journal of Sport Science. 2019;19(8):1101-1109.
17. Guidelines MR Recommended levels of consumption of food and biologically active substances (In Russ.).
Sergey V. SHTERMAN, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Mikhail Yu. SIDORENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Valeriy S. SHTERMAN, Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Yuriy I. SIDORENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
1, Obolenskoe highway, Obolensk, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142279, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shevchenko T. V., Ustinova Yu. V., Popov A. M., Uzunov G. B., Gryaznova N. L.Ways of changing the degree of gelatin swelling in water systems

P. 16-18 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.003

Key words
gelatin, swelling, shungite, microwaves, activation and structuring of water

Today, it is necessary to introduce sound resource- and energy-saving technical solutions for the development of new industries. One of the most popular collagens in various industries is gelatin. To increase its volume and mass, it is necessary to ensure the contact of a high-molecular compound with a solvent. Gelatin swells only in "good solvents" due to the diffusion of water molecules and a high-molecular substance. A larger amount of protein goes into solution with an increase in water in the system. The results of a theoretical analysis on the methods of changing the structure and properties of water under the influence of physico-chemical and chemical methods of exposure and the results of experiments in this direction are presented. The results of comparative studies on the study of the kinetics of swelling of a protein thickener - a dry gelatin sample in aqueous solutions with various methods of preliminary preparation of the source water are presented. The effect of intensification of swelling during its mechanical and microwave processing and the effect of inhibition of swelling in water, which was previously infused with gravel from shungite, compared with swelling in water without its treatment, was established. The possibility of intensification of swelling of dry gelatin samples pretreated with microwaves in the initial untreated water has been proved. With the use of preliminary activation of water (mechanical stirring, microwave - microwave) and structuring with fullerene (from shungite), possible ways of controlling the process of gelatin swelling were found. The observed phenomena are presented in the form of different mechanisms: treated water is activated due to the destruction of water clusters, which have increased energy of interaction with gelatin macromolecules. Due to the treatment of a dry sample with microwaves, its structuring occurs. It was revealed that an increase in the rate of swelling of gelatin occurs in water during its preliminary mechanical treatment by stirring and when exposed to microwaves on dry samples compared with the source water. When using water infused with shungite, the degree of swelling of gelatin decreases. The found methods of controlling the process of gelatin swelling in water allow to increase the efficiency of production.

1. Vasil'eva A. P., Ermakova L. A., Voronkova M. V. Investigation of the swelling processes of high-molecular compounds. Nauchnyj zhurnal molodyh uchenyh = Scientific journal of young scientists. 2015; 1(4):26-27 (In Russ.).
2. Kleyko V. V., Mel'nichenko Yu. B. Kinetics and balance of swelling of gelatin gels. VMS. Seriya A = VMS. Series A. 1994;(3):461-465 (In Russ.).
3. Ivanchev S. S. Ozerin A. N. Nanostructures in polymer systems. Visokomolekulyarnie soedineniya = High molecular weight compounds. 2006;48(8):1531-1544 (In Russ.).
4. Sidorenko G. N., Laptev B. I., Gorlenko N. P., Antoshkin L. V. Changes in the properties of water and water-containing systems when using low-energy influences. Vestnik PNIPU. Himicheskaya tehnologiya i biotehnologiya = Bulletin of PNRPU. Chemical technology and biotechnology. 2018;(2):99-119 (In Russ.).
5. Rahmankulov D. L., Shavshukova S. Yu., Latypova F. N. Application of microwave technology in laboratory research and industry. Zhurnal prikladnoy himii = Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2002;75(9):1409-1416 (In Russ.).
6. Shevchenko T. V., Ustinova Yu. V. Carbon-containing materials-fullerenes: properties, applications: monograph. Kemerovo: Kemerovo State University, 2021. 91 p. (In Russ.).
7. Ismailov E. Sh. Shihaliev S. S., Kulieva R. G. The use of microwaves in food production. Izvestiya vuzov. Pischevaya tehnologiya = News of universities. Food technology. 2010(2-3):37-39 (In Russ.).
8. Ustinova Yu. V. Shevchenko T. V. Characteristics and application of microwave radiation: monograph. Kemerovo: KemTIPP, 2015. 141 p. (In Russ.)
9. Hromushin V. A., Chestnova T. V., Platonov V. V., Hadarcev A. A., Kireev S. S. Shungites as natural nanotechnology (literature review). Vestnik novih meditsinskih tehnologiy = Bulletin of New Medical Technologies [Electronic edition]. 2014;(1):162 (In Russ.).
10. Marcev A. A., Podolec A. A. The influence of the natural mineral shungite on some physical and chemical properties of water. Uspehi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya = Successes of modern natural science. 2015;(11-1):62-64 (In Russ.).
11. Borodin V. I. Truhacheva V. A. On the temperature stability of fullerenes. Sovremennie naukoemkie tehnologii = Modern high-tech technologies. 2004;(1):82-83 (In Russ.).
12. Piotrovskiy L. B., Litasova E. V., Dumpis M. A. Why do we need fullerenes today? Obzori po klinicheskoy farmakologii i lekarstvennoy terapii = Reviews of the Clinical pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2019;(2):5-15 (In Russ.).
13. Mosin O. V. Natural filter material shungite. Voda i ekologiya = Water and ecology. 2011;( 2):60-68 (In Russ.).
14. Smirnov A. N. Supramolecular complexes. Visokomolekulyarnie soedineniya = High molecular weight compounds. 2006;48(8):1531-1544 (In Russ.).
Tat'yana V. SHEVCHENKO, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Yuliya V. USTINOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Anatoliy M. POPOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
UZUNOV Gleb Borisovich, graduate student,
GRYAZNOVA Natal'ya Leonidovna, Candidate of Economic Sciences
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, 650043, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Alzhaxina N. Å., Dalabaev À. B. The effect of glycidyl esters in vegetable oils on the human body

P. 19-21 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.004

Key words
glycidyl esters, vegetable oils, trans fats, mass fraction, glycidol, 2-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol

The production of vegetable oils is a complex technological chain, including stages of high-temperature processing, such as refining and deodorization. Such treatment not only removes many undesirable components of freshly squeezed oils, but can also contribute to the formation of new ones that can negatively affect human health. Among the substances that adversely affect the human body, the most prominent are trans fats, glycidyl esters and esters containing chlorine. All these substances are carcinogens and have a detrimental effect on human health. In the human body, under the action of intestinal lipases, they are transformed into free forms that can exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties. The article presents the results of determining the content of glycidyl esters and the effect of fatty acids on the human body in samples of vegetable oils. The mass fraction varies from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/kg. It is also established that the basis of vegetable oils are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. By nature, the main fatty acid is palmitic acid. The work was carried out within the framework of Program-targeted financing of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan under the program BR10764977 "Development of modern technologies for the production of dietary supplements, enzymes, starters, starch, oils, etc. in order to ensure the development of the food industry". Such studies are promising for preliminary assessment of the presence of a chemical component in a sample, as well as for preliminary analysis of vegetable oils in general.

1. Weisshaar R., Perz R. Fatty acid esters of glycidol in refined fats and oils. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology. 2010;(112):158-165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200900137.
2. Ascherio A. Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;340:1994-1998. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM 199906243402511.
3. Bangun P. Physicochemical properties of palm stearin and palm mid fraction obtained by dry fractionation. Agritechnology. 2009;29:154-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.9701
4. Ozcagli E., Alpenunga V., Fenga S., Berktas M., Tsitsimpikou S., Wilks M. F., et a1. Effects of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its metabolites op DNA damage and repair under in vitro conditions. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 20l6;(89):1-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.12.027.
5. Deore B. Saccharide imprinting of poly (aniline boronic acid) in the presence of fluoride. Analyst. 2003. DOI: 10.1039/B300629H.
6. De Roos N. M. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids by trans fatty acids lowers serum HDL cholesterol and impairs endothelial function in healthy men and women. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2001;21:1233-1237.
7. Dorgan J. F. Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: A controlled feeding study. The American Journal Clinical Nutrition. 1996;64:850-855. Doi: 10.1093/ajcn/64.6.850.
8. El Ramy R., Ould Elhkim M., Lezmi S., Pou1 J. M. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-dio1 (3-MCPD) and its metabolites, glycidol and beta-chlorolactic acid, using the single cell gel/comet assay. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007;(45):41-48. Doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.014.
9. Aasa J., Vare D., Motwani H.V., Jenssen D., Tornqvist M. Quantification of the mutagenic potency and repair of glycidol-induced DNA lesions. Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2016;(80):538-545. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2016.05.011.
Nazym Å. ALZHAXINA, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences,
Àskhat B. DALABAEV, master
Astana branch "Kazakh research institute of processing and food industry" LTD,
47, Al-Farabi str., Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 010000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Pankratov G. N., Meleshkina E. P., Vitol I. S., Kolomiets S. N., Kechkin I. A.An integrated approach to the enrichment of flour products

P. 22-26 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.005

Key words
lentils, flax, co-grinding, enrichment mixture, flour products

Grain-based products or the so-called "bread group products" are the basis of the food pyramid. The consumption of bakery and flour confectionery products in Russia often exceeds the recommended norms. Leveling the associated negative health effects and solving the acute problem of health saving is possible by enriching traditional products and creating specialized food products. To solve this complex problem, a protein-fat concentrate (lentil-flax flour) with a unique composition of macro- and micronutrients, irreplaceable food components for use as a wheat flour fortifier in the production of flour products was obtained at the All-Russian Research Institute of Grain and Its Processing Products. The proportion of albumin-globulin fraction is 88 %, the fraction of alcohol-soluble proteins is absent. A significant predominance of PUFAs was established, the total content of which exceeds the content of saturated fatty acids by 8.3 times. At the same time, the amount of the most deficient essential alfa-linolenic acid (omega-3 family) was 6.11 % versus 0.05 % for wheat flour, taking into account the total fat content. To study the effect of lentil-flax flour, when it was added in an amount of 15 % of the total flour volume, on the indicators of finished products, waffles and crackers were baked according to the developed method of trial laboratory baking. The texture and taste of all variants corresponded to excellent characteristics. Variants with the addition of lentil-flax flour did not have any aftertaste. The total organoleptic score for wafer sheets was 32.5 points, for crackers - 32 points, indicating the standard quality of the products obtained. Bakery products with the addition of 15 % lentil-flax flour of the total mass of flour, when consumed in accordance with physiological norms, eliminate the lack of PUFA, enrich flour products with well-digestible protein fractions and, in general, increase the balance of the diet of a modern person

1. Vanina L. V. Efficiency of flour fortification in a flour mill. Hleboprodukti = Bread products. 2021;(10):52-54 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.32462/0235-2508-2021-30-10-52-54
2. Posnova G. V., Ivanova N. G., Nikitin I. A., Shinov G. A. Shortbread technology with a balanced fatty acid composition. Hleboprodukti = Bread products. 2021;(11):34-39 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.32462/0235-2508-2021-30-11-34-39
3. Maradudin M. S., Simakova I. V., Smolentseva A. A., Shelkova Ya. I. Influence of bean flour on the rheological and baking properties of dough from a composite mixture based on wheat flour. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2020;(4):17-21 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.24411/0235-2486-2020-10039
4. Plotnikova I. V. Use of Lentil Bean Suspension in the Production of Lenten and Vegetarian Muffins. Hleboprodukti = Bread products. 2020;(6):38-41 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.32462/0235-2508-2020-29-6-38-41
5. Misteneva S. Yu., Scherbakova N. A., Zaytseva L. V., Baskakov A. V. Development of the direction of complex fortification of flour confectionery products. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2022;(4):47-52 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.52653/PPI.2022.4.4.013
6. Chemical composition of Russian food products: Directory / editors I. M. Skurikhin and V. A. Tutel'yan. Moscow: DeLi print, 2002. 236 ð. (In Russ.) ISBN 5-94343-028-8
7. Pankratov G. N., Meleshkina E. P., Vitol I.S., Kechkin I. A., Kolomiets S. N. Protein-fat concentrate for enrichment of wheat flour. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food systems. 2022;5(2):107-113 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771 2022-5-2-107-113
8. Tipsina N. N., Batura N. G., Demidov E. L., Beloshapkin M. S. Characteristics of lentils and its use in the food industry. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. 2020;11:225-231 (In Russ.). http://doi.org/10.36718/1819-4036-2020-11-225-231
9. Efremov D. P. Promising domestic developments in the field of production of flour products with flax seeds and products of their processing. Vestnik VGUIT = Bulletin of VSUIT. 2021;83(4):209-218 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2021-4-209-218
10. Koneva S. I., Egorova E. Ju., Kozubaeva L. A., Reznichenko I. Ju. The influence of flax flour on the rheological properties of dough from wheat and flax flour and the quality of bread. Tehnika i tehnologiya pischevih proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2019;49(1):85-96 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/ 10.21603/2074-9414-2019-1-85-96
11. Paschenko V. L. Lentil beans - a promising protein food. Uspehi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya = Successes of modern natural science. 2006;12:97-97 (In Russ.)
12. Chakanova Zh. M., Mahambetova A. A., Sarbasova G. T., Shaymerdenova D. A., Iskakova D. M., Bekbolatova M. B. Method for obtaining a whole grain product from buckwheat and lentils. Vestnik Almatinskogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Almaty Technological University. 2020;3:20-25 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.48184/2304-568X-2020-3-20-25 (In Russ.)
13. Minevich I. Je. The functional significance of flax seeds and the practice of their use in food technologies. Health, Food & Biotechnology. 2019;1(2):97-120 (In Russ.).
14. Tutel'yan V. A., Nikityuk D. B., Baturin A. K., Vasil'ev A. V., Gapparov M. G., Zhilinskaya N. V. Nutriom as the direction of the "main blow": determination of physiological needs for macro- and micronutrients, minor biologically active substances of food. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of nutrition. 2020;89(4):24-34 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10039
15. Tyurina I. A., Nevskaya E. V., Tyurina O. I., Borisova A. E. Development of a High Protein Baking Composite Mix for Enriched Bakery Products. Hleboprodukti = Bakery products. 2019;9:53-55. https://doi.org/10.32462/0235-2508-2019-31-9-53-55 (In Russ.)
16. Paschenko V. L. Lentil beans - a promising protein food fortifier. Uspehi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya = Successes of modern natural science. 2006;12:97 (In Russ.).
17. Kondykov I. V. Lentil culture in the world and the Russian Federation (review). Legumes and cereal crops. 2012;2(2):13-20. (In Russ.)
18. MR Methodical recommendations Norms of physiological needs for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2021. 77 ð. (In Russ.)
19. GOST 14031-2014. Wafers. General specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. P. 11 (In Russ.).
20. GOST 31986-2012. Catering services. Method of organoleptic assessment of the quality of public catering products. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. P. 14 (In Russ.).
21. Popova A. Yu., Tutel'yan V. A., Nikityuk D. B. On new norms of physiological needs for energy and nutrients for various yroups of the population of the Russian Federation. Voprosi pitaniya = Problems of nutrition. 2021;90(4):6-19 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.33029/0042-8833-2021-90-4-6-19
Georgy N. PANKRATOV, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Elena P. MELESHKINA, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Irina S. VITOL, Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Svetlana N. KOLOMIETS, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Ivan A. KECHKIN, Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Dolgaya A. A.Sustainable organization management: properties of the system

P. 27-31 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.006

Key words
sustainable organization, sustainable management, management system of sustainability, model of sustainable management, values of sustainability, leader of sustainable organization, attributes of sustainability, management of sustainable organization

The purpose of the study is to identify the characteristics of the management system of a sustainable organization and the driving forces of its development. The obtained result is used to adapt the author's architectonics of the management system to the model of a sustainable organization. To achieve this goal, the author analyzed the existing approaches to assessing sustainability used by scientific organizations, consulting companies; management models of sustainable organizations both in the form of cases and in an analytical form. The characteristics of companies regarded as models of sustainable business were grouped, organizational defects were identified, deviations from the ideal image of sustainability, which were identified by the author as opportunities for the growth of sustainability. As a result of the analysis, the important role of digital technologies in improving the environmental friendliness of production processes is noted, which, however, is not in itself a factor in the formation of sustainability. The requirements of international organizations create a formal framework in the form of indicators of a sustainable organization, compliance with which is often conditional: in isolation from the company's strategy and is not integrated into the management system. The author has revealed that in order to overcome the formal attitude to achieving sustainability, it is critically important not only to comply with the relevant organizational standards, but also to build an organizational culture based on certain values. The systematization of the research results was carried out according to the methodology of the author's architectonics of the organization's management system. The features of managing a sustainable business organization were identified, among which a key place, as a necessary condition for existence, is occupied by a set of values of a leader. This particular set of values is called "Sustainability" by the authors, and it determines the proper functioning of other elements of the system: organizational culture, performance indicators and internal standards. The most obvious sign of the influence of the set of values "Sustainability" on the management system are investment decisions, and in particular, the choice of production technologies in the development of the company. Also, an obvious indicator of a leader's set of values is the criteria for making managerial decisions on the use of resources for the production of new goods or services. The study confirmed the need to include the analysis of the values of the leader in the assessment of the sustainability of business organizations.

1. Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. UN Documents. n.d. Web. Retriev ed 27 June 2020. http://www.un-documents.net/ocf-02.htm
2. Global Lighthouse Network: Reimagining Operations for Growth. World economic Forum, White paper. March 2021 (accessed 04.08.2022).
3. ISO Consumer Policy Committee (COPOLCO), The Desirability and Feasibility of ISO Corporate Social Responsibility Standards. Final Report, May 2002, available at http://www.iso.org/iso/en/commcentre/presentations/wkshps-seminars/copolco/ copolco2002/cop2002report.pdf (accessed 04.08.2022)
4. United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Sustainable Development. https://sdgs.un.org/goals (accessed 04.08.2022).
5. Dolgaya À. À. Notion and model of organizational management system. Uchenie zapiski vsemirnoy academii predprinimatelstva = Scientific notes of the Russian Academy of entrepreneurship. 2014;(38):44-53 (In Russ.).
6. Tranfield D., Denyer D. and Smart P. Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management. 2003;14(3):207-222.
7. Kitchenham B. A. and Charters S. Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering version 2.3. EBSE Technical Report, Keele University and University of Durham, 2007.
8. Young D., Reeves M. The Quest for Sustainable Business Model Innovation. March 10, 2020. https://www.bcg.com/publications/2020/quest-sustainable-business-model-innovation
9. Edgeman R., Williams J. A. Enterprise self-assessment analytics for sustainability, resilience and robustness. The TQM Journal. 2014;26(4):368-381.
10. Roos G. Some issues around moving towards a more sustainable economy. In B+I Strategy, Estrategia. Bilbao. Spain. 2020;9:66-74.
11. Luk'yanov V. I. Balance of steady economic development of organizations. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2008;(1):32-33 (In Russ.).
12. de Boer, E., George K., Giraud Y. CEO dialogue: Perspectives on reimagining operations for growth. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/ceo-dialogue-perspectives-on-reimagining-operations-for-growth April 7, 2021 (accessed 04.08.2022).
13. Supply Chain Sustainability Trends https://www.gartner.com/en/supply-chain/trends/supply-chain-sustainability
14. Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon & Ricart, Joan E. Competing through business models. IESE Research Papers D/713, IESE Business School. 2007. https://ideas.repec.org/p/ebg/iesewp/d-0713.html
15. Geradts T., Bocken N. Driving Sustainability-Oriented Innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review. 2018.
16. Epstein M. J. and Roy M.-J. Improving Sustainability Performance: Specifying, Implementing and Measuring Key Principles. Journal of General Management. 2003;29(1).
17. Dolgaya A., Kovbasyuk O., Altunina V. Organizational Culture Power as a Factor of Governance Model Implementation E3S Web Conference. 208 06013. 2020. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202020806013
18. Dilts R. The PERICEO Tool: Teams and Organizations, Develop Your Capacity for Collective Intelligence, co-authored with Elisabeth Falcone, Isabelle Meiss and Gilles Roy, Dilts Strategy Group. Scotts Valley, CA, 2019.
19. Sinek, Simon. Find Your Why: a Practical Guide for Discovering Purpose for You and Your Team. New York: Portfolio/Penguin. 2017. ISBN 9781101992982. OCLC 963912431
20. Robbins S. P. Organizational Behavior: concepts, controversies, applications, 7th edition. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996.
21. Sustainable Certification for Future Generations: The Case of Family Business Magali A. Delmas and Olivier Gergaud Family Business Review published online 17 June 2014. DOI: 10.1177/0894486514538651
22. Delmas M., Durand R. Measuring Business Impacts on Well-Being: a Goal Oriented Approach. UCLA https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1sw5x14m Publication Date 2018-09-18 (accessed 04.08.2022).
Angelina A. DOLGAYA, Ñandidate of Economic Sciences
Kaliningrad State Technical University,
1, Sovetskiy avenue, Kaliningrad, Russia, 236000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Seitov S. K. Opportunities for agricultural robotics development in Russia

P. 32-36 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.007

Key words
agriculture, robotics, patent, Fourth industrial revolution

The concern of the state with the development of agriculture is another proof of how significant this sector of the economy is for Russia. The lag of Russian agriculture from Western countries in technical terms can be overcome by introducing robots into production. One of the most important priorities for the development of agriculture is the technical and technological modernization of the industry. The morally and physically obsolete ones are being replaced by modern high-performance and less energy-intensive machines. Conditions are being created under which many agricultural enterprises are consciously switching from the purchase of certain types of equipment to the purchase of units and complexes of machines that make it possible to introduce resource-saving technologies for cultivating and harvesting crops. One of the leading directions here is robotics. Rapidly growing environmental technologies and the need for high quality agricultural products are constantly driving the growth of the agricultural robotics market. Robots are not only a model of a new mode of production, their most important task is to create a fundamentally different agriculture. Robots, by facilitating, automating and mechanizing hard rural labor, can make it profitable, and the work of farmers comfortable and convenient. Using robots, it is possible to make rural life attractive for the return of an innovatively active young generation to the village. Robotization of agriculture may face a number of technical and economic limitations. The aim of the study is to substantiate the feasibility of developing agricultural robotics in Russia based on an analysis of its capabilities and limitations. The introduction of digital solutions will make agriculture more technologically advanced and free a significant number of enterprises from inefficient time spent on routine work. Robotization will play the role of the main issue for the competitiveness of manufacturers in the market. Robots will facilitate effective, high-quality decision-making, which is not limited to business development alone, and, in addition, will help to avoid losing decisions that are fraught with bankruptcy in the future.

1. Database Questel Orbit. URL: https://orbit.com/ (accessed: 2021, December 24).
2. Lyasnikov N. V. Digital agricultural sector of Russia: breakthrough technologies of fourth technological order. Prodovol'stvennaya politika i bezopasnost' = Food policy and security. 2018;5(4):169-182 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.18334/ppib.5.4.41295.
3. Malineckij G. Russian Federation Outlook report. ANO Center for strategic assessments and forecasts. 26.03.2011. URL: http://csef.ru/ru/politica-i-geopolitica/477/georgij-malineczkij-doklad-o-perspektivah-rf-1361 (accessed: 11.01.2022).
4. Plotnikov A. V. The role of the digital economy for the agro-industrial complex. Moskovskiy ekonomicheskiy zhurnal = Moscow economic journal. 2019;(7):196-203 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/2413-046H-2019-17040.
5. Simachev Yu., Kuzyk M., Feygina V. R&D cooperation between Russian firms and research organizations: Is there a need for state assistance? Issues of economy. 2014;(7):4-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2014-7-4-34.
6. Simachev Yu., Kuzyk M. The impact of state development institutions on the innovative behavior of firms: qualitative effects. Issues of economy. 2017;(2):109-135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2017-2-109-135.
7. Simachev Yu. V., Kuzyk M. G., Fedyunina A. A., Zaytsev A. A., Yurevich M. A. Labor productivity in the non-resource sectors of the Russian economy: What determines firm-level growth? Issues of economy. 2021;(3):31-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2021-3-31-67
8. Shvab K., Devis N. Technologies of the Fourth industrial revolution (from English translation). Moscow: Eksmo, 2018. 320 p. (In Russ.)
9. Fedorenko V. F., Chernoivanov B. I., Gol'tyapin V. Ya., Fedorenko I. B. Global trends in the intellectualization of agriculture: scientific and analytical review. Moscow: Rosinformagrotekh, 2018. 232 p. (In Russ.) ISBN: 978-5-7367-1434-6.
Sanat K. SEITOV, postgraduate student
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1, build. 46, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kulikova N. E., Chernobrovina A. G., Popova O. Yu.Intensification of the bioconversion of rye grain with different biochemical characteristics in the production of sugar-containing products

P. 37-41 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.008

Key words
rye grain, hydrolysis, activation, enzyme

One of the modern directions of rational development of production and improvement of the quality of products is the integrated use of raw materials. The search for new ways to intensify production processes, the development of effective technologies and equipment, the introduction of complex mechanization and automation of technological processes, especially in a number of branches of the food industry, including bakery, confectionery, canning, starch, etc. The article presents its own research in the field of processing of non-conditioned raw materials, namely rye grain with biochemical features, not suitable for use in the baking industry, by enzymatic hydrolysis. Conditions have been developed for the intensification of the bioconversion of whole grain raw materials, which differs from those generally accepted in this field. The possibility of completely abandoning the use of thermostable alpha-amylase at the stage of gelatinization and liquefaction and replacing it with its own amylase complex of rye grains is shown. The possibility of increasing the effective use of glucoamylase at the saccharification stage by preliminary heat treatment in the presence of zinc ions has been studied, which has significantly reduced the duration of the process of bioconversion of rye grain while significantly reducing the amount of enzyme preparation introduced. Analysis of the carbohydrate composition of the resulting product showed that a significant part is mono- and oligosaccharides, the predominant in quantitative terms is glucose 45.4 % per SV. In terms of protein, fiber, minerals and lipids, sugar-containing hydrolysate differs slightly from rye flour and, therefore, just like rye flour, the resulting sugar-containing product can be an important supplier of essential amino acids, dietary fiber, saturated and polyunsaturated acids, vitamins for the human body. Organoleptic evaluation of the resulting product: color - from light beige to light brown, taste and smell - sweet and sour with a bread aroma, appearance - a viscous homogeneous not transparent mass, can be recommended as sugar substitutes in various areas of the food industry, especially when receiving bakery and flour confectionery products.

1. Kretova Yu. I. Prospects of using non-traditional raw materials in brewing technology: domestic and foreign experience. Bulletin of the South Ural State university. Series "Food and Biotechnology". 2017;5(4): (In Russ.).
2. Aksenov V. Complex processing of vegetable starch-containing raw materials in Russia. Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk agrarian University. 2007;(4): (In Russ.)
3. Donov S. A., Kadetova M. Yu. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and starch-containing vegetable raw materials in the production of sugar-containing products for animal husbandry (review of patents). Bulletin de Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian university. 2019;3(144): (In Russ.).
4. Kochetov V. The concept of development of the food and processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020. Monograph edited by Nechaev V. I. Krasnodar: Prosveschenie-Yug, 2011:36. Agriculture Russia. 2012;(9):94-95 (In Russ.).
5. Aksenov V. V. Introduction of innovative technologies in the processing of grain raw materials. Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian university. 2012(2): (In Russ.).
6. Sysuev V. A., Kedrova L. I., Utkina E. I. Priority areas of research in solving the problem of multifunctional use of winter rye. Agricultural Science Euro-Northeast. 2014;6(43): (In Russ.).
7. Andreev N. R. et al. Development of a comprehensive technology for processing rye into starch and sugary products. Achievements of science and technology of the agro-industrial complex. 2012(6): (In Russ.).
8. Andreev N. R., Lukin N. D., Papakhin A. A. Deep processing of winter rye grain. Agricultural Science Euro-Northeast. 2014;6(43): (In Russ.).
9. Loginova M. V. Development of technology and application of new rye products in the production of bakery and flour confectionery products; thesis. Moscow State Academy of food production, 1996 (In Russ.).
10. Khusin F. K. et al. Improving the production technology of bakery products based on crushed sprouted wheat grain. Bulletin of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2017;79(1)71: (In Russ.).
11. Pasynkov A. V. et al. Changes in the quality indicators of winter rye grain during its fractionation. Achievements of science and technology of the agro-industrial complex. 2013;(9): (In Russ.).
12. Kulikova N. E., Chernobrovina A. G. Obtaining various sugary products from starch-containing raw materials. Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2014;(5):17-20 (In Russ.).
13. Kolpakova V. V., Chelnokova E. Ya., Bakhitov T. A. A method for obtaining a sugar-containing product from rye grain. 2009 (In Russ.).
14. Plushkin E. V. Bioconversion products of starch of grain raw materials with the use of malt and enzyme preparation. Bulletin of Kazan Technical University. 2014;17(2): (In Russ.).
15. A method for obtaining a sugar-containing product from rye flour / I. A. Popadich, I. S. Shub, I. V. Bazina, M. V. Potyaykina. Patent RU 2013449 C1 (51) 5C13K1/06, C12R19/14 (In Russ.).
16. Kulikova N. E. et al. Studies of conformational changes in the enzyme molecule under the action of heat treatment in the presence of certain metal ions. Bulletin of the Far East Branch of RAS. 2020;5(213):133-137 (In Russ.).
17. Koneva S. I. Features of the use of flax seed processing products in the production of bakery products. Polzunovsky bulletin. 2016;(3): (In Russ.).
18. Dudko M. A., Sokol N. V. Technological features of wheat varieties with high protein content. Eurasian Union of scientists. 2015;4-3(13): (In Russ.).
Nataliya E. KULIKOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Antonina G. CHERNOBROVINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ol'ga Yu. POPOVA
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Samoylov A. V., Nikiforova A. N., Nikolaeva Yu. V.Study of natural plant extracts as a replacement for the synthetic antioxidant EDTA in mayonnaise products

P. 42-45 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.009

Key words
natural antioxidant, peroxide value, induction period, lipid oxidation, shelf life, rosemary extract, spinach extract, mayonnaise

EDTA is a traditional synthetic antioxidant widely used in the manufacture of mayonnaise products. The antioxidant effect of EDTA is primarily due to its chelating ability with respect to lipid oxidation catalysts - metal ions of variable valence, primarily iron. Iron ions are found in egg products that are part of mayonnaise products. Their presence leads to an increase in the rate of the lipid oxidation reaction of the oil phase of the mayonnaise emulsion and a decrease in the shelf life of the finished product. Recently, there has been an increase in requests for a "clean label" in food products around the world, making it more attractive to consumers. In this regard, the search for a natural antioxidant similar in action to replace EDTA in mayonnaise products is an urgent task. Such a substance, according to the results of previous studies of the authors, was a mixture of plant extracts of rosemary and spinach. Due to the presence of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary - carnosol and carnosic acid - which have antiradical properties, and in spinach - oxalic acid, which exhibits chelating ability, as well as other bioactive substances, the combination of extracts of these plants turned out to be effective. This paper describes the results of a study of the antioxidant properties of the complex plant extract "ExtraOx® Spinach and Rosemary Extract AR 1303" developed by JSC "Akvanova RUS" in order to replace the synthetic antioxidant EDTA in mayonnaise products. As research methods, we used the determination of the induction period on the "Oxytest" device and PV during storage of model direct emulsions and mayonnaises at different temperatures. It was determined that the plant extract of spinach and rosemary "ExtraOx® Spinach and Rosemary Extract AR 1303" at a dosage of 0.2-0.3 % in antioxidant action is able to replace synthetic EDTA at a standard dosage of 0.0075 % in mayonnaise "Provensal" 67 % with expiration date. Thus, the developed extract can serve as a full-fledged replacement for EDTA in mayonnaise products.

1. TR TS 024/2011. Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 024/2011 "Technical Regulations for Oil and Fat Products". Moscow: Tehnormativ, 2014. 36 p. (In Russ.)
2. Nikiforova A. N., Samoylov A. V., Nikolaeva Yu. V., Fedorova E. M. Study of the antioxidant properties of plant extracts using the DPPH method. Agropromyshlennye tehnologii Central'noj Rossii = Agro-industrial technologies of Central Russia. 2021:4(22):22-27 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24888/2541-7835-2021-22-22-30.
3. Nikiforova A. N., Samoylov A. V., Nikolaeva Yu. V., Fedorova E. M. Search for plant extracts promising for use as antioxidants for emulsion products. Prodovol'stvennaja bezopasnost': nauchnoe, kadrovoe i informacionnoe obespechenie: sbornik nauchnyh statej i dokladov = Food security: scientific, personnel and information support: a collection of scientific articles and reports. Voronezh: VSUIT, 2022. P. 142-149 (In Russ.).
4. Samoylov A. V., Severinenko S. M., Kochetkova A. A. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract in the fatty bases of functional spreads. Sbornik materialov jubilejnoj studencheskoj nauchnoj konferencii, posvjaschennoj 75-letiju MGUPP = Collection of materials of the jubilee student scientific conference dedicated to the 75th anniversary of MGUPP. Moscow: MSUFP, 2015. P. 27-31 (In Russ.).
5. Popova I. Yu., Sizova N. V., Vodyanik A. R. On the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts from plant materials as antioxidant additives. Rynok BAD = BAA market. 2003:4:20-22 (In Russ.).
6. Zhuravko E. V., Gruzinov E. V., Kostrova E. I. Functional foods. Moscow: Pischepromizdat, 2004. 23 p. (In Russ.)
7. Nechaev A. P. Scientific bases of technologies for obtaining functional fat products of a new generation. Masla i zhiry = Oils and fats. 2007;(8):26-27 (In Russ.).
8. State Standard 31762-2012. Mayonnaises and mayonnaise sauces. Sampling rules and test methods. Moscow: Standartinform, 2014. 32 p. (In Russ.)
9. State Standard 34815-2021 Foods. Accelerated oxidation test using the oxidation test reactor. Moscow: Rossiyskij institut standartizacii, 2022. 12 p. (In Russ.)
Anatoliy V. SAMOYLOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
JSC "Aquanova Rus",
12, Nauki avenue, Dubna, Moscow region, 141983, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yulia V. NIKOLAEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Volkova G. S., Kuksova E. V., Yuraskina T. V., Fursova N. A., Sokolova E. N., Serba E. M.Obtaining microbial biomass based on a consortium of baker's yeast and lactic acid bacteria

P. 46-50 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.010

Key words
biomass, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, consortium, amino acid composition

The paper presents the results of laboratory experimental studies of obtaining two preparations of microbial biomass for creating enriched food products based on a consortium of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 314 or Lactobacillus acidophilus var. ñoñcoideus M-94 and baking yeast Sacharomyces cerevisiae Y-726/5, The aim of the study was to study the accumulation of biomass by lactic acid bacteria and yeast consortium. 14 °B malt mash was used as a nutrient medium. During cultivation the total content of organic acids in terms of lactic acid according to GOST ISO 750-2013 was investigated in dynamics, the protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method according to GOST 32044.1-2012, the content of reducing sugars by the Schomodi-Nelson method. Morphological properties of the studied cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast were studied. The dynamics of lactic acid accumulation by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria was studied. It was found that strain Lactobacillus acidophilus var. ñoñcoideus M-94 had a shorter la-phase than Lactobacillus plantarum 314. At 24 hours of growth, the strains synthesize 1.65-1.80 % lactic acid. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-726/5 accumulated biomass of 8 g/100 cm3 of nutrient medium in 24 hours of growth, with a specific growth rate of 0.181 h-1. Consortia had the following composition: Lactobacillus plantarum 314 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-726/5 and Lactobacillus acidophilus var. ñoñcoideus M-94 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-726/5. After 18 hours of growth, 15 % of 24-hour culture of lactic acid bacteria was added to the flasks with yeast biomass and fermentation was continued without aeration under steady-state conditions for 12 hours at 35 °C. Control of fermentation was carried out according to the content of reducing substances and the content of dry substances in the medium; microscopy of culture liquids at the end of cultivation was carried out, which showed that yeast and bacteria cultures formed a mixed population and formed a symbiosis. The resulting culture liquids were centrifuged at 5000 rpm. 20 min. The biomass yield was 24.4-22.6 % of the culture liquid. Kjeldahl analysis of protein content showed that yeast consortium biomass with Lactobacillus plantarum 314 contained 53.2 % protein, and biomass with Lactobacillus acidophilus var. ñoñcoideus M-94 contained 52.5 %. Analysis of amino acids of the obtained microbial biomass of yeast and lactic acid bacteria consortiums compared with yeast biomass showed changes in the content of essential amino acids, a slight decrease in lysine content, and an increase in the content of substitutable amino acids: glycine, proline, serine. Thus, the amino acid composition of biomass of consortia is characterized by a good balance of essential amino acids. The results of the amino acid composition of yeast and lactic acid bacteria biomass consortia suggest that the obtained samples of microbial biomass are a promising source of dietary protein.

1. Bannitsyna T. E., Kanarskiy A. V., Scherbakov A. V., Chebotar V. K., Kiprushkina E. I. Yeast in modern biotechnology. Vestnik mezhdunarodnoy akademii holoda = Bulletin of the International Academy of Refrigeration. 2016;(1):24-29 (In Russ.).
2. Dudikova G. N., Chizhaeva A. V. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast consortium for rye starter with increased antagonistic propertie. Tehnika i tehnologiya pischevih proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2016;2(41):34-39 (In Russ.).
3. Kulakov V., Alyoshkin A. V., Afanas'ev S. S., Zhilenkova O. G. Development polycomponent metabolite probiotic. Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunologii = Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunology. 2013;(5):80-86 (In Russ.).
4. Krumlikov V. Yu. Ostroumov L. A. Selection of parameters of stabilization of symbiotic consortium in order to obtain direct application starter. Tehnika i tehnologiya pischevih proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2016;42(3):25-300 (In Russ.).
5. Bokova T. A. Microbiocenosis of the gastrointestinal tract: the place of metabiotics in the correction of dysbiotic disorders. Voprosi prakticheskoy pediatrii = Voprosy Practical Pediatrics. 2016;11(5):38-42 (In Russ.).
6. Chioschietti G. M., Jadan-Piedra C., Monedero V., Zuniga M., Velez D., Devesa V. Use of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to reduse exposure to chemical food contaminants and toxicity. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;59(10):1534-1545.
7. Minervini F., Lattanzi A., De Angelis M., Celano G., Gobbetti M. House microbiotas as sources of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional Italian sourdoughs. Food Microbiology. 2015;52:66-76.
8. Abdulaeva N. F. Microbiological and biochemical characteristics of lactic acid bacteria and their applications (review). Aktualnie problemi gumanitarnih i estestvennih nauk = Actual problems of humanities and natural sciences. 2017;(3):31-35 (In Russ.).
9. Volkova G. S., Kuksova E. V., Serba E. M. The study of the production properties of individual strains of lactic acid bacteria to create probiotics. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2020;(3):8-11 (In Russ.).
10. Gizatov A. Ya., Gizatova N. V., Mironova I. V., Gazeev I. R., Nigmatyanov A. A. Creation and use of microorganism in meat production. Periodico Tche Quimica. 2020;17(35):713-727.
11. Abdulaeva N. F. Biochemical and probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli and the scope of their application. Biologicheskie nauki = Biological Sciences. 2020;25-1(77):8-11 (In Russ.).
12. Prosekov A. Yu. Innovative management of starter cultures biotechnology. Tehnika i tehnologiya pischevih proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2016;43(4):64-67 (In Russ.).
13. Egorova M. A., Netrusov A. I., Zakharchuk L. M., et al. Practical training in microbiology. Moscow: Academiya, 2005. 608 p. (In Russ.)
14. Yarullina D. R. Bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus: general characteristics and methods of work with them: teaching aithe educational and methodological manual. Kazan: Kazan University, 2014. 51 p. (In Russ.)
15. Svetlakova E. V., Ogeredova N. A., Verevkina M. N., Kononov A. N. The use of lactic acid bacteria in biotechnological processes. Sovremennie problemi nauki i obrazovaniya = Modern problems of science and education. 2015;(3):559 (In Russ.).
Galina S. VOLKOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Elena V. KUKSOVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Tat'yana V. YURASKINA,
Natal'ya A. FURSOVA,
Elena N. SOKOLOVA, Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Elena M. SERBA, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS, Corresponding Member of RAS
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kalinina A. G., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Shubina N. A. The structure of the post-intoxication period and a number of physiological indicators of experimental animals after forced intoxication with drinks based on grain distillates

P. 51-54 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.011

Key words
distilled beverages, corn distillate, whiskey, toxicity of alcoholic beverages, ethyl alcohol withdrawal syndrome, dependence on ethanol, effect on animals of various beverages

The purpose of this study was to study the biological effect on laboratory animals (mongrel rats) of whiskey and unopened distillate obtained from corn, in comparison with a 40% solution of ethyl alcohol. The composition of toxic micro-impurities in the samples was determined by gas chromatography, as well as the composition of phenolic and furan compounds in the whiskey sample by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study was conducted on 33 male rats with a body weight of 230-250 g, who had not previously had contact with alcohol. The animals were divided into experimental and control groups of 11 individuals each. The introduction of alcoholic beverages lasted for 10 days in two ways: intragastric administration with an interval of 12 hours in strictly calculated doses: 5.0-5.5 g / kg of ethanol and semi-alcoholic consumption of beverages diluted to 10 % strength. During the study, the following parameters were recorded: body weight gain, manifestation of ethanol withdrawal syndrome (intergroup comparison), time of passive behavior, motor and research activity, endurance of animals before and after intoxication. Indicators of withdrawal syndrome decreased faster in the experimental groups compared to the control group. The time of passive behavior also decreased in the experimental groups, in the control group it significantly increased when comparing the indicators before and after intoxication. The research activity and endurance of the animal groups receiving whiskey and whiskey distillate increased or remained at the initial level (before intoxication). In the control group (ethyl alcohol solution), the passive behavior of animals after intoxication significantly increased with a degree of confidence of P<0.001 in comparison with that recorded before the period of intoxication, and the indicators of research activity - standing and "looking into minks", and their total index, endurance indicators - significantly decreased. Based on the experimental data obtained, it is concluded that distilled beverages have a less toxic effect on the body compared to beverages made on the basis of rectified alcohol.

1. Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Martirosyan A. S., Zudenkov D. E. Method of whiskey production. Russia patent RU 2689533. 28.05.2019. Request No. 2018140546 of 16.11.2018.
2. Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Martirosyan A. S. Method of whiskey production. Patent RU 2689534, 28.05.2019. Request No. 2018140547 of 16.11.2018.
3. Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E, Morozova S. S. Method of whiskey production. Patent RU 2766607, 15.03.2022. Request No. 2021121940 of 23.07.2021.
4. Nuzhniy V. P. Methodological aspects of assessing the toxicity of alcohol-containing liquids and alcoholic beverages. Toksikologicheskiy vestnik = Toxicological Bulletin. 1999;(4):2-10 (In Russ.).
5. Nuzhniy VP. Toxicity of alcoholic beverages and the possibility of its assessment. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnih izdeliy = Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. 2001;(2):16-17 (In Russ.).
6. Buresh Ya., Bureshova O., H'yuston D. P. Methods and basic experiments on the study of the brain and behavior. Moscow: Higher School, 1991. P. 119-122 p. (In Russ.)
7. STP-M. 621.21.0008.03-20M. The method of instrumental analysis of motor function in model animals in the test "rotating rod". Chernogolovka M. O., 2014. 11 ð. (In Russ.)
8. Abramova I. M., Kalinina A. G., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Gallyamova L. P., Shubina N. A., Gneusheva S. L. Investigation of the biological effect of whiskey in comparison with a solution of a water-alcohol solution of similar strength on animals in an experiment. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2020;11:16-19 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235-2486-2020-10120.
9. Nuzhniy V. P., Zabirova I. G., Surkova L. A., Listvina V. P., et al. Comparative experimental study of acute and subacute toxic effects of cognac and whiskey. Narcology. 2002;(10):46-52 (In Russ.).
Anna G. KALININA, Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Natal'ya E. GOLOVACHEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Svetlana S. MOROZOVA, Candidate of Ñhemical Sciences,
Irina M. ABRAMOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Natal'ya A. SHUBINA
Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of Federal Research Center of Food and Biotechnology,
4 B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Perfilova O. V., Bryksina K. V., Ivanova E. P., Tolstova N. Yu.Innovative technology of fruit paste and its application in bakery

P. 55-58 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.012

Key words
microwave heating, mountain ash, hawthorn, mint, antioxidants, puree, powder, paste, bread

The aim of the work was to determine the effectiveness of using microwave heating in the production of puree from hawthorn fruits, mountain ash and powder from peppermint leaves for further preparation of fruit paste for baking based on them. The studies were carried out in the laboratory of functional food products of the Michurinsk State Agrarian University of the Tambov Region. Depending on the type of raw material, the advantage of microwave heating was established in comparison with traditional methods: blanching and convective drying in terms of the content of antioxidants such as flavonoids, carotene and vitamin C, which increased by 1.2-2.8, 1.01-1.4 and 1.1-3.3 times, respectively. A technology has been developed for fruit paste based on hawthorn fruit puree, mountain ash and peppermint leaf powder in a recipe ratio of 57:38:5, characterized by an increased antioxidant value due to the use of optimal microwave processing modes: rowan and hawthorn fruits are heated, respectively, to a temperature of 70 and 87 oC at power 700 W, specific work 560 and 700 W/g·s for 80 and 100 s; peppermint leaves are dried to a moisture content of 9-10 % at a power of 560 W, specific work 214 W/g·min for 38.1 minutes. The developed fruit paste in the amount of 100 g covers the human body's need for water-soluble antioxidants - vitamin C, flavonoids by 94.5 %, 305.4 % and fat-soluble - carotene by 87.8 %. A positive effect was found from the use of fruit paste in the recipe of rye-wheat bread prepared without the use of baker's yeast, at a dosage of 9 % of the total mass of flour on the physical and chemical indicators of the quality of bread, as compared with the control, the specific volume increased from 2.0 to 2.15 cm3/g, porosity from 62.79 to 65.28 %. According to organoleptic indicators, the developed type of bread differs from the traditional one in the presence of aroma and flavor of mint and fruits, the color of the crumb acquires a honey color with a reddish-pink tint.

1. Bryksina K. V., Kaz'mina N. V., Volynschikova K. A. Prospects for the use of natural antioxidants in the technology of products for a healthy diet. Nauka i obrazovanie = Science and Education. 2018;1(1):54 (In Russ.).
2. Yashin Ya. I., Ryzhnev V. Yu., Yashin A. Ya., Chernousova N. I. Natural antioxidants. Content in foods and their impact on human health and aging. Moscow: TransLit, 2009.186 p. (In Russ.)
3. Perfilova O. V., Bryksina K. V., Ivanova E. P., Tolstova N. Yu. Prospects of microwave heating using in the processing of rowan fruits. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2021;(10):60-63 (In Russ.).
4. Seidova I. V., Tokareva T. Yu. Modern ways to improve the quality and nutritional value of bread. Innovacii na osnove informacionnyh i kommunikacionnyh tekhnologij = Innovation Based on Information and Communication Technologies. 2012(1):561-564 (In Russ.).
5. Yashin A. Ya, Chernousova N. I. Guidelines for measuring the content of antioxidants in drinks and food products, biologically active additives, extracts of medicinal plants by the amperometric method. Moscow: Khimavtomatika, 2007. 14 ð. (In Russ.)
Olga V. PERFILOVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kristina V. BRYKSINA,
Ekaterina P. IVANOVA, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Nadezhda Yu. TOLSTOVA
Michurinsk State Agrarian University,
101, International str., Michurinsk, Tambov region, 393760, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Butkovsky V. A., Il'ina O. A. Grain storage is the most important link in the bread vector from the field to the consumer

P. 59-61 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.013

Key words
grain storage, granaries, elevator, grain complex, types of granaries, grain operations, grain storage capacity

The importance of the grain complex in the global food system is briefly described. The role and place of grain storage in the structure of the grain complex - from selection and seed production to primary processing and use in the domestic and foreign markets - are reflected. Grain is considered as an object of storage. The basic requirements for granaries are formulated in a general form. The technological system of conversion of grain raw materials into commodity batches is shown. Much attention is paid to the main types of granaries, the features of granaries for various purposes, as well as the main operations with grain in granaries. The characteristics of granaries of agricultural type, procurement, stock, production and port granaries are given. The volume of grain storage capacities in the Russian Federation has been substantiated and the conclusion about the expediency of construction of modern granaries has been formulated.

1. Balykhin M. G., Butkovskiy V. A., Il'ina O. A. Grain, flour and bread of Russia. Production - storage - processing - market: monograph. Moscow: Prospekt, 2020. 564 p. (In Russ.)
2. Gordeev A. V., Butkovsky V. A. Russia - grain power: textbook. Moscow: DeLi print, 2009. 471 p. (In Russ.)
3. Mechanical Engineering of Flour Milling Production. Association of Millers of Switzerland VAM. 2014. 585 p. (In Russ.)
4. Hosni R. K. Grain and Grain Processing / translation from English Chernyaev N. P. S. Petersburg: Professiya, 2006. 336 p. (In Russ.)
5. Yukish A. E., Il'ina O. A. Technique and technology of grain storage. Moscow: DeLi print, 2009. 718 p. (In Russ.)
6. Yukish A. E., Il'ina O. A., Il'ichev G. N. Technics and organization of grain storage: textbook. Moscow: DeLi Plus, 2015. 476 p. (In Russ.)
7. Feidengold V. B. Factors determining the formation of grain batches by technological advantages at elevators. Khleboproducti = Bakery products. 2022;(5):26-33 (In Russ.).
Vyacheslav A. BUTKOVSKY, Academician of ICC, Professor,
Ol'ga A. IL'INA, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
International Industrial Academy,
20, 1st Schipkovskiy lane, Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gulin A. V., Machulkina V. A., Kigashpaeva O. P.Functional product - eggplant caviar with muscat pumpkin and sweet pepper

P. 62-66 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.014

Key words
eggplant, muscat pumpkin, sweet pepper, tomatoes, variety, degree of maturity, caviar, processing, basic chemical composition of fresh and processed products, organoleptic and tasting evaluation

The aim of the work was to create a new functional product "eggplant caviar with butternut squash and sweet pepper", to determine the basic chemical composition in the fruits of the varieties of crops used for their further selection and use in the preparation of canned food. The research was carried out on varieties created by breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable Growing and Melon Growing. Five varieties were studied for each culture. As a result of the work carried out, the following varieties were selected: eggplants - the Diamond variety, pumpkins - the Droplet variety, sweet pepper - the Classic variety and tomatoes - the Rychansky variety. These varieties were characterized by a high dry matter content, which is important in the preparation of canned Eggplant caviar. When studying eggplants, it was revealed that, regardless of the variety, fruits aged from 10 to 20 days from the moment of ovary were the most suitable for caviar preparation. Such fruits had a higher content of solids, ascorbic acid and were characterized by a low content of nitrates. The main value of pumpkin fruits, in particular, the Droplet variety, is a high dry matter (20.13 %), ascorbic acid was in the range of 40.56 mg% and carotene 6.89 %. Another important component in the preparation of caviar is sweet pepper. The Classic variety was selected from the five studied varieties. The content of ascorbic acid was higher than that of other varieties by 23.04-78.68 mg%. The product ratio was as follows: 40 % eggplant of technical maturity, 30% nutmeg pumpkin of biological maturity, 10 % tomatoes of biological maturity, 10 % sweet pepper of biological maturity and 5 % carrots and onions. The method of cooking caviar is generally accepted. Thus, eggplant caviar, enriched with ascorbic acid and carotene due to the addition of nutmeg pumpkin and sweet pepper, gave the finished product a more refined taste and pleasant aroma. It is a functional product and, as we believe, will be in demand by different groups of the population.

1. The Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation: uv. by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from January 30, 2010. 120 (In Russ.).
2. Dobrutskaya E. I. Ecology of nutrition. Ovoschi Rossii = Vegetables of Russia. 2010;2(8):22-25 (In Russ.).
3. Nikolaeva M. A. Actual problems of import substitution in the Russian food market. Tovaroved prodovol'stvennyh tovarov = Commodity specialist of food products. 2015;(2):20-23 (In Russ.).
4. Sizenko E. I. Urgent tasks of the food and processing industry. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2005;(6):8-10 (In Russ.).
5. Gabitskiy A. V., Poznakovskiy V. M., Golub O. V. Formation of the potential of customer satisfaction in product design. Konkurentosposobnost' v global'nom mire: ekonomika, nauka, tehnologii = Competitiveness in the global world: economics, science, technology. 2016;8(1):84-87 (In Russ.).
6. Leyberova N. V., Chugunova O. V., Zavorukhina N. V. Innovative approach to the development of consumer-oriented food products. Ekonomika regiona = Economics of the region. 2011;(4):142-149 (In Russ.).
7. Matisson V. A., Demidova N. A. Development of the concept of a new food product. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2012;3:57-59 (In Russ.).
8. Kalinenok N. P. Problems of storage, refinement and processing of products must be solved together. Ovoschevodstvo i teplichnoe hozjajstvo = Vegetable growing and greenhouse farming. 2007;(2):2-3 (In Russ.).
9. Simonova T. I., Burbina T. S. Health-saving products as a factor in increasing the life expectancy of a modern person. Izvestija Samarskogo nauchnogo centra Rossijskoj akademii nauk = Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2011;11/1(5):1100-1102 (In Russ.).
10. Geras'kina N. V. Eggplant breeding for the south of Russia. Kartofel' i ovoschi = Potatoes and vegetables. 2016;(7):33-34 (In Russ.).
11. Kigashpaeva O. P., Avdeev Yu. I. New varieties of eggplant for canning. Kartofel' i ovoschi = Potatoes and vegetables. 2016;(7):35-36 (In Russ.).
12. Machulkina V. A., Sannikova T. A., Antipenko N. I. The value of fruit size for processing. Nauchnyj al'manah = Scientific Almanac. 2017;2(28):296-301 (In Russ.).
13. Machulkina V. A., Sannikova T. A., Puchkov M. Yu., Antipenko N. I. Ecological safety of eggplant depending on the age and size of fruits. Tehnologija pischevoj i pererabatyvajuschej promyshlennosti APK - produkty zdorovogo pitanija = Technology of the food and processing industry of the agroindustrial complex-healthy food products. 2015;(3):39-44 (In Russ.).
14. Sannikova T. A., Machulkina V. A., Antipenko N. I. Canned pumpkin is a valuable food product. Oroshaemoe zemledelie = Irrigated agriculture. 2017;(4):19-20 (In Russ.).
15. Sannikova T. A., Machulkina V. A., Pavlov L. V. Melon crops - an important source of nutrition. Ovoschi Rossii = Vegetables of Russia. 2017;(1):76-79 (In Russ.).
16. Usov A. V., Lifanova L. V., Smerdova O. V. Investigation of vitamin content in fresh and dried pumpkin. Vestnik KrasGAU = Bulletin of KrasSAU. 2018;(3):157-160 (In Russ.).
17. Kochetkova A. A., Tuzhilkin V. N. Functional food products: some technological details in the general question. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2003;(5):8-10 (In Russ.).
18. Poverin A. D., Filonov G. M., Soboleva O. A. New functional food products based on natural raw substrates. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2008;(10):60-64 (In Russ.).
19. Prichko T. G., Droficheva N. V. Modeling of prescription compositions of functional food products from fruit and vegetable raw materials. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2015;(7):18-20 (In Russ.).
20. Kononkov P. F., Artyunova N. I. Vegetables are the basis of a healthy diet. 2007;(1):88-89 (In Russ.).
21. Alimov A. V., Razumovskaya R. G. Production of vegetable caviar by improved technology. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2014;(4):36-38 (In Russ.).
22. Vinnitskaya V. F., Korovkina I. V. Cooking vegetable caviar from pumpkin. Vestnik Michurinskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Michurinsk State Agrarian University. 2006;(1):72-73 (In Russ.).
Alexander V. GULIN, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Vera A. MACHULKINA, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Ol'ga P. KIGASHPAEVA, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable Growing and Melon Growing - Branch of the Caspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of RAS,
16, Lyubich str., Kamyzyak, Astrakhan region, 416341, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Terent'ev S. E., Romanova I. N., Moskaleva M. V.Ways to increase productivity and grain quality of new varieties of winter wheat in the conditions of the Western Non-Chernozem region of Russia

P. 67-70 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.015

Key words
winter wheat, new varieties, seeding rates, fertilizers, yield, grain quality, physico-chemical indicators, technological properties

Spring and winter crops are an important link in the chain of agricultural production, which made it possible to bring the agricultural sector of the Russian Federation out of the crisis. In 2019, according to Rosstat, 121.2 million tons of grain were produced, including leguminous crops, and in 2020 - 132.9 tons, which is 9.6 %. In ensuring food security, a sustainable and accelerated increase in the production of high-quality grain is of paramount importance. In this regard, the formation of yield, quality indicators of winter wheat grain depending on the studied agricultural practices, as well as the suitability of grain for its further processing, were studied. The experiment was carried out on new wheat varieties of domestic selection Solnechnaya and Danae. The highest yield was obtained in varieties Danaya (5 million pcs/ha) and Solnechnaya (5.5 million pcs/ha) with fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers according to the scheme N30+60+30+10P90K90, respectively 6.17 t/ha and 5.68 t/ha Physicochemical and technological indicators were the best with fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers (N30+60+20+10P90K90). In the winter wheat variety, the Solnechnaya mass of 1000 grains increased by 4.60 g; nature - by 42 g/l, protein content - by 1.10 %, vitreousness - by 10%, gluten content - by 8.6 %. The grain of the Danae variety was distinguished by its physicochemical parameters. The difference between the varieties was 5.57 g and 71 g/l, 14 % and 1.6 %, 8.5 %, respectively. In the conditions of the western part of the Non-Chernozem belt, the new varieties of winter wheat Danaya and Solnechnaya have high ecological adaptability and can form a yield of 6.0 t/ha or more with grain quality suitable for further deep processing. Nitrogen fertilizers with fractional application at a dose of 120 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha in both varieties increase not only the yield, but also the quality of grain suitable for food, baking and technological purposes.

1. Gataulina G. G., Bugaev P. D., Dolgodvorov V. E. Crop production (textbook). Moscow: INFRA-M 2018. 620 p. (In Russ.)
2. Guchanov S. A., Mel'nikova O. V., Torikov V. E. Yield and quality of winter triticale grain depending on the elements of cultivation technology. Vestnik Kurskoj gosudarstvennoj sel'skohozyajstvennoj akademii = Bulletin of the Kursk State Agricultural Academy. 2018;(4):90-95 (In Russ.).
3. Mel'nikova O. A., Torikov V. E., Osipov A. A. The efficiency of the use of solar energy by winter wheat crops with different cultivation technologies. Agrohimicheskij vestnik = Agrochemical Bulletin. 2017;(3):6-10 (In Russ.).
4. Romanova I. N., et al. Productivity of grain varieties depending on mineral nutrition backgrounds. Zernovoe hozyajstvo Rossii = Grain farming in Russia. 2012;(2):37-43 (In Russ.).
5. Romanova I. N., et al. Ways to increase the yield and quality of winter triticale grain Consul. Vestnik Bashkirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Bashkir State Agrarian University. 2019;1(49):37-41 (In Russ.).
6. Romanova I. N., Kolchizhenkova A. A., Stepurov R. V. The influence of agricultural practices on the formation of the winter triticale crop. Upravlenie ustojchivym razvitiem sel'skih territorij regiona: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferencii = Management of sustainable development of rural areas of the region: materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Smolensk: Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, 2018. P. 111-113 (In Russ.).
7. Semenenko N. N., Vaga I. I. The influence of hydrothermal growth and development conditions on the yield of winter triticale. Melioraciya = Land reclamation. 2011;2(66):137-144 (In Russ.).
8. Torikov V. E., et al. Comparative characteristics of grain quality of winter triticale varieties grown in the south-west of Russia. Vestnik Altajskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University. 2019;2(172):49-56 (In Russ.).
9. Tihonova O. S., Fatyhov I. Sh. The influence of the seeding rate on the grain quality of winter grain crops in the Middle Urals. Vestnik Bashkirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Bashkir State Agrarian University. 2012;4(24):14-16 (In Russ.).
Sergey E. TERENT'EV, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Iraida N. ROMANOVA, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Marina V. MOSKALEVA, graduate student
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy,
10/2, Bolshaya Sovetskaya str., Smolensk, 214000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Urubkov S. A., Korolev A. A., Smirnov S. O. Nutritional value of pasta based on leguminous raw materials, intended for persons of gerontological profile

P. 71-75 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.016

Key words
gerodietic nutrition, grain products, protein products, dietary products, products for the elderly

Depending on the physiological and age - related needs, to maintain the quality of life, the human diet should provide the necessary amount of energy, nutrients, micro-and macroelements. Gerontological nutrition should combine the principles of a rational, balanced diet, taking into account age-related changes in the body. Statistics on the consumption of certain food groups by older people indicate that the most acceptable and promising food group included in the daily diet of more than half of the population of this age category is pasta. The purpose of this study is to assess the nutritional and energy value, as well as iodine in the developed pasta products based on non-traditional raw materials intended for gerontological persons. Raw materials with a low glycemic index, high protein content, low fat and carbohydrate content are accepted as the main components of experimental pasta, kelp is added to the recipes as a source of iodine. The content of nutrients in terms of dry matter in the semi-finished product of the developed pasta is: protein from 19.86 to 22.06 %, fats from 3.12 to 4.67, carbohydrates - from 57.97 to 63.81 %. The content of nutrients in terms of dry matter in boiled pasta is in the range: protein from 18.71 to 20.91%, fat from 2.94 to 4.41, carbohydrates - from 53.68 to 58.96 %. The calculation showed that the consumption of 100 g of the developed boiled pasta on average satisfies the daily need of the body for vegetable protein by 15.7 %, lipids-1.4 %, carbohydrates 4.7 %. The iodine content in the developed pasta products ranged from 4.24 to 4.82 mg/100 g. The consumption of a portion of 100 g of products satisfies the daily need of the body for iodine by at least 83 %, which can be an effective way to prevent iodine deficiency in the elderly.

1. Blinkova L. N. Organizational aspects of nutrition of the elderly. Voprosy pitanija = Nutrition Issues. 2014;83(S3):13.4 (In Russ.).
2. Karpenko O. M., Zhamilov I. M. Prospects for the development of functional geroprotective food products based on non-traditional raw materials. Zdorov'e naselenija i sreda obitanija = Public Health and Habitat. 2012;227(2.):12-14 (In Russ.).
3. Sinjavskij J. A., Basymbekova A. M., Vyskubova V. G. et al. Prospects for the development of functional geroprotective food products based on non-traditional raw materials. Voprosy pitanija = Nutrition Issues. 2014;83(S3):125 (In Russ.).
4. Van den Brink A. C., Brouwer-Brolsma E. M., Berendsen A. A. M., van de Rest O. The Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) Diets Are Associated with Less Cognitive Decline and a Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease - a Review. Advances in Nutrition. 2019:1040-1065. Doi: 10.1093/advances/nmz054
5. Starodubova A. V., Varaeva J. R., Kosjura S. D., Livancova E. N. Problems of optimal nutrition in elderly and senile patients with comorbid pathology on the background of obesity. Terapevticheskij arhiv = Therapeutic archive. 2019;91(10):19-27 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.26442/00403660.2019.10.000143
6. Methodological recommendations Norms of physiological needs for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation (In Russ.).
7. Paddon-Jones D., Campbell W. W., Jacques P. F., Kritchevsky S. B., Moore L. L., Rodriguez N. R. & van Loon L. J. Protein and healthy aging. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101(6):1339-1345. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.084061
8. WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. 3rd editioon. Geneva: WHO, 2007. P. 10-2.
9. Chemical composition of Russian food products: Handbook / Edition by Corresponding Member MAI, Professor Skurikhin I. M. and Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Professor Tutel'yan V. A. Moscow: DeLi print, 2002. 236 p. (In Russ.)
Sergey A. URUBKOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Alexey A. KOROLEV, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Stanislav O. SMIRNOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Scientific Research Institute of Food-concentrate Industry and Special Food Technology - branch of Federal Research Center of Nutrition and Biotechnology and Food safety,
22, village Izmaylovo, Leninskiy district, Moscow region, 142718, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Belyaeva L. I., Pruzhin Ì. Ê., Ostapenko A. V., Sysoeva T. I.The relationship of the color characteristics of white crystalline sugar

P. 76-79 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.017

Key words
white crystalline sugar, digital color characteristic, color of sugar in solution, crystalline appearance, crystal size

To evaluate white crystalline sugar, two color characteristics are used - in crystalline form and in aqueous solution, which are determined using traditional measurement methods based on the principle of sensory analysis: organoleptic and photometric. At the present stage, the method of digital colorimetry (computer vision), which is characterized by high reliability, authenticity, ease of sample preparation, and rapidity, is widely used in the analysis of the color of various products - food, medicines, building materials, etc. Under laboratory conditions, a regularity of the relationship between the digital color characteristics of white beet sugar of different categories in crystalline form and the color value of sugar in solution was revealed. The study was carried out on the basis of the use of full and reduced factorial plans of the experiment, accompanied by obtaining the corresponding regression equations. The predominant influence of the color of white sugar in solution (63.1 %) was established in comparison with the influence of the average size of sugar crystals (26.3 %). At the same time, a synchronous decrease in the digital color characteristic was achieved against the background of an increase in the average crystal size. It was shown that the lower the category of white sugar, the greater the difference between the digital color characteristics of individual fractions. The change in this characteristic of white sugar by 50.3 % was due to its color in solution, by 29.6 % - by the average size of sugar crystals and by 9.8 % - by the coefficient of sugar heterogeneity. A regression equation has been obtained that reflects the inverse dependence of the digital color characteristic of white sugar on the size of the crystals and the direct dependence on the categories of white sugar and the layer thickness during scanning. The practical significance lies in establishing a feedback of the color of white sugar in solution with its digital color characteristic in crystalline form; identifying a decrease in the latter in a series of categories of white sugar: extra, TS1, TS2, TS3 and fractions: from fine to larger; determining the optimal thickness of the white sugar layer during scanning, which is 6 mm.

1. Schultz E. V., Monogarova O. V., Oskolok K. V. Digital colorimetry: analytical capabilities and prospects for use. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 2. Himiya = Bulletin of Moscow University. Series 2. Chemistry. 2019;60(2):79-87 (In Russ.).
2. Steinberg T. S., Semikina L. I. Development of systems for assessing the quality of grain products by optical characteristics. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii = Product quality control. 2017;(2):32-37 (In Russ.).
3. Rudakov O. B., Rudakova L. V. Digital colorimetry in quality control of dairy products. Pererabotka moloka = Milk processing. 2018;(7):48-51 (In Russ.).
4. Fedyanina N. I., Karastoyanova O. V., Korovkin N. V. Methods for determining the color characteristics of raw materials. Review. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2021;40(4):230-238 (In Russ.).
5. Blagoveschenskaya M. M., Blagoveshchenskiy I. G., Nazoykin E. A., Ionov A. V. Creation and testing of an automated software and hardware system for determining the concentration of solutions in a colorimetric system. Peredovye pischevye tekhnologii: sostoyanie, trendy, tochki rosta: sbornik nauchnyh trudov i nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem = Advanced food technologies: state, trends, growth points: collection of scientific papers of the 1st scientific and practical conference with international participation (edited by Yu. V. Babain). Moscow: MGUPP, 2018. P. 655-662 (In Russ.).
6. Grachev Yu. P., Plaksin Yu. M. Mathematical methods of experiment planning. Moscow: DeLi Print, 2005. 296 p. (In Russ.)
7. Montgomery D. C. Design and analysis of experiments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2013. 757 p.
8. Chernyavskaya L. I., Adamovich. The relationship between the color indices of sugar in solution and crystalline form. Sakhar = Sugar. 2007;(7):30-34 (In Russ.).
9. Kulneva N. G., Biraro G. E., Savvin P. N., Lobacheva N. N. Research of color characteristics of semi-products of sugar production. Vestnik VGUIT = Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2017;79(1):300-304 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.20914/2310-1202-2017-1-300-304.
10. Skorik K. D., Shtangeev K. O. Control and improvement of granulometric composition of white sugar. Cukor Ukraini = Sugar of Ukraine. 2013;3(87):20-25 (In Ukr.).
Lyubov' I. BELYAEVA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Mikhail K. PRUZHIN, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Tat'yana I. SYSOEVA
Federal Agricultural Kursk Research Center,
63, K. Marx str., Kursk, Russia, 305029, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Ageykina I. I. Determination of the relative proportion of malt in crushed grain products by RT-PCR and PCR. Part 3

P. 80-83 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.018

Key words
barley, malt, grain products, nucleic acid, RT-PCR, PCR, electrophoresis, analysis

Barley malt is the main ingredient for the production of fermented drinks, forming their taste, color and aroma, and in relation to beer, also the stability and quality of the foam. To control compliance with the standard of the technical regulation of the EEU 047/2018 on the permissible threshold of partial replacement of brewing malt with grain or products of its processing, it is necessary to create new methodological approaches, including those based on molecular genetic research methods. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop methods for determining the relative proportion of barley malt in crushed grain products by RT-PCR and PCR. Extraction of nucleic acids from the sample prepared material was carried out using the commercial kit innuPREP Plant DNA Kit according to the protocol 2 recommended by the manufacturer. RT-PCR and PCR with samples of isolated barley nucleic acids were performed using the commercial kit OneTube RT-PCRmix using oligonucleotide primers of the Pazx and Actin series, initiating the amplification of gene-specific products with a length of 282 bp and 369 bp, respectively. In the course of the experiments, a general trend was revealed towards an increase in the brightness of the glow of the amplified products as the proportion of barley malt in the control samples of crushed grain products increased. The developed methods are based on RT-PCR and PCR analysis of amplifiable loci of the pazx and actin-7 genes of Hordeum vulgare L. by gel electrophoresis detection with visual and software interpretation of the resulting electrophoregram for subsequent construction of the corresponding percentage scale. At the same time, one of the proposed methods is similar to the previously tested prototype in terms of the involved primers of the Pazx series, but differs in the protocol for setting up a genetic test. An additionally tested set of primers of the Actin series, initiating amplification of the actin-7 housekeeping gene locus, showed diagnostic potential in determining the relative proportion of malt in crushed grain products, and can be effectively used in a similar assessment of brewing raw materials even from serpin-deficient barley mutant genotypes.

1. Pastukhova G. V., Peretrutov A. A., Prosvirin S. V., Chubenko M. N., Volkova I. S. The influence of the quality of malt for obtaining beer wort. Mezhdunarodniy zhurnal prikladnyh i fundamental'nyh issledovanij = International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research. 2019;(1):28-32 (In Russ.).
2. Balanov P. E., Smotraeva I. V. Malt technology: the educational-methodical manual. Saint Petersburg: NIU ITMO; IhiBT, 2014. 82 p. (In Russ.)
3. Gurgenidze I. I., Bondarchuk O. V., Pashinskiy V. A. A feasibility study for the implementation of a plant for the intensification of the malt production process at a brewery. Agropanorama = Agricultural Panorama. 2018;6(130):20-24 (In Russ.).
4. Kretova Yu. I. Optimization of conditions for obtaining malt from malting barley varieties using innovative technologies. Evraziyskiy soyuz uchenyh = Eurasian Union of Scientists. 2015;4-4(13):113-114 (In Russ.).
5. Shishkina E. I. Use of barley malt in fermented dairy products. Modern Science. 2019;4-1:397-401 (In Russ.).
6. Pashinskiy V. A., Bondarchuk O. V., Sergeev K. L. Reduction in energy capacity of the manufacturing process of brewing malt in processing barley with electric field. Vestnik Mogilevskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta prodovol'stvija = Bulletin of the Mogilev State University of Food. 2019:2(27):28-37 (In Russ.).
7. State Standard 29294-2014. Brewing malt. General specifications. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 26 p. (In Russ.)
8. Sileoni V., Marconi O., Perretti G. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015;55(12):1771-1791. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.726659.
9. Technical regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union No. 047/2018. On the safety of alcohol.
10. Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Semipyatniy V. K., Ageykina I. I. Development of a method for determining the relative share of malted and unmalted raw barley in crushed grain products by RT-PCR. Part 1. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food processing industry. 2022;(8):62-65 (In Russ.).
11. Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Ageykina I. I. Determination of the relative proportion of malt in crushed grain products by competitive RT-PCR. Part 2. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food processing industry. 2022;9 (In Russ.).
12. Roberts T. H., Marttila S., Rasmussen S. K., Hejgaard J. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2003;54(391):2251-2263. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erg248
13. Shin S., Mackintosh C. A., Lewis J., Heinen S. J., Radmer L., Dill-Macky R., Baldridge G. D., Zeyen R. J., Muehlbauer G. J. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2008;59(9):2371-2378. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ern103
14. Iimure T., Kimura T., Araki S., Kihara M., Sato M., Yamada S., Shigyou T., Sato K. Mutation analysis of barley malt protein Z4 and protein Z7 on beer foam stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012;60(6):1548-1554. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2044718
Ramil R. VAFIN, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Posokina N. E., Bessarab O. V., Karastoyanova O. V., Protunkevich I. V.Development of a sensory analysis algorithm for evaluating the royal champignons shelf life using the descriptors lexicon

P. 84-89 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.019

Key words
sensory analysis algorithm, descriptor-profile method, royal champignons, cold storage, shelf life estimation

Cultivated champignons include three types: white (with uncolored cap epithelium), light brown crimini and brown (chestnut) portobello. In Russia, champignons with a brown cap are called royal. Sensory properties of fresh royal champignons are insufficiently studied and covered in literary sources. The aim of this study was to develop a sensory analysis algorithm for evaluating the shelf life of brown-capped Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Sensory analysis was carried out by a commission of 9 people using the descriptor-profile method. To describe the changes that occur during the storage of champignons, a lexicon of descriptors was developed, including the following indicators: Visual appearance, Structure, Colour, Flavourl of the whole mushroom and Flavour on the cut mushrooms. Changes in descriptors were characterized by a six-score scale, where 5 score correspond to the absence of signs of spoilage, and 0 score - unsuitability for consumption and processing. Royal champignons were put into cold storage at a temperature of 5±1 °Ñ with seizures for 0, 3, 7 and 10 days. Sensory analysis was carried out for each seizure. Based on the results of the tastings, nominal profiles were built: partial for each of the indicators and a general profile. An analysis of the dynamics of the areas of the profiles showed that during storage there was a decrease in the scores for all sensor indicators and the overall score for the recesses, which reflects the deterioration in the quality of mushrooms. The indicators dynamics Flavour of whole mushroom and Colour corresponds to the dynamics of the overall assessment. Therefore, the colour and flavour of mushrooms is one of the main factors in shaping the overall score. Dynamics of profile areas in terms of Visual appearance and Structure correspond to each other, which implies their relationship. Based on the study results, an algorithm was developed for assessing the royal champignons quality during storage using the descriptor-profile method. The applicability of the developed descriptors lexicon for complex sensory analysis in assessing the royal champignons shelf life in accordance with GOST ISO 16779-2017 Organoleptic analysis. Evaluation (determination and verification) of the food products shelf life.

1. Blumfield M., Abbott K., Duve E., Cassettari T., Marshall S., Fayet-Moore F. Examining the health effects and bioactive components in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms: A scoping review. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2020;84:1-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108453
2. Roncero-Ramos I., Delgado-Andrade C. The beneficial role of edible mushrooms in human health. Current Opinion in Food Science. 201;14:122-128. Doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2017.04.002
3. Martins A. The numbers behind mushroom biodiversity. Wild Plants, Mushrooms and Nuts: Functional Food Properties and Applications. I. C. F. R. Ferreira, P. Morales, L. Barros (Editors). 2016:15-63.
4. Chakrabarti A., Campbell B. L., Shonkwiler V. Eliciting consumer preference and willingness to pay for mushrooms: A latent class approach. Journal of Food Distribution Research. 2019;50(1):46-62.
5. Vunduk J., Djekic I., Petrovic P., Tomasevic I., Kozarski M., Despotovic S., Klaus A. Challenging the difference between white and brown Agaricus bisporus mushrooms: Science behind consumers choice. British Food Journal. 2018;120(6):1381-1394. DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-10-2017-0550
6. Song Y., Hu Q., Wu Y., Pei F., Kimatu B. M., Su A., Yang W. Storage time assessment and shelf-life prediction models for postharvest Agaricus bisporus. LWT. 2019;101:360-365. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.11.020
7. Du X. Sissons J., Shanks M., Plotto A. Aroma and flavor profile of raw and roasted Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using a panel trained with aroma chemicals. LWT. 2021;138. Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110596
8. Aisala H., Manninen H., Laaksonen T., Linderborg K. M., Myoda T., Hopia A., Sandell M. Linking volatile and non-volatile compounds to sensory profiles and consum profiles and consumer liking of wild edible nordic mushrooms. Food Chemistry. 2020;304(30). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125403
9. Wang J., Li W., Li Z., Wu W., Tang X. Analysis and evaluation of the characteristic taste components in portobello mushroom. Journal of Food Science. 2018;83(6):1542-1551. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14165
10. Figiel A., Carbonell-Barrachina A. A. Volatile composition and sensory profile of shiitake mushrooms as affected by drying method: Aroma profile of fresh and dried Lentinula edodes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2018;98(4):1511-1521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8622
11. Chun S. Chambers E., Han I. Development of a Sensory Flavor Lexicon for Mushrooms and Subsequent Characterization of Fresh and Dried Mushrooms. Foods. 2020;9(8). Doi: 10.3390/foods9080980
12. Rosales C. K., Suwonsichon S. Sensory Lexicon of Pomelo Fruit over Various Cultivars and Fresh-Cut Storage. Journal of Sensory Studies. 2015;30(1):21-32. Doi: 10.1111/joss.12133
13. Oliver P., Cicerale S., Pang E., Keast R. Developing a strawberry lexicon to describe cultivars at two maturation stages. Journal of Sensory Studies. 2018;33(1). Doi: 10.1111/joss.12312
14. Belisle C. Adhikari K., Chavez D., Phan U. T. X. Development of a lexicon for flavor and texture of fresh peach cultivars. Journal of Sensory Studies. 2017;32(4). Doi: 10.1111/joss.12276
15. Rudenko O. S., Pesterev M. A., Talejsnik M. A., Kondrat'ev N. B., Sakellari A. D. The influence of cavitation processing of fruit and vegetable raw materials on the organoleptic characteristics of confectionery. Vsyo o myase = All about meat. 2020;(5s):304-308 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21323/2071-2499-2020-5S-304-308
16. Hijaz F., Gmitter F. G., Bai J., Baldwin E., Biotteau A., Leclair C. Effect of fruit maturity on volatiles and sensory descriptors of four mandarin hybrids. Journal of Food Science. 2020;85(5):1548-1564. Doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15116
17. Zavadskaya O. V., Biruk I., Vojcekhovskaya E. V., Vas'kovskaya S. V., Vojcekhovskij V. I. Suitability of onion (allium cepa) of different varieties for drying. Vsyo o myase = All about meat. 2020;(5s):115-117 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21323/2071-2499-2020-5S-115-117
18. Fedyanina N. I., Karastoyanova O. V., Korovkina N. V. Methods for determining the color characteristics of vegetable raw materials. Review. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2021;4(4):230-238 (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771-2021-4-4-230-238
19. Berezina V. V. The role of standardization of organoleptic analysis in improving the quality of goods. Bazis = Basis. 2021;2(10):11-17 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.51962/2587-8042_2021_10_11
20. Djekic I., Vunduk J., Tomasevic I., Kozarski M., Petrovic P., Niksic M. Application of quality function deployment on shelf-life analysis of Agaricus bisporus Portobello. LWT. Food Science and Technology. 2017;(78):82-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.12.036
21. Zhang K., Pu YY., Sun DW. Recent advances in quality preservation of postharvest mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus): A review. Trends in Food Science Technology. 2018;78:72-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2018.05.012
22. Popova A. V., Chemisova L. E. Sensory analysis as a tool for improving food quality. Plodovodstvo i vinogradarstvo Yuga Rossii = Fruit growing and viticulture in the South of Russia. 2020;64(4):334-352 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.30679/2219-5335-2020-4-64-334-352
23. Zavorohina N. V., Chugunova O. V. The potential of the descriptor-profile method of tasting analysis. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo Gosudarstvennogo universiteta, seriya "Pishchevye i biotekhnologii" = Bulletin of the South Ural State university. Series "Food and biotechnology". 2014;2(2):58-63 (In Russ.).
24. Fedyanina N. I., Karastoyanova O. V., Korovkina N. V. Comparative assessment of the storage capacity of champignons in terms of "texture" after treatment with UV radiation in the ranges A and C. Vestnik KrasGAU = Bulletin of KSAU. 2021;(10):195-202 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.36718/1819-4036-2021-10-195-202
25. Karastoyanova O. V., Korovkina N. V., Fedyanina N. I. Development of technology for increasing the storage capacity of champignon fruiting bodies using ultraviolet radiation in the C range. Izvestiya vuzov. Pischevaya tekhnologiya = Izvestiya vuzov. Food Technology. 2021;4(382):49-54 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.26297/0579-3009.2021.4.10
26. Shishkina N. S., Fedyanina N. I., Karastoyanova O. V., Levshenko M. T., Korovkina N. V., Musatova A. A. Improving the refrigeration technology for storing champignon mushrooms using integrated technology. Holodil'naya tekhnika = Kholodilnaya Tekhnika. 2019;(12):42-46 (In Russ.).
Nataliya E. POSOKINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems at RAS,
78, Shkol`naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zaytseva M. V. Approaches to assessing the safety and antioxidant properties of a food sweetener (stevia extract) by bioassay

P. 90-95 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.020

Key words
stevia extract, safety, bioassay, toxicity, antioxidant activity

Food additive E960 based on steviol glycosides of the tropical stevia plant is a sweetener and is widely used in the food industry due to its functional, technological characteristics and natural origin. Useful properties of stevia extract are also associated with the presence in its composition of biologically active compounds with antioxidant activity. However, despite the numerous data on the safety of this additive in the scientific literature, the facts of the manifestation of a negative effect on the metabolic processes of this sweetener have become known, which require further study. The purpose of the research is a comparative study of the effects of toxic effects and the level of antioxidant activity of three domestic commercial grades of stevia extract using biotesting. Onion roots Allium cepa, which were incubated in aqueous solutions of stevia extracts, were used as a test object. When analyzing the toxic, mitosismodifying and genotoxic effects after treatment of the roots with experimental samples at concentrations of 1 and 2 g/l, a delay in the growth of root mass (up to 70 %), a decrease in the proliferative activity of meristem cells, and an increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in samples of two brands of stevia extract were recorded. However, these effects were reversible, since the subsequent incubation of the experimental solutions in water for two days almost completely eliminated these violations, especially in relation to genetic abnormalities. Against the background of sorbic acid-induced oxidative stress of root tissues, the level of lipid peroxidation was assessed after treatment of the roots with one of the stevia extracts. The level of MDA decreased compared to the individual exposure to the preservative by 10 and 13 %, in experimental samples with additive concentrations of 2 and 3 g/l respectively. These results confirmed the ability of the stevia extract to exhibit antioxidant protection of cell walls under the conditions of this bioassay.

1. Wiklund Eriksson A.-K., Adolfsson-Erici M., Liewenborg B., Gorokhova E. Sucralose induces biochemical responses in Daphnia magna. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e92771. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.009277.
2. Lebda M. A., Tohamy H. G., El-Sayed Y. S. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status. Nutrition Research. 2017;(41):47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2017.04.002.
3. Younes M., Aquilina G., Engel K. H., Fowler P., Frutos Fernandez M. J., Furst P., Gurtler R., Gundert-Remy U., Husoy T., Manco M., Mennes W., Moldeus P., Passamonti S., Shah R., Waalkens-Berendsen I., W?lfle D., Wright M., Degen G., Giarola A., Rincon A. M., Castle L. EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF). Safety of a proposed amendment of the specifications for steviol glycosides (E 960) as a food additive: to expand the list of steviol glycosides to all those identified in the leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni. EFSA Journal. 2020;18(4). https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6106. 2020.
4. Kochetov A. A., Sinjavina N. G. Stevia (stevia rebaudiana bertoni): biochemical composition, therapeutic properties and use in the food industry. Himija rastitel'nogo syr'ja = Chemistry of plant raw material. 2021;(2):5-27 (In Russ.).
5. Chappell G. A., Heintz M. M., Borghoff S. J., Doepker C. L., Wikoff D. S. Lack of potential carcinogenicity for steviol glycosides - Systematic evaluation and integration of mechanistic data into the totality of evidence. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2021;(150):112045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112045.
6. El-Nassag D. E., Ghamry H. I., Elhassaneen Y. A. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) leaves: chemical composition, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activities, antihyperglycemic and antiatherogenic effects. Journal of Studies and Searches of Specific Education. 2019;5(1):157-180. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666161021142835.
7. Bender C., Graziano S., Zimmermann B. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2015;66(5):553-558. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2015.1038223.
8. Shannon M., Rehfeld A., Frizzell C., Livingstone C., McGonagle C., Skakkebaek N. E., Wielogorska E., Connolly L. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 2016;(427):65-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2016.03.005.
9. Markus V., Share O., Terali K., Ozer N., Marks R. S., Kushmaro A., Golberg K. Anti-quorum sensing activity of stevia extract, stevioside, rebaudioside A and their aglycon steviol. Molecules. 2020;25(22):5480. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225480.
10. Moura A. G., Santana G. M., Ferreira P. M., Sousa J. M., Peron A. P. Cytotoxicity of cheese and cheddar cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2016;76(2):439-443. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.20514.
11. Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zaytseva M. V. Assessment of the toxic potential of a mixture of aspartam and sorbic acid with bioassay. Pischevye sistemy = Food Systems. 2022:1(1):41-46 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771-2022-5-1-41-46.
12. Silva de Sa I., Peron A. P., Leimann F. V., Bressan G. N., Krum B. N., Fachinetto R., Pinela J., Calhelha R. C., Barreiro M. F., Ferreira I. C. F. R., Gon?alves O. H., Ineu R. P. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of enzymatic and antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of curcumin-loaded solid dispersions. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2019;(125):29-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.037.
13. Nunes R. D. M., Sales I. M. S., Silva S. I. O., Sousa J. M., Peron A. P. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2016;1(77):150-154. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.12115.
14. Zhang H., Jiang Y., He Z. Ma M. Cadmium accumulation and oxidative burst in garlic (Allium sativum). Journal of Plant Physiology. 2005;162(9):977-984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2004.10.001.
15. Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zaytseva M. V., Petrov A. N. Bioassay of oxidative properties and toxic side effects of apple juice. Foods and Raw Materials. 2022;10(1):176-184. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2022-1-176-184.
16. Akinboro A., Bin K., Abdullah M. Othman, A. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five medicinal plants in Allium cepa L.: possible influence of DPPH free radical scavengers. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(50):10520-10529. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.694.
17. Samoylov A. V., Suraeva N. M., Zajceva M. V., Kesjan A. Z., Kurbanova M. N., Korolev A. A. Investigation of the toxic potential of cannedycauliflower peree extract in a model plant test system. Pischevaja promyshlennost = Food industry. 2021:(7):32-35 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/ 10.52653/PPI.2021.7.7.013.
18. Leme D. M., Marin-Morales M.A. Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutation Research. 2009;682(1):71-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.06.002.
19. Yilmaz S., Unal F., Aksoy H., Yuzbasioglu D., Celik M. Cytogenetic effects of citric acid and benzoic acid on Allium chromosomes. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2008;17(8):1029-1037.
20. Bossa C., Benigni R., Tcheremenskaia O., Battistelli C. L. (Q)SAR methods for predicting genotoxicity and carcinogenicity: scientific rationale and regulatory frameworks. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2018;(1800):447-473. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7899-1_20.
21. Williams L. D., Burdock G. A. Genotoxicity studies on a high-purity rebaudioside A preparation. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009;47(8):1831-1836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.046.
22. Peteliuk V., Rybchuk L., Bayliak M., Storey K. B., Lushchak O. Natural sweetener Stevia rebaudiana: functionalities, health benefits and potential risks. EXCLI Journal. 2021;(20):1412-1430. https://doi.org/10.17179/excli2021-4211.
23. Sanchez-Aceves L. M., Dublan-Garcia O., Lopez-Martinezz L. X., Novoa-Luna K. A., Islas-Flores H., Galar-Mart?nez M., Garcia-Medina S., Hernandez-Navarro M.D., Gomez-Olivan L. M. Reduction of the oxidative stress status using steviol glycosides in a fish model (Cyprinus carpio). BioMed Research International. 2017:2352594. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2352594.
24. Lemus-Mondaca R., Ah-Hen K., Vega-Galvez A., Honores C., Moraga N. O. Stevia rebaudiana leaves - effect of drying process temperature on bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and natural sweeteners. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2016;71(1):49-56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0524-3.
25. Jiang J., Qi L., Lv Z., Jin S., Wei X., Shi F. Dietary stevioside supplementation alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal mucosal damage through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in broiler chickens. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;8(12):575. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120575.
26. Jentzsch P., Torrico-Vallejos S., Mendieta-Brito S., Ramos L., Ciobota V. Detection of counterfeit Stevia products using a handheld Raman spectrometer. Vibrational Spectroscopy. 2016;(83):126-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2016.01.015.
Artem V. SAMOYLOV, Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Natal'ya M. SURAEVA, Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems for RAS,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Khvorova L. S., Pushkar V. I., Glonina G. A. Crystal glucose quality issues

P. 96-99 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.021

Key words
Crystalline glucose, hydrate and anhydrous, norms of quality indicators, GOST project, technological parameters

Crystalline glucose is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries, veterinary medicine, specialized and sports nutrition, is a raw material for obtaining sorbitol and ascorbic acid and solving other problems. In order to regulate the quality of glucose, the GOST R project "Crystalline glucose. Technical conditions". A feature of the new GOST R is the inclusion of quality requirements for not only hydrated, but also anhydride glucose. The main quality indicators are: the mass fraction of moisture, the specific rotation and pH of solutions, the content of sulphate ash, the content of sulfur dioxide, the size of crystals and the test for the presence of dextrins, as well as the norms of microbiological control. The norms of indicators are justified by the analysis of domestic and foreign products, as well as technological factors. The crystallization technologies of hydrate and anhydrous glucose differ in temperature conditions: for hydrate 45…25 °C, for anhydride 85…55 °C. At the same time, hydrate glucose crystallizes with one molecule of crystallization water, which determines its humidity of 9 %; anhydrous glucose crystallizes in anhydrous form, its humidity rate is less than 1 %. An indicator of the purity of glucose is the specific rotation of its solutions, the norm value of which is within +52.5…+53.0. Exceeding these values indicates the presence of impurities in glucose. An important indicator is the size of the crystals and their uniformity, on which the conditions of separation and washing of the intercrystal solution from the crystals during centrifugation depend. The norm of microbiological purity of hydrate and anhydrous glucose depends on the temperature conditions and the characteristics of their crystallization. The technological regime (temperature and method of priming) of hydrated glucose is favorable for the development of yeast and mold microorganisms, reducing the microbiological purity of hydrated glucose; at the same time, the high-temperature regime and the high crystallization rate of anhydrous glucose exclude these microbiological processes, providing it with high microbiological purity.

1. Lysikov J. A. Carbohydrates in clinical nutrition. Eksperimental'naja i klinicheskaja gastroenterologija = Experimental and clinical gastroenterology. 2013;(2):89-110 (In Russ.).
2. The State Pharmacopoeia îf The Russian Federation [Electronic resource]. XIV edition. 2018. Vol. 3 (In Russ.). Access mode: http://femb.ru/femb/pharmacopea.php
3. Xiaofeng J., Chunying Z., Youguang M. Density and viscosity of sorbitol/maltitol in l-ascorbic acid aqueous solutions at T (293.15 to 323.15). Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2013;188:67-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2013.09.023.
4. Plamb D. K. Pharmacological preparations in veterinary medicine. Akvarium-Print. 2016:1060 (In Russ.).
5. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2008;(5):17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-5-17.
6. Flood M. T., Auerbach M. N., Craig S. A. S. A review of the clinical toleration studies of polidextrose in food. Food and Chemical Toxicologi. 2004;42(9):1531-1542.
7. GOST 975-88 Glucose, crystalline hydrate (In Russ.).
8. Markande A., Fitzpatrick Jo., Nezzal A., et al. Effect of initial dextrose concentration, seeding and cooling profile on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2012;90(3):406-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2011.11.010
9. Hvorova L. S., Selezneva O. N., Lukin N. D. A method for obtaining crystalline anhydrous glucose. Invention patent RU 2521510 C1, 27.06.2014. Request ¹ 2012158069/13 of 29.12.2012 (In Russ.).
10. Hvorova L. S. Three-product technological scheme for obtaining glucose with crystallization of two products in anhydrous form. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2017;(9):44-46 (In Russ.).
11. TR CU 021/2011 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "On food safety", approved 09.12.2011. No. 800 (In Russ.).
12. Hvorova L. S. Influence of rheological properties of massecuite on the kinetics of hydrated glucose crystallization. Sahar = Sugar. 2008;(7):74-77 (In Russ.).
13. Khvorova L., Lukin N., Baranova L. Glucose nucleation in the presence of surface active agents. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6(1):219-229. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018-1-219-229
14. Slavjanskiy A. A., Gribkova V. A., Nikolaeva N. V., Mitroshina D. P. Physico-chemical bases of industrial crystallization of sucrose. Sahar = Sugar. 2021;(4):28-33 (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.24412/2413-5518-2021-4-28-33
Luydmila S. KHVOROVA, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Valentina I. PUSHKAR',
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch and Starch-Containing Raw Materials Processing - Branch of A. G. Lorkh Federal Potato Research Center,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo village, Lyuberetsky district, Moscow region, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Oganesyants L. À., Panasyuk A. L., Kuz'mina E. I., Sviridov D. A., Shilkin A. A., Ili'n À. À.Dependence of the values of the ?18O index of the water component of Russian wines on geoclimatic factors. Part 2

P. 100-104 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.10.10.022

Key words
wine, identification, isotope mass spectrometry, place of origin, climatic characteristics

The issue of wine identification does not lose its relevance. High-quality wines with a controlled place of origin bring high incomes to producers, and deductions from profits to the state. However, at the same time there is a danger of substitution of authentic products with wines produced from grapes of other wine-growing zones. In this regard, confirmation of the authenticity of the geographical place of origin of wines is a priority condition that contributes to the protection of bona fide producers of high-quality products. This article presents the results of the analysis of the relationship between the isotopic characteristics of oxygen of the water of wine and geoclimatic factors of the place of their production. In the period from 2017 to 2021, during the grape harvest seasons, 234 samples of grapes from the main wine-growing regions of Russia (Krasnodar region, the Republic of Crimea with Sevastopol and the Republic of Dagestan) were selected and processed in laboratory conditions. It is shown that, depending on the year of observation, samples of wines from different wine-growing zones may differ statistically significantly in the values of the indicator d18O of the water of wine. A significant positive correlation of the values of d18O of the water of wines with the average annual precipitation, with the maximum daily precipitation, and a significant negative correlation within the studied time period with the harvest year were established. A multiple regression model of the influence of geoclimatic parameters and the harvest year on the values of oxygen isotopic characteristics of the water of wines is constructed. The revealed dependencies will strengthen the statistical model and, as a result, will allow the identification of wines by their place of origin with a higher degree of reliability.

1. Oganesyants L. A., Panasyuk A. L., Kuz'mina E. I., et al. Analyzing Geographical Origin of Grapes and Wines of Russia. BIO Web Conferences. 2021;39:06003. DOI: 10.1051/bioconf/20213906003
2. Oganesyants L. A., Panasyuk A. L., Kuz'mina E. I., et al. Modern analysis methods use in order to establish the geographic origin of food products. Food systems. 2020;3(1):4-9. DOI: 10.21323/2618-9771-2020-3-1-4-9
3. Camin C. F., Dordevic N., Wehrens R. Climatic and geographical dependence of the H, C and O stable isotope ratios of Italian wine. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2015;853:384-390. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2014.09.049
4. Hermann A., Voerkelius S. Meteorological impact on oxygen isotope ratios of German wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 2008;59:194-199.
5. Cheng L., Abraham J., Zhu J., et al. Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences. 2020;37:137-142. DOI: 10.1007/s00376-020-9283-7
6. Jakovlev A. R., Smyshlyaev S. V. Numerical Simulation of World Ocean Effects on Temperature and Ozone in the Lower and Middle Atmosphere. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology. 2019;44:594-602. DOI: 10.3103/S1068373919090036
7. Orellana S., Johansen A. M., Gazis C. Geographic classification of U. S. Washington State wines using elemental and water isotope composition. Food Chemistry. 2019;1:100007. DOI: 10.1016/j.fochx.2019.100007
8. Niculaua M., Cosofret S., Cotea V. V. Consideration on stable isotopic determination in Romanian wines. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2012;48:25-31. DOI: 10.1080/10256016.2012.661731
9. Adami L., Dutra S. V., Marcon A. R. Geographic origin of southern Brazilian wines by carbon and oxygen isotope analyses. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2010;24:2943-2948. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4726
10. Ferrarini R., Maria G., Camin C. F. Variation of oxygen isotopic ratio during wine dealcoholization by membrane contactors: Experiments and modelling. Journal of Membrane Science. 2016;498:385-394. DOI: 10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2015.10.027
11. Adami L., Dutra S. V., Marcon A. R. Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values. Food Chemistry. 2013;141:2148-2153. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2013.04.106
12. Luo D., Dong H., Luo H. The application of stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the geographical origin of wheat. Food Chemistry. 2015;174:197-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.006
13. Aghemo C., Albertino A., Gobetto R., et al. Correlation between isotopic and meteorological parameters in Italian wines: a local-scale approach. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2011;1:2088-2094. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4510
14. Ingraham N., Caldwell E. Influence of weather on the stable isotopic ratios of wines: tools for weather/climate reconstruction. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1999;104:2185-2194.
15. West J. B., Ehleringer J. R., Cerling T. E. Geography and vintage predicted by a novel GIS model of wine d18O. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55:707-7083. DOI: 10.1021/JF071211R
16. Dordevic N., Wehrens R., Postma G. J., et al. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios. Analytica Chi-mica Acta. 2012;757:19-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.10.046
17. Gomez-Alonso S., Garcia-Romero E. Effect of irrigation and variety on oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) stable isotope composition of grapes cultivated in a warm climate. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 2010;16:283-289. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00089.x
18. Dordevic N., Wehrens R., Postma G. J. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2012;757:19-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.10.046
19. Geana E. I., Sandru C., Stanciu V. Elemental profile and Sr-87/Sr-86 isotope ratio as fingerprints for geographical traceability of wines: An approach on Romanian wines. Food Analytical Methods. 2017;10:63-73. DOI: 10.1007/s12161-016-0550-2
20. Durante C., Bertacchini L., Bontempo L. From soil to grape and wine: Variation of light and heavy elements isotope ratios. Food Chemistry. 2016;210:648-659.
21. Paola-Naranjo R. D., Baroni M. V., Podio N. S. Fingerprints for main varieties of argentinean wines: Terroir differentiation by inorganic, organic, and stable isotopic analyses coupled to chemometrics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;59(14):7854-7865. DOI: 10.1021/jf2007419
22. Hopfer H., Nelson J., Collins T. S. The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines. Food Chemistry. 2015;172:486-496. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.113
23. Pepi S., Vaccaro C. Geochemical fingerprints of Prosecco wine based on major and trace elements. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2018;40:833-847. DOI: 10.1007/s10653-017-0029-0
24. Fan S., Zhong Q., Gao H. Elemental profile and oxygen isotope ratio (?18O) for verifying the geographical origin of Chinese wines. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2018;26:1033-1044. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2017.12.009
25. Python Software Foundation. Python Language Reference, version 3.8 [Electronic resource] [cited 2022 March 15]. URL: http://www.python.org
26. Hunter J. D. Matplotlib: A 2D Graphics Environment. Computing in Science & Engineering. 2007;9(3),90-95. DOI: 10.1109/MCSE.2007.55
27. Waskom M. L. Seaborn: statistical data visualization. Journal of Open Source Software. 2021;60(6):3021. DOI: 10.21105/joss.03021
28. Shapiro S. S., Wilk M. B. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika. 1965;52(3-4):591-611. DOI: 10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591
29. Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Test. In: The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics. New York, NY: Springer, 2008. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-32833-1_214
30. Levene H., Olkin I. Contributions to probability and statistics: essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling. SIAM Review. 1961;3(1):80. https://doi.org/10.1137/1003016
31. Vallat R. Pingouin: statistics in Python. Journal of Open Source Software. 2018;3(31):1026. DOI: 10.21105/joss.01026
32. Virtanen P., Gommers R., Travis E, et al. SciPy 1.0: Fundamental Algorithms for Scientific Computing in Python. Nature Methods. 2020;17(3):261-272. DOI: 10.1038/s41592-019-0686-2
33. Kruskal W. H., Wallis W. A. Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1952;47:583-621. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1952.10483441
34. Spearman C. The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Things. American Journal of Psychology. 1987;100(3-4):441-71. DOI: 10.2307/1412159
35. Michener S. A statistical method for evaluating systematic relationships. University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 1958;38:1409-1438.
36. Freedman D. A. Statistical Models: Theory and Practice. Berkeley: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 26 p. DOI: 10.1017/cbo9780511815867
37. Pedregosa F., Varoquaux G., Gramfort A., et al. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python. Journal of Machine Learning Research. 2011;12:2825-2830.
Lev A. OGANESYANTS, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS,
Alexander L. PANASYUK, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member,
Elena I. KUZ'MINA, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Dmitriy A. SVIRIDOV, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 11902, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Alexander À. IL'IN
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology,
30, bld. 1, Bolshoy boulevard, Moscow, 121205, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




The Impact of Global Challenges on World Trade food discussed at WEF

A. Mayorov: Development potential of the dairy industry will be implemented by the joint efforts of the state, business, professional community