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Beer and beverages №2/2023


Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L.Trends in Production and Consumption of Wine in the World in 2023

P. 4-8 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.006

Key words
vineyard area, wine production, wine export, bottled wines, bulk wines, market internationalization

The analysis of data on the production of grapes and wine in 2022 is presented. The total area of vineyards in the world is 7.3 million hectares. The largest areas of vineyards are located in Spain 955 thousand hectares, France 812 thousand hectares, China 785 thousand hectares, Italy 718 thousand hectares, Turkey 410 thousand hectares and the USA 390 thousand hectares. In Russia the area of vineyards is 99 thousand hectares. World wine production amounted to 258 million hl, that is 1% lower compared to 2021 Italy, France and Spain account for more than half of the world's wine production, respectively 49.8, 45.6 and 35.7 million hl. Despite the drought and heat in spring and summer in Europe, crop losses were insignificant. Global wine consumption decreased to 232 million hl, which is due to a significant price increase caused by the energy crisis and disruptions in the global supply chain. In 2022, world wine exports will amount to 107 million hectoliters, which is 5% less than the histori­cally high figure of 2021. Italy exported 21.9 million hectoliters in 2022, which is 20% of world exports. The largest decrease in exports was recorded by Spain (-2.4 million hl), Argentina (-0.7), France (-0.7), the USA (-0.5) and South Africa (-0.4 million hl). Wine exports were negatively affected by a decrease in the activity of sea transportation associated with high inflation. Preliminary data on wine production in the Southern Hemisphere in 2023 show a marked decline in all countries except Chile.

Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS,
Panasyuk Aleksandr L., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Corresponding member of RAS,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia


Kharlamova L.N., Sinel'nikova M.Yu., Matveeva D.Yu., Mikhailova I.Y. Infection of Grain with Various Types of Fusarium

P. 9-13 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.002

Key words
fusarium, mycotoxins, grain, macroconidia, pathogen, analysis, weather conditions

Until now, the main problem of the food industry is the spread of fungal diseases of grain crops, in particular, grain fusarium. This disease is ubiquitous, although the habitat is areas with a hot and humid climate. Head blight causes spoilage and crop losses, as well as mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Mycotoxins are low molecular weight toxic metabolites of molds that compromise food and feed safety. Poisoning occurs mainly by ingestion, but also occurs through the skin and by inhalation. Mycotoxicoses often go unrecognized by medical professionals, except when it comes to a large number of people. This review will highlight how and under what conditions the spread of the disease occurs, as well as how environmental conditions and crop stressors can affect fusarium. It also describes the diversity of species of Fusarium fungi and their characteristic manifestation for cereal crops. It also highlights measures to prevent, suppress and recognize fusarium.

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22. Novozhilov KV, Levitin MM. Napravlenie issledovanij dlja reshenija problemy fuzarioza kolosa zernovyh kul'tur [Direction of research to solve the problem of Fusarium head blight of grain crops]. Vestnik sel'skokhozyaistvennoi nauki. 1990;(10):64-67. (In Russ.).
Kharlamova Larisa N., Candidate of Technical Science,
Sinel'nikova Marina Yu.,
Matveeva Dar'ya Yu.,
Mikhailova Irina Y. ,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia

Gribkova I.N., Lazareva I.V.The Physical Treatment Influence on Brewer's Spent Grain Extract Nitrogen Composition

P. 14-18 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.007

Key words
brewer's spent grain, physical treatment, ECA-water, brewer's spent grain structure, nitrogen compounds

The article deals with the issue of environmentally friendly processing of the brewer's spent grain structure. The brewer's spent grain chemical composition is presented, in which various fractions of nitrogenous compounds occupy a significant place. The goal set by the authors - to study the influence of environmental methods of processing brewer's spent grain on the nitrogenous compound's extraction, was solved using research methods accepted in the industry. It has been shown that the treatment type or exposure factors affect the content of soluble nitrogen in the extracts. The extracts obtained at the 1st stage of treatment at atmospheric pressure for 6 h contained 21.7% more nitrogenous compounds compared to 3 h of treatment, and an increase in overpressure under catholyte conditions led to a decrease in the content of soluble nitrogen by 17.8%. At 2, 3 stages at atmospheric pressure in catholyte extracts, the soluble nitrogen amount increased by 8.3 and 10%, respectively, with an increase in the duration of treatment, and at excess (at 2 and 3 stage) - by 82 and 17%, respectively, with an increase in overpressure. The authors showed that at stages 1 and 2, the high and medium molecular weight fractions of nitrogenous compounds were in total proportional to the low molecular weight fraction, with the exception of extraction at overpressure. At stage 1, at 0.5 atm, nitrogen with a mass of 8 to 100 kDa was 2 times larger than the value of amine nitrogen at stage 2, and at 1 atm, by 5% correspondingly, which is also presumably associated with the formation of pigments at 1 atm. Data are given that the extracts obtained at stage 2 at 1 atm had a different ratio of high and medium molecular weight nitrogen to low molecular weight, corresponding to 1.3:1. It was noted that the most significant influence on the release of thiol nitrogen is the duration of treatment (negatively) and temperature (positively). The authors have shown that for the effective release of non-protein nitrogen from the grain structure, the duration of the process is important at the 1st stage, and the temperature at the 2nd and 3rd stages. The authors conclude that the most productive way to extract nitrogenous compounds is to use an overpressure of 0.5-1 atm under the conditions of extraction with ECA-water.

1. Mitri S, Salameh S-J, Khelfa A, Leonard E, Maroun RG, Louka N, Koubaa M. Valorization of brewers' spent grains: pretreatments and fermentation, a review. Fermentation. 2022;8:50. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8020050.
2. Cooray ST, Chen WN. Valorization of brewer's spent grain using fungi solid-state fermentation to enhance nutritional value. Journal of Functional Foods. 2018;42:85-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.12.027.
3. Kavalopoulos M, Stoumpou V, Christofi A, Mai S, Barampouti EM, Moustakas K, Malamis D, Loizidou M. Sustainable valorisation pathways mitigating environmental pollution from brewers' spent grains. Environmental Pollution. 2021;270:116069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116069.
4. Lisci S, Tronci S, Grosso M, Karring H, Hajrizaj R, Errico M. Brewer's spent grain: Its value as renewable biomass and its possible applications. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2022;92:259-264. https://doi.org/10.3303/CET2292044.
5. Ikram S, Huang L, Zhang H, Wang J, Yin M. Composition and nutrient value proposition of brewers spent grain. Journal of Food Science. 2017;82:2232-2242. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13794.
6. Chetrariu A, Dabija A. Brewer's spent grains: Possibilities of valorization, a review. Applied Sciences. 2020;10:5619. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165619.
7. Cooray ST, Lee JJL, Chen WN. Evaluation of brewers' spent grain as a novel media for yeast growth. AMB Express. 2017;7:117. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0414-1.
8. Maltsev PM, Velikaya EI, Zazirnaya MV, Kolotusha PV. Khimiko-tekhnologicheskiy kontrol' proizvodstva soloda i piva [Che­mical-technological control of malt and beer production]. Moscow: Pischevaya promishlenost publ., 1976. 447 p. (In Russ.).
9. Aitken A, Learmonth M. Estimation of disulfide bonds using ellman's reagent. In: The Protein Protocols Handbook. NJ: Humana Press, Totowa, 2009. P. 1053-1055. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-198-7_114.
10. Roslyakov YuF, Pochitskaya IM, Litvyak VV, Kuriyanovich AN. Modeling of the in vitro melanoid formation reaction on the inte­raction of protein hydrolysate of chicken egg and glucose. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2017;86 (3):92-100. https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2017-00050. (In Russ.).
11. Celus I, Brijs K, Delcour JA. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain Proteins and Technofunctional Properties of the Resulting Hydrolysates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55:8703-8710. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf071793c.
12. Connolly A, Piggott CO, Fitzgerald RJ. Characterisation of protein-rich isolates and antioxidative phenolic extracts from pale and black brewers' spent grain. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;48:1670-1681. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12137.
13. Lysikov Yu.A. Aminokisloty v pitanii cheloveka [Amino acids in human nutrition]. Experimental and clinical gastroenterology journal. 2012; (2):88-105. (In Russ.).
14. Garrido Ruiz D, Sandoval-Perez A, Vikram Rangarajan A, Gunderson EL, Jacobson MP. Cysteine oxidation in proteins: Structure, biophysics, and simulation. Biochemistry. 2022;61 (20):2165-2176. https://doi.org/ 10.1021/acs.biochem.2c00349.
15. Meledina TV, Prokhorchik IP, Kuznetsova LI. Biokhimicheskiye protsessy pri proizvodstve soloda [Biochemical processes in the production of malt]: Ucheb. posobiye. Saint-Petersburg: NIU ITMO; IKhiBT, 2013. 89 p. (In Russ.).
Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Science,
Lazareva Irina V., Candidate of Technical Science,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia

Sinel'nikova M.Yu., Matveeva D.Yu. Quality Indicators of Oat Drinks

P. 19-21 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.010

Key words
oats, plant-based drinks, beta-glucan, protein, starch, organoleptic profile

Abstract. Plant-based drinks have been gaining popularity in recent years. And this happens not only out of necessity, when refusing animal milk, but also due to their beneficial properties. After all, the vector of food consumption is shifted towards a healthy, well-chosen diet, with the correct and most natural composition. One of the most common and useful raw materials for the production of vegetable drinks is oats. Thanks to the use of oats in the diet, the work of the liver and kidneys improves, and the level of glucose in the blood normalizes. And this happens with the help of its component composition. Since the grain of oats is a storehouse of not only proteins, lipids, starch, beta-glucan, but also trace elements and phenolic compounds. Comparative organoleptic and physico-chemical tests were carried out in industrial samples of vegetable drinks. Drinks with a similar composition have been investigated. There were no strong differences in the organoleptic profile, however, there were sufficient differences in the physicochemical characteristics when analyzing the resulting data.

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Sinel'nikova Marina Yu.,
Matveeva Dar'ya Yu.,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia


Rodin E.V.On the Issue of Losses of Extractive Substances in the Production of Beer

P. 22-25 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.009

Key words
beer, losses, extractive substances, extractivity, production stages

Beer is widespread in many countries of the world and is popular due to its aroma and taste qualities. There are more than a thousand varieties of beer. The taste characteristics of different species can be radically different. Beer is the third most popular drink in the world, and the most popular alcoholic beverage. A large number of enterprises, both large and very small, produce this drink. Against the background of intensifying competition, increasing the cost of brewing raw materials, the issue of the economy has recently become more acute. And one of the increasingly urgent directions of reducing the cost of finished products is the calculation and reduction of losses of extractive substances in the production of beer. Adequate calculation and, more importantly, knowledge and ability to manage losses and reduce losses of extractive substances in beer production is an extremely important task for the brewer. Extract losses occur at various production stages: acceptance, storage and transfer to the production of grain raw materials; wort production; fermentation and fermentation; beer filtration; beer bottling; storage and shipment of the finished product from the brewery. This article discusses all the existing points in the production of beer, in which it is physically possible to lose extractive substances. Emphasis is also placed on the technology of "high-density brewing", since a large percentage of beer in Russia is produced using this technology. When using this technology, the requirements for the parameters of technological processes differ significantly from classical brewing. And therefore, it is necessary to analyze the factors that shape both the quality of the finished product and the losses during its production.

1. Kunse V, Mit G. Technologia soloda I piva [Malt and beer technology]. Saint-Petersburg: Professia, 2003. 912 p. (In Russ.).
2. Narcis L. Kratkiy kurs pivovarenia [A short course of brewing]. Saint-Petersburg: Professia, 2007. 640 p. (In Russ.).
3. Kuraeva TV, Pomozova VA, Kiseleva TF, Miller YuYu, Shlyakhtina SYu. Faktory, formiruychie kachestvo piva pri visokoplotnom pivovarenii [Factors shaping the quality of beer in high-density brewing]. Beer and beverages. 2008; (5):62-64. (In Russ.).
4. Ermolaeva GA. Spravochnik rabotnika laboratorii pivovarennogo predpriyatia [Directory of the employee of the laboratory of the brewing company]. Saint-Petersburg: Professia, 2004. 536 p. (In Russ.).
5. Rodin EV. Statistical error of calculation origin extract under formula of balling. Food processing: techniques and technology. 2009; (1(12)): 86-91. (In Russ.).
6. Rodin EV, Rodin SV. Extractive regulation an initial mash at alluvial filtering of beer on candle filters. Beer and beverages. 2010; (3):12-15. (In Russ.).
7. Rodin EV. K voprosy o kolichestve ispolzuemuch generachiy rabochich droggey v usloviych promychlennogo proizvodstva piva [On the question of the number of used generations of working yeast in the conditions of industrial beer production]. Industria napitkov. 2022; (2):6-12. (In Russ.).
Rodin Evgeniy V., Candidate of Biological Science,
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia

Ermolaeva G.A., Grigoretc E.V., Ermolaev S.V.Development of a Tea Drink with Antioxidant Activity Using Spices. Part II

P. 26-31 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.001

Key words
black tea, tea drink, antioxidant activity, biologically active substances, apple, cardamom, cinnamon, dihydroquercetin (DHA)

A tea drink based on baikhovi black tea has been developed using tropical raw materials - cardamom, cinnamon, apple, which have high antioxidant activity (AOA). To increase the antioxidant activity, dihydroquercitin (DHA), obtained from Siberian larch, was added to the drink. Almost all raw materials (with the exception of apples and DHA) are imported, but affordable. Based on the study of the properties of vegetable raw materials (according to literature data), consumer and professional tasting, the choice of raw materials for tea drinks with high antioxidant activity enriched with biologically active substances is justified. The recipe and recommendations for the preparation of a tea drink have been developed. It was found that the drink has AOA and contains biologically active substances (flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E). Parameters were determined. It was found that with a lower humidity of the composition than that of tea (which is favorable for its storage), the mass fraction of its aqueous extract is 1.14 times higher, which will give a higher extract yield; the content of tannins and essential oils is reduced by 34%, essential oils by 48.5%, which makes the taste / aroma of the composition more "soft". AOA is significantly higher in composition, compared to the original tea. Enriched with tropical raw materials - spices - and dried apple tea drink has a higher (by 14%) antioxidant activity compared to the base raw material - black tea, and 1.5 times higher when using DHA. The developed tea drink quenches thirst well, contains biologically active substances useful for health and has antioxidant activity. The methods of determination of tannin and essential oils used in the work are given.

1. Ermolaeva GA, Verhovcev AS. The effect of biocatalysts on the extraction of tea substances. Beer and beverages. 2022; (3):23-26. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.52653/PIN.2022.03.03.007.
2. GOST 32170-2013. Tea. Acceptance rules. Moscow: Standartinform, 2018. 3 p. (In Russ.).
3. Lunin NP., Gol'berg JS. Biologicheski aktivnaja dobavka "Vitalariks kardio" [Biologically active supplement "Vitalarix cardio"]. Russia patent RU 2357746 C2. 2009.
4. Zorina NV. Primenenie digidrokvercetina v pishhevoj promyshlennosti [Application of dihydroquercetin in the food industry]. Prioritetnye nauchnye napravlenija: ot teorii k praktike [Priority scientific directions: from theory to practice]. 2013; (8):162-165. (In Russ.).
5. Dudonne S, Vitac X, Coutiere Ph, Woillez M, Merion J-M. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD and ORAC Assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009;57 (5):1768-1774. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf803011r.
6. Polyakov VA, Abramova IM, Vorobyeva EV, Gallyamova LP, Golovacheva NE. Antioxidants and their application in the alcoholic beverage industry. Food Industry. 2017; (12):12-16. (In Russ.).
7. MR Metodicheskie rekomendacii. Rekomenduemye urovni potreblenija pishhevyh i biologicheski aktivnyh veshhestv [Methodological recommendations. Recommended levels of consumption of food and biologically active substances]. Moscow: Federal'nyj centr gossanjepidnadzora Minzdrava Rossii, 2004. 46 p. (In Russ.)
8. GOST 34856-2022. Tea substitute drinks. Specifications. Moscow: Russian Institute of Standardization, 2022. 5 p. (In Russ.).
9. GOST 32572-2013. Tea. Sensory tests. Moscow: Standartinform, 2014. 3 p. (In Russ.).
Ermolaeva Galina A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor,
Ermolaev Sergey V., Candidate of Technical Science,
4, 4/22, Kosmodamianskaya embankment, Moscow, 115035, Russia
Grigoretc Eugeniya V.
Russian Biotechnological University (ROSBIOTECH),
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia

Kazartsev D.A., Galkin A.I., Rozina L.I.Use of Winemaking Experience in Modern Craft Brewing

P. 32-36 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.004

Key words
winemaking, brewing, craft beer, technological stages, fermentation, maturation, blending, storage, physical and chemical parameters, organoleptic characteristics

In connection with the constant search and conduct of various experiments by brewers in the production of craft beer, the question of the possibility of "borrowing" certain technological methods from winemaking in brewing is becoming more and more urgent. This article provides a detailed comparative analysis of raw materials and technological stages of beer and wine production. The most important characteristics and features of each stage are considered separately. Describes the technological methods of winemaking, which are currently used in craft brewing, or which may be used in the future. The analysis revealed similar technological stages of production in winemaking and brewing, as well as technological methods that are fundamentally different and have special functions and goals in the processing of raw materials. Theoretically, the article substantiates that the use of some technological methods from winemaking in brewing, as well as the use of wine yeast races, makes it possible to obtain beer that meets all the indicators of regulatory documentation (GOSTs) with new exclusive characteristics.

1. Ermolaeva GA. Spravochnik rabotnika pivovarennogo predpriyatiya [Directory of the employee of the brewery]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2004. 535 p. (In Russ.).
2. Valuiko GG. Tekhnologiya vinogradnykh vin [Technology of grape wines]. Simferopol': Tavrida, 2001. 642 p. (In Russ.).
3. Kuntse V. Tekhnologiya soloda i piva [Technology of malt and beer]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2003. 912 p. (In Russ.).
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7. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Fedorenko BN. Obshchaya tekhnologiya vina [General wine technology]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2022. 352 p. (In Russ.).
8. Borisenko T.N. Tekhnologiya otrasli. Tekhnologiya piva: uchebnoe posobie [Technology of the industry. Beer technology: textbook]. Kemerovo: KemTIPP, 2007. 125 p. (In Russ.).
9. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL. Spetsial'naya tekhnologiya vinodeliya [Special technology of winemaking]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2022. 238 p. (In Russ.).
10. Mal'tsev PM. Tekhnologiya brodil'nykh proizvodstv (obshchii kurs) [Technology of fermentation productions (general course)]. Moscow: Food industry, 1980. 540 p. (In Russ.).
11. Nartsiss L. Kratkii kurs pivovareniya [A short course of brewing]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2007. 631 p. (In Russ.).
12. Kalunyants KA, Yarovenko VL, Domaretskii VA, Kolcheva RA. Tekhnologiya soloda, piva i bezalkogol'nykh napitkov [Technology of malt, beer and soft drinks]. Moscow: Kolos, 1992. 445 p. (In Russ.).
13. Kobelev KV. Proizvodstvennyi kontrol' pivovareniya [Production control of brewing]. Production quality control. 2017; (7):5-7. (In Russ.).
Kazartsev Dmitry A., Doctor of Technical Science,
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Galkin Andrey I.,
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Moscow State University of Technology and Management them. K.G. Razumovsky,
73, Zemlyanoy Val Str., Moscow, 109004, Russia
Rozina Larisa I., Candidate of Technical Science,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia


Tochilina R.P., Saryan A.Sh., Gochina S.S., Pashkova I.N., Samoilova E.Yu.Technology of Sulfur Dioxide Determination in Beer and Beer Drinks - Researches and Metrological Characteristics

P. 37-41 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.005

Key words
sulfur dioxide concentration, beer, beer drinks, measurement technique, certified solutions, Monier-Williams method

It is justified the necessity for development of measurement methodology of sulfur dioxide mass concentration in beer and beer drinks. It is presented the results of sulfur dioxide determination in beer and beer drinks based on the developed methodology including preliminary distillation of the sample by Monier-Williams method. The developed measurement methodology of sulfur dioxide mass concentration in beer and beer drinks is certified in accordance with the established procedure and is registered in Federal registry. The indicators of measurement accuracy are given established based on the experimental data obtained. It is shown that the use of air instead of nitrogen for bubbled sample when performing sample preparation by Monier-Williams does not influence the result of sulfur dioxide determination. For the preparation of sulfur dioxide certified solutions, it is used commercial solution of sulfurous acid with concentration 5-6%. The developed certified sulfur dioxide solutions are used in the definitions results control procedure as well as for the distillation unit operation stability check. It is established that the stability of sulfur dioxide certified solutions depends on solvent matrix. In addition to it the most effective is the use of gallic acid solution. The use of proposed methodology in production and testing laboratories does not require additional measuring instruments, auxiliary equipment and retraining of personnel.


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Tochilina Regina P., Candidate of Technical Science,
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Saryan Anaida Sh.;
Gochina Svetlana S.;
Pashkova Irina N.;
Samoilova Elena Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia


Tomgorova S.M.Study of the Mineral Composition of Fruit Distillates from Stone Raw Materials

P. 42-45 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.003

Key words
fruit vodkas, stone raw materials, cations, anions, alcoholic beverages, stability after bottling, turbidity

Increasing the volume of production and expanding the range of alcoholic beverages based on fruit raw materials requires a scientific approach to determine the quality indicators of this type of product. Such an indicator is the mineral composition of fruit vodkas, which, due to the wide variety of fruit raw materials used, varies in wide ranges. The presence of high concentrations of certain ions in beverages, individually or in interaction with other ions, may cause a decrease in the stability of the alcoholic beverage. The study of qualitative and quantitative analysis of cations and anions of fruit vodkas of industrial production from stone raw materials (apricot, dogwood, cherry plum, cherry) showed that certain ions prevailed in alcoholic beverages obtained from certain types of raw materials. Thus, increased concentrations of ammonium ions 139.60 mg/dm3, calcium 19.80 and magnesium 15.14 mg/dm3 were found in apricot vodka, while in other samples the concentration of ammonium ions did not exceed 2.98 mg/dm3, magnesium - 2.04 mg/dm3, and calcium - ranged from 0.24 to 10.50 mg/dm3. The anionic composition of all the studied samples was represented by chlorides, bromides, nitrates and sulfates. Nitrites were found in 42% of the samples, and phosphates were present in 65% of the samples. A significant concentration of chlorides was found in apricot vodka - up to 16.13 mg/dm3, and in dogwood and cherry, sulfates - at the level of 18.48 and 18.34 mg/dm3. Also, dogwood vodka had the highest concentration of nitrates compared to other samples - up to 34.86 mg/dm3. The analysis of the obtained data did not reveal a clear pattern between the type of fruit raw materials and the content of trace elements. The presence of Ca++ ions in the studied samples at a concentration of more than 5 mg/dm3 indicates that the presented samples are prone to turbidity of a physicochemical nature.

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Tomgorova Svetlana M., Candidate of Technical Science,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia

Khokonova M.B., Khokonov A.B., Kantsalieva Z.L.The Influence of Storage Periods on the Physicochemical Parameters of Cider Rawmaterials Prepared from Fermented Apple Juices

P. 46-49 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.02.02.008

Key words
cider, raw materials, shelf life, quality indicators, redox potential, chemical composition

The work is devoted to the evaluation of the quality indicators of wine material and cider made from fermented apple juices and subjected to storage. In the process of secondary fermentation, an increase in the content of glycerin was noted in all samples, regardless of the time of preparation of the wine material. In parallel with glycerin, acetaldehyde is formed during glyceropyruvic fermentation. In the case of using fresh wine materials in all samples, a decrease in its total content was noted. The intense reduction in the content of acetaldehyde during secondary fermentation is mainly the result of its interaction with sulfur dioxide, secondary and by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Experimental data and tasting samples of apple sparkling wine from long-term stored wine materials showed that the appearance of an oxidized tone in apple sparkling wine from the White Sun was not accompanied by a sharp increase in the content of acetaldehyde. Moreover, sparkling wines from Melba, Pepin saffron and Fortuna were distinguished by a clean, pronounced aroma and harmonious taste, despite the higher content of acetaldehyde in them, which is quite consistent with the data on the relationship between the degree of oxidation of wines and the content of acetaldehyde. A significant increase in the amount of higher alcohols in the process of secondary fermentation of all samples of wine materials, regardless of the shelf life, has been established. The content of methanol, phenolic substances in the process of secondary fermentation decreased regardless of the duration of storage of wine materials. The conducted studies showed that the patterns of biochemical transformations for wines made from cider materials with different shelf life were basically the same.

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Khokonova Madina B., Doctor of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor,
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Khokonov Alim B.,
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Kantsalieva Zalina L., Candidate of Agricultural Science,
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Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V.M. Kokov,
1V, Lenin avenue, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, 360030, Russia


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