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Beer and beverages №1/2023


Salmina D.A., Kaledin I.M., Sychev R.V., Maslovskiy S.A., Shapovalova P.N., Karpova N.A.Selection and Analysis of Isolated Brewer's Yeast Colonies Adapted to Low Temperatures

P. 4-9 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.002

Key words
beer, yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, temperature, selection

Optimal selection of yeast strains plays an important role in beer technology. In the production of bottom fermentation beer, an important factor is yeast ability to ferment wort at low temperatures. In this regard, at the production field of LLC "Private Brewery "Afanasy", studies were studied on the recovery of colonies of cold-resistant forms from beer sedimentary yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have passed several cycles of the fermentation process. Colonies' recovery was carried out in 4 stages. At the first stage, isolated colonies were recovered according to the modified Drigalsky method, which provides for sequential isolate passage in 5 Petri dishes and their cultivation in a wort-agar medium at a temperature of 6…8 °C for 3 days. Then the isolated large colonies were cultured on sterile wort, at the same temperature for 2 days. At the same time, the process of wort fermentation was determinated by its extractivity and accumulation of ethyl alcohol. At this stage samples with the best fermenting and budding ability were isolated. The three best samples were transplanted onto oblique sections of wort agar. After 3 days cultivation sample was isolated, characterized by the highest growth rate, which was evaluated by fermentation and budding ability at different temperatures 1, 7 and 21 °C. At a temperature of 7 °C its most intensive development was noted - the maximum number of cells (29.70 million/cm3) was observed after 10 hours of cultivation, with a proportion of budding cells of 80.40%. The obtained sample is promising for further work in order to obtain new yeast races of bottom fermentation.

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2. Islammagomedova EA, Khalilova EA, Hasanov RZ, Abakarova AA, Aliverdieva DA. The resistance of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to extreme conditions. Izvestia of higher educational institutions. The North Caucasus region. Series: Natural Sciences. 2021;2?(210):113-118. https://doi.org/10.18522/1026-2237-2021-2-113-118. (In Russ.).
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Salmina Darya A.,
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Sychev Roman V., Candidate of Agricultural Science,
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Maslovskiy Sergey A., Candidate of Agricultural Science,
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Shapovalova Polina N.,
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Karpova Natal'ya A.,
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Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazev,
49, Timiryazevskaya Str., Moscow, 127550, Russia.
Kaledin Ivan M.,
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LLC "Private brewery "Afanasy",
95, Kominterna Str., Tver, 170028, Russia.

Khokonova M.B., Tsagoeva O.K.Methods for Concentrating a Deep Culture of Mold Fungi and their Effect on Fermentation Rates During Saccharification of Alcohol Production Wort

P. 10-13 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.007

Key words
alcohol production, enzyme preparation, storage, activity, dosage, fermentation indicators, saccharification

This work is devoted to the study of changes in the activity of the grown deep culture of mold fungi during storage and their influence on the physicochemical parameters and the yield of alcohol. As an object of research, a deep culture of the mold fungus Asp. usamii 45. The loss of activity upon drying in terms of dry matter was about 10-25%. We studied two samples of the drug - the first with a dry matter content of 92.0% and the second - 90.4%. The pledged samples were stored for 1 year. The fungus culture was used as a control at a dose of 20 ml. It has been determined that the spray-dried preparation retains its enzymatic activity well during sufficiently long storage. This preparation was used for saccharification of starchy congestion. Experiments have shown that when dosing according to activity, less drug is consumed for saccharification than it is contained in the initial culture filtrate. This affected the results of fermentation, worsening both the yield of alcohol and the technological parameters of the wort and mature mash. When dosing the drug in terms of dry matter content, the fermentation indicators are almost the same as those obtained by saccharification with an unfiltered culture. It has been established that drying the deep culture filtrate in a spray dryer makes it possible to obtain a fully active preparation that can be used for saccharification of starchy congestion. The dose of the drug in this case corresponds to the content of solids in such an amount of deep culture filtrate, which is sufficient for normal saccharification of alcohol wort.

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3. Khokonova MB, Tsagoeva OK. Kachestvennye pokazateli zernovykh zatorov, osakharennykh fermentami glubinnoi kul'tury i soloda [Qualitative indicators of grain mashes saccharified by deep culture enzymes and malt]. Aktual'naya biotekhnologiya. 2019;(3(30)):244-248. (In Russ.).
4. Khokonova MB. Technology of processing starchy raw material with production of protein-carbohydrate products. Nauchnoe obespechenie innovacionnogo razvitija agropromyshlennogo kompleksa regionov RF: materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. 2018, p. 681-684. (In Russ.).
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7. Kachmazov GS. Drozhzhi brodil'nykh proizvodstv [Yeast of fermentation productions]. Saint-Petersburg: Lan', 2012. 220 p. (In Russ.).
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10. Khokonov AB. Technological aspects of production fruit and berry wines. Sbornik izbrannyh statej po materialam nauchnyh konferencij GNII "Nacrazvitie". Saint-Petersburg: ChNOU DPO Gumanitarnyi natsional"nyi issledovatel'skii institut "NATsRAZVITIE", 2021. P. 328-330. (In Russ.).
11. Khokonova MB, Khokonov AB. Assessment of qualitative indicators of apples for the production of cider wine materials. Sel'skohozjajstvennoe zemlepol'zovanie i prodovol'stvennaja bezopasnost': materialy VII Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvjashhennoj pamjati Zasluzhennomu dejatelju nauki RF, KBR, Respubliki Adygeja professora B.H. Fiapshevu. Nalchik, 2021. P. 76-79. (In Russ.).
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13. Khokonova MB. Optimization of the technology of brewing production and cultivation of barley in the foothills of the North Caucasus. Dissertation. Makhachkala: DGSHA, 2012. (In Russ.).
Khokonova Madina B., Doctor of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor,
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Tsagoeva Olga K.,
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Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V.M. Kokov,
1V, Lenin avenue, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, 360030, Russia

Zakhidova M.A., Obodeeva O.N.Influence of Temperature Treatment Modes on the Aromatic Profile of Fruit Brandy

P. 14-18 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.005

Key words
fruit brandy, volatile components, treatment temperature, organoleptic evaluation, aromatic profile

Fruit brandy produced on the basis of fruit distillates are of interest to consumers due to the rich aroma and taste inherent in these alcoholic beverages. The volatile components present in these distillates are a complex of aroma-forming substances that pass from the feedstock, as well as formed as a result of complex enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes at all technological stages of production. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal cold treatment modes of fruit brandy based on the study of the influence of temperature on their aromatic profile. The objects of the study were three prototypes of fruit brandy prepared in the laboratory conditions of the Department of technology of strong drinks of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS. The prototypes were cold-treated under three temperature conditions: -8...-10 °C (mode I); -12...-14 °C (mode II); -18...-20 °C (mode III). Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile components in samples was carried out by gas chromatography on the "Chromatek-Crystal 5000" device. It was found that treatment at a lower temperature (mode III) leads to a significant decrease in the concentration of higher and aromatic alcohols, as well as esters of higher fatty acids, compared with milder modes I, II. Changes in the concentration and ratio of groups of volatile components in experimental samples affected the intensity and nature of their aroma, and also taste. The results of the organoleptic analysis revealed an increase in the tones of fresh fruits, floral shades in samples treated with cold at a temperature of -12...-14 °C. In addition, they have become more harmonious and pure in aroma, without excessive fusel shades and herbaceous tones. The constructed aromatic profiles showed that processing at a lower temperature led to a weakening of floral and fruit shades in the aroma and an increase in fusel shades. It has been established that the most suitable mode of processing fruit brandy from the point of view of improving the structure of their aromatic profile is a temperature of -12...-14 °C.

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3. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Loryan GV. Use of non-traditional raw materals in the production of fruit distillates. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2014;(5):20-22. (In Russ.).
4. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Razrabotka innovatsionnoi tekhnologii distillyata iz chernoi smorodiny [Development of innovative technology of distillate from black currant]. Sbornik materialov II Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii: Innovatsionnye issledovaniya i razrabotki dlya nauchnogo obespecheniya proizvodstva i khraneniya ekologicheski bezopasnoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi i pishchevoi produktsii. Krasnodar, 2017. P. 426-429. (In Russ.).
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9. Trofimchenko VA. Forecasting the resistance of fruit brandy based on an assessment of their physico-chemical composition. Beer and beverages. 2022;(4):22-26. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.52653/PIN.2022.04.04.002.
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12. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN. Influence of Saccharomyces yeast races of the fermentation process of the cornel pulp. Food processing industry, 2021;(1):41-45. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24411/0235-2486-2021-10008.
13. Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN, Trofimchenko VA, Nebezhev KV. Influence of the regime parameters of distillation on the distribution of volatile components by fractions in the production of cornel distillate. Beer and beverages. 2021;(2):19-23. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.52653/PIN.2021.2.2.002.
14. Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN, Tomgorova SM, Nebezhev KV. Comparative evaluation of methods for stabilizing alcoholic beverages based on cornel distillate. Beer and beverages. 2021;(4):14-17. (In Russ.) http://doi.org/10.52653/PIN. 2021.4.4.002.
15. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz chernoi smorodiny [Method of production of distillate from black currant]. Russia patent RU 2609659 C1. 2016.
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Zakhidova Marina A.,
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Obodeeva Olga N.,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia


Ermolaeva G.A., Grigoretñ E.V., Ermolaev S.V.Development of a Tea Drink with Antioxidant Activity Using Spices. Part I

P. 19-25 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.006

Key words
black tea, tea drink, antioxidant activity, biologically active substances, apple, cardamom, cinnamon

The results of studying the literature data to substantiate the composition of the developed tea drink with antioxidant properties containing a significant amount of biologically active substances are presented. The characteristics of the objects of research are presented: black tea, dried apples and spices: cinnamon and cardamom. The data on the composition of the selected raw materials are given. The tannins of tea are a mixture of more than 30 polyphenolic compounds and their derivatives (tannin, catechins). Tea saponins - have an antioxidant and antimicrobial effect. Essential oils in the finished tea in small quantities, but give the tea a unique flavor. Alkaloids are caffeine and identical to it thein, theobromine, theophylline - tonic components that give a bitter taste. Amino acids interact with sugars, tannins and catechins to form aldehydes involved in the formation of tea flavor. Protein substances and free amino acids make up 16-25% of the weight of the tea leaf. Tea pigments are chlorophyll, xanthophyll and carotene, thearubigins and theaflavins. Enzymes (enzymes): polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase (contributes to the overall fermentation process). The tables show the composition of black, green, white tea, etc. Spices are characterized as functional ingredients for increasing antioxidant activity. Spices: cardamom seeds containing essential oils limonene, terpineol - with the scent of lilac, cineol with the smell of eucalyptus and borneol with the smell of pine needles, frankincense and camphor. Cinnamon contains eugenol, an aroma - forming compound. The composition of cinnamon also includes a substance close to flavonoids coumarin, responsible for anticoagulant properties. Important components of apples are pectins - a natural sorbent and antioxidant quercetin. After conducting a comprehensive analysis of literary sources, it can be concluded that cinnamon, cardamom and dried apples selected as objects of research should increase the antioxidant activity of the tea drink due to the presence of flavonoids and vitamins of group C, E, etc. in their composition.

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5. Ermolaeva GA, Verkhovtsev AS. The effect of biocatalysts on the extraction of tea substances. Beer and bevera­ges. 2022;(3):23-26. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.52653/PIN.2022.03.03.007.
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Ermolaeva Galina A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor,
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
Ermolaev Sergey V., Candidate of Technical Science,
4, 4/22, Kosmodamianskaya embankment, Moscow, 115035, Russia
Grigoretñ Eugeniya V.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia
Contribution of the authors: the authors contributed equally to this article.
The authors declare no conflicts of interests.


Mikhailova I.Y., Vafin R.R., Kharlamova L.N.On the Issue of Beer Gushing (mini review)

P. 26-29 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.004

Key words
gashing, beer, grains, malt, proteins, hydrophobins, fusarium, mycotoxins

The gushing of beer when opening bottles under pressure has been known for a long time and the reasons for this have been studied for many years. The use of various modern physicochemical methods has provided a variety of information for understanding this phenomenon. Studies to predict gashing and understand its mechanism, studying the effect of the protein composition of beer on foaming, as directly related to "excessive gushing"; control of the degree of infection with fungi Fusarium spp. grain and beer produced from it, including the use of DNA technology - that's just some of this work. It has been established that the main compounds that cause excessive beer gushing are hydrophobins - low molecular weight heat-resistant proteins. Hydrophobins are a family of small molecular weight membrane (amphipathic) proteins produced exclusively by filamentous fungi that pass into beer from Fusarium-infected grains. They are rich in cysteine and therefore have a unique spatial structure, high thermal stability, surface activity and "survive" in the brewing process. But not only hydrophobins are responsible for hashing. Studies of the beer protein proteome have identified a number of polypeptides associated with beer foaming. The main proteins of beer, the lipid-transporting protein nLTP and Z proteins, undergo changes during the production of beer and interact with hydrophobins, which contribute to hashing. It was also found that, in addition to hashing, grain infection with Fusarium spp. causes the accumulation of secondary metabolites - trichothecenes, which have a toxic effect on humans and other vertebrates when consumed food and feed, thereby posing a serious danger to their health. Another important area of research related to Fusarium infection of grain is the control of the content of mycotoxins in the initial brewing raw materials, the development of methods for reducing their concentrations at all stages of the production chain "field - finished product" and preventing their concentrations from exceeding the maximum permissible values, as a guarantee of safety. and the quality of the beer.

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Mikhailova Irina Y.,
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Vafin Ramil R., Doctor of Biological Science, Professor of RAS,
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Kharlamova Larisa N., Candidate of Technical Science,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia

Bagirzadeh A.S., Omarov Y.A., Nabiyev A.A.Comparative Study of Qualitative Indicators of Grape Varieties Used in the Production of Tokay-type Wines

P. 30-34 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.008

Key words
grape varieties, Bayan-shirey, Rkatsiteli, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Madrasà, wine, "tokay", total sugar, titratable acidity, phenolic compounds

Tokay wines, which originated in the Republic of Hungary, are made by drying grapes and rolling them on the vine. The main goal is to increase the sugar content due to the evaporation of moisture in the grapes and stop the fermentation process naturally without adding alcohol. In this period, the content of the wine is 15-16% alcohol and up to 16%. It is known that in the process of fermentation, when 15 or more percent of alcohol is formed in the medium, the activity of yeast and enzymes stops, so alcoholic fermentation stops and natural sugar remains in the wine. It is important to note that when twisting and storing on the vine for 10-12 days, up to 15-20% of grapes break and fall to the ground. At home, in the production of sweet dessert wines of the Tokay type, alcohol is not added to the wine material. As a result of our research, it turned out that, despite the high amount of solids and total sugar in dried grapes, the content of extractives, as well as the main indicators of wine quality - total acidity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C and other substances, their number decreases. If in ripe grape varieties the content of phenolic compounds fluctuated within 0.94-0.70 g/100 cm3, then this indicator in wilted grape varieties, varying within 0.57-0.42 g/100 cm3, decreased to 39.4-40.0%. Compared with ripe grapes, in dried varieties, the content of vitamin C decreased by 35.3-46.1%, titratable acidity by 13.8-19.4%, pectin substances by 38.9-44.0%. The yield of unclarified juice of ripe grape varieties was 74.3-77.1%, and in juices obtained from dried grape varieties it was 59.6-62.5%, respectively. Compared with mature varieties, the juice yield of dried grapes, respectively, was less by 18.9-20.7%. Therefore, for the production of high-quality wine of the Tokay type, it is considered more appropriate to produce quality wine using ripened or, if necessary, vacuum juice prepared from the studied grapes.

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4. Kazimova IH, Nabiyev AA. Determining qua­lity indicators of table grape varieties during storage in a refrigerating chamber in different variants. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2022;6(11(120)):34-43. (In Eng.). https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2022.268025.
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Bagirzadeh Afaq S.,
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Omarov Yashar A., Candidate of Biological Science, Associate Professor,
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Nabiyev Ahad A., Doctor of Biological Science, Professor,
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Azerbaijan Technological University,
103, Shah Ismail Khatai avenue, Gandja, AZ2011, Azerbaijan

Sevostyanova E.M.Topical Issues on the Labeling of Packaged Mineral Waters

P. 35-39 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.001

Key words
mineral waters, counterfeit, labeling, product name, technical regulation, national standard

Currently, the problem of illicit trafficking in industrial products is very relevant. The production and circulation of counterfeit and falsified products not only contributes to unfair competition in the consumer market, but also causes quite serious damage to the country's economy. Misleading the consumer about the properties and origin of products can also cause harm to the life and health of the consumer. Such a violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation, as the provision of incomplete or unreliable information in labeling, translates products into the category of "counterfeit". The article defines the terms "counterfeit" and "counterfeit" products. Specialists and experts in the non-alcoholic industry note that a fairly common mistake made by manufacturers of packaged mineral waters is the incorrect/incomplete provision of information on the label. The author cites data from a rolling study of the packaged drinking water market, both mineral and drinking, conducted by ANO Roskachestvo in 2020. The study was conducted in three main areas: counterfeit, falsification and product safety. Signs of falsification were determined taking into account the reliability / inaccuracy of the information indicated in the label. In the article, the author gives the main requirements for labeling packaged water by technical regulations and national standards that apply to them and a list of basic information that must be applied to each unit of consumer packaging. The following are considered in detail: the rules for the formation of the name of packaged mineral water, which should unequivocally refer it to food products, reliably characterize and allow it to be distinguished from other food products; indication of the group / subgroup and medical indications and contraindications for use for medicinal table and medicinal mineral waters in accordance with the current Classification of natural medicinal resources; rules for labeling the storage conditions and the expiration date of water after opening the consumer package. A properly designed label containing all the necessary information in accordance with the current legislation will allow the consumer to choose the product he needs and significantly reduce the amount of counterfeit on the packaged mineral water market.

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Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia


Gribkova I.N.The Brewer's Spent Grain Structure Novel Studies

P. 40-44 DOI: 10.52653/PIN.2023.01.01.003

Key words
brewer's spent grain, composition, organic compounds, hemicelluloses, lignin, vitamins, mineral elements

The article is devoted to the issue of the use of secondary raw materials in the direction of the implementation of low-waste technologies. It is shown that brewer's spent grain are a renewable raw material resource, the processing of which is necessary for several reasons, the main of which is the greening of the industry. The study's aim was to systematize new results on the study of the composition of brewer's spent grain in order to find new processing methods to obtain a product with added value. The study's objects were literary sources (articles of domestic and foreign periodicals), for a period of 10-15 years of scientometric systems Web of Science, Scopus, RSCI, VAK. Research methods were based on the search for new information about the structure of already studied organic compounds and the presence of previously unknown ones. The organic compounds quantitative content of the cellulose-lignin complex is given, the composition and type of bonds in the molecules that cross-link polyoses of the complex are specified. The authors provide information on the influence of the phenolic compounds isolation method on the identification of guaiacyl and syringyl units ratio, which is important from the point of view choosing a method for isolating a particular organic compound. Information is given on the composition of nitrogenous compounds of brewer's spent grain (globulins, albumins, glutelins and hordeins) and the separation of the fraction of glutelins and prolamins according to molecular weights into fractions. The value of brewer's spent grain from the point of view composition of vitamins is noted. The authors give the composition of the mineral elements of brewer's spent grain, depending on the grist's composition in terms of cereal raw materials. For the first time, data are presented on the composition of volatile aromatic changes and their variability relative to the composition of malts in brewer's spent grain. It is concluded that, according to the review of scientific data, brewer's spent grain are a valuable source of vitamins, minerals, organic compounds of an antioxidant nature and require further study of the organic compounds composition, depending on the method of isolation.

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Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Science,
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All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow,119021, Russia