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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №12/2016

Buzetti K.D., Svetlov Yu.V., Grizenkov A.V.Hydrodynamics Extracting Motion in a Layer of Pine Nuts in the Preparation of Cedar Infusions

P. 5-8 Key words
water alcohol mixture; hydrodynamics; pine nuts; liquor products; recilculating extractor; extraction.

Problem of intensification of the processes and creating of a new low power intensive machines in food industry including alcoholic beverages companies, currently it is still an urgent task. For further improvement of processes of extraction at alcoholic beverages companies expected to use recilculating extractors. To intensify recilculating extractors is necessary to research of the hydrodynamics flow of extractant in layer of stationary raw materials with it`s different flow rates for process optimization. On the one hand by increasing the flow velocity reduces process time of extraction, by reducing the external diffusion resistance, however it increases hydrodynamical resistance of the layer of stationary raw materials, resulting to addition economical costs, related to overcoming this resistance. The article considers solving of the next tasks: definition at different speed flow of extractant of the critical limits transition from laminar to turbulent motion; finding the dependence of change of pressure difference inlet and outlet from the layer of stationary raw materials from mode motion of the extractant; determination of the dynamics of changes in the total drag coefficient resistance of granular raw material layer from the mode of fluid motion. Results of the experiments are given as graphic dependences: differential pressure change in a layer of the pine nuts ?ð from Reynolds hydrodynamic criterion (Re ); change the granular layer the total drag coefficient from Re ; Euler criterion change (Eu ) relatively to Reynolds criterion. Evaluation of test data allows to determine the optimum point between laminar and turbulent mode of the extractant at the layer of pine nuts. Based on this data, calculated hydrodynamic losses ?ð at working space of the recilculating extractor with different flow speed of extractant. Determination of the pressure drop ?ð at the layer of pine nuts allows to calculate extracting optimal movement speed and determine the necessary conditions of an intensification of the extraction process, carried out with the lowest energy consumption. Thereby, at article based on an experimental data, studied basic laws of the hydrodynamics of water alcohol mixture at layer of pine nuts.

Buzetti Konstantin Dantevich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Svetlov Yuriy Valentinovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Grizenkov Alexander Vladimirovich
Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy
73 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russian, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Smykov I.T.Gel Point Determination in Milk Gelation

P. 9-14 Key words
gel; gel point; sol-gel transition; measuring; casein micelle; milk; rheology; phase change; electron microscopy.

The article is devoted to resolving one of the problems of condensed matter physics and colloid chemistry - the definition of the gelation point in the sol-gel transition. The researches were carried out in the department of physical chemistry of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter and Cheese making, Uglich. The investigation, based on the conducted literature analysis, shows that at the moment there is no single steady definition of "gel point" in the sol-gel transition as well as its unique physical interpretation. In different countries and organizations, the researchers offer their own definitions of the term and use it in their experimental works that leads to incomparable results for the same samples and conditions, and to the rise of uncertainty. Based on the electron microscopy investigations it was found that at the early flocculation (induction) stages of the gelation in the milk the casein micelles at first form incoherent clusters without a noticeable form change of micelles, and at the end of flocculation (induction) stages of the gelation the casein micelles hardly change their shape in the clusters. Rheological studies of gelation showed that the time when the casein micelles change their shape in the clusters, coincides with the time when the gel elastic modulus undergoes a sharp S-shaped variation (chevron). It was shown that a S-shaped variation of the gel elastic modulus and morphology change of the casein micelles correspond to cooperative phase transition in the form of casein micelles "globule - molten globule". It was suggested to use the physical process of cooperative phase transition in the clusters of casein micelles as an objective unique parameter that determines the position of the gel point in the gelation.

Smykov Igor Timopheevich, Doctor of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Butter and Cheese making,
19 Krasnoarmeiski boulevard, Uglich, Yaroslavl region, 152613, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bykova T.O., Demidova A.V., Eremeeva N.B., Makarova N.V., Bykov D.E., Bakharev V.V.Strained Prunes as a Base in Production Edible Films of Apple Puree

P. 15-18 Key words
strained prunes; edible film; apple puree.

Currently there is a strong interest in creating edible film with the addition of various components. Most of these components in pure form in nature does not occur, so that such films are conventionally edible. One of the possible options for edible films - using fruit puree as a base. A comparison of films derived from plum and apple puree with the addition of various plasticizers. As plasticizers used agar-agar, pectin, xanthan gum and carrageenan. Determined flavor, color, aroma, structural strength and water absorption characteristics. All films from plum puree had a dark reddish-purple color, and of apple sauce - honey-yellow. Samples of the films had no particular smell. Taste almost all edible films plum puree - paper. The taste of edible films from applesauce influenced added plasticizer. The fine bubbles blotches characteristic of the films of apple. The plum films observed the inclusion of larger bubbles. These films were more resistant to water, dissolved no earlier than 30 minutes, regardless of water temperature. At 100 °C all of the film completely lose their plasticity, with the microwave treatment - partially. Plum film and with apple pectin and carrageenan withstand temperatures -18 and 40 °C without changing the organoleptic properties of plastic and, with the addition of apple and xanthan gum, and agar are brittle. Films of plum puree were thicker than the film of the apple sauce, but they withstand heavy loads at the limit of strength. For the best plum puree plasticizer to improve the strength characteristics - pectin for apple sauce - carrageenan.

Bykova Tatiana Olegovna, Post-graduate Student;
Demidova Anna Vladimirovna, Post-graduate Student;
Eremeeva Nataliya Borisovna, Post-graduate Student;
Makarova Nadezhda Viktorovna, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor;
Bykov Dmitriy Evgenievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Bakharev Vladimir Valentinovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeiskaya St., Samara, 443067, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Volkova T.N., Selina I.S., Sozinova M.S.Mycobiota of Malting Barley Grain: “Survey During 2001–2015 (Part 2)

P. 19-23 Key words
grain; infestation load; mycotoxins; malting barley; contamination level.

Grain mycobiota of fresh malting barley (1-3 months after harvest) were analyzed during 2001-2015 for purpose of monitoring. The samples were collected from batches of barley purchased by Russian malting companies. Barley was harvested in following regions of Russia (in parenthesis - the number of samples): Voronezh (27), Kursk (24), Tambov (10), Belgorod (8), Lipeck (6), Orel (6), Rjazan' (4), Penza (2), Tula (1), Volgograd (1), Rostov-on-Don (1), Omsk (1), Tjumen' (1), Kurgan (1), Altay (2). Also 11 samples of imported barley from different European countries were examined. Mycobiota analysis were carried out in three parallel versions: native grains were placed on wet filter paper (1), on malt wort agar (2), and grains surface-disinfected with 1?% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by rinsing twice with sterile tap water were placed on malt wort agar (3). Characterization and identification of micromycetes in superficial and internal mycobiota of grain were performed. Contaminating level of the sample by each of species (%), the frequency of species isolation in different samples (%), and infestation load (in conventional units) were detected. During 2001-2008 38 barley samples were analyzed, and 58 samples - in 2009-2015. All the samples had high index of germinating ability (average 94.5-95.0?%). Data of contaminating levels of the dominant species (limits of variability and average) during 2001-2008 and in period 2009-2015 compared with the average data for microbiota of imported barley. It is found that the 5 genera of field fungi with 100?% incidence of isolation can be assigned to obligate: Alternaria spp., Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus), Epicoccum nigrum, Cladosporium spp., and Fusarium sporotrichioides. During the period 2001-2015 there was displacement domestic cultivars of malting barley and substitution them with imported ones. Some changes were detected during these years in species and quantitative content of barley grain mycobiota. In 2001-2008 Alternaria (max 98?%, average 65?%) and Bipolaris (max 98?%, average 51?%) were dominant in infestation level. In 2009-2015 Alternaria remained dominant (average 77?%), but the Bipolaris infestation level fell to 21?%. The negative correlation always observed between Alternaria and Bipolaris infestation levels: r = -0.92 in 2001-2008; r = -0.46 in 2009-2015. Increase of Epicoccum and Fusarium infestation levels also observed in 2009-2015 compared with 2001-2008. Fusarium was presented by species (in parenthesis - isolation frequency): F. sporotrichioides (100?%), F. verticillioides (57?%), F. poae (14?%), F. tricinctum (7?%). Storage fungi are not always detected and their infestation level does not exceed 35?%. Reduction of the species list of minor components in the field mycobiota also observed. The levels of 5 MT: Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), Zearalenone (ZEA), Aflatoxin (Afl B1, B2, G1, G2 sum) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) were measured in 2007-2011 in 39 randomly selected samples of malting barley by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using test systems RIDASCREEN FAST (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). MTs have been found in 6 samples (15?%), 7 cases: DON, T2 and Afl were identified - each in two cases, ZEA - in one case. OTA was never been detected. Exceeding the maximum permissible level observed in one case: T2 (150 ppb, exceeding 1.5 times). In conclusion, malt barley grain harvested in regions of Central European Russia and purchased by domestic malting companies can be considered good and acceptable in terms of mycological and mycotoxicological status and does not inferior to imported barley.

Volkova Tatiana Nikolaevna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Selina Irina Sergeevna;
Sozinova Marina Sergeevna
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7 Rossolimo St., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Son O.M., Cherevach E.I., Tekutieva L.A.Use of Grain-processing Industry Wastes in the Microbiological Synthesis of Feed Protein

P. 24-27 Key words
amino acid; protein; feed additive; microbial synthesis; nutritional value; plant raw meterial; deep-milled rice flour; functional ingredients.

World experience of livestock strongly suggests that the genetic potential of productivity can not be achieved by unbalanced feeding, and especially for protein. Traditional vegetable food, as a rule, are not full. The relatively high biological value proteins have a grain of rice and peas; essential amino acids in the most balanced protein soybean seeds; proteins in wheat and barley are very few lysine, isoleucine and methionine, and the proteins in corn - also tryptophan. The imbalance of vegetable feed on the protein (non-compliance of the diet of farm animals - 110 g/feed unit) calls for the introduction of protein supplementation in the form of products of essential amino acids or protein mass. One of the ways to reduce feed protein deficiency - the use of microbiological synthesis products - biomass of microorganisms capable of producing it. Distinctive features of the protein - synthesis of high intensity, high biological value, as well as the use for the cultivation of microorganisms of various substrates, obtained in the processing of products of agriculture. As substrates are recommended various types of plants (low-value wheat, rye flour, etc.). At the same time in order to implement energy-saving technologies it is very important to apply not only crops but also the resulting by-products of their processing: on grain processing and flour mills - is the sunflower husks, wheat flour dust and grain husking bran, sugar factories - beet pulp and molasses, in the brewing industry - yeast, etc. Rice husking bran, which is formed in large quantities during the grinding of grain for risopererabatyvayuschih plants contains a considerable amount of biologically active substances and functional ingredients - proteins, lipids, fiber, vitamins, minerals. In the article on the basis of chemical composition analysis justified the prospect of using rice fasciculi in new kinds of high-performance feed additives microbial protein synthesis.

Son Oxana Mikhailovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Cherevach Elena Igorevna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Tekutieva Ludmila Alexandrovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Far Eastern Federal University. School of Economics and Management,
Building G, Ayaks, o. Russkiy, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Podvolotskaya A.B., Fishchenko E.S., Son O.M., Naumchuk M.A., Balabanova L.A.Modern Aspects of Sanitization and Disinfection of the Production Environment Meat Processing Plants

P. 28-30 Key words
bacterial biofilm; disinfection; food; sanitation.

The article is devoted to the development and study of contemporary aspects of sanitization and disinfection of the production environment meat processing plants. Works performed the Far Eastern Federal University (Economics and Management School). We used the standard methods. Among the huge number of species of microorganisms present in meat, sanitary and epidemiological importance are pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria that can multiply in foods and cause the development of an infectious process. Research shows that scientists have found a typical representatives of Proteus genera, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Bacillus, enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Clostridium, and uncharacteristic species Yersinia, Citrobacter, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Klebsiella and others. Currently, the detection of bacteria of the family Enterobactericeae particularly bacterial biofim is evidence of poor hygiene or improper handling (particularly heat treatment) in the event of contamination of disinfection products and further process failure. The use of psychrophilic enzymes of marine origin, is the actual direction of the process of regulation of bacterial biofim in a production environment. Direct interaction with the enzyme matrix and the possible regulatory role may be helpful for borrowing sanitation and hygiene in the food industry. We studied the effect of enzymes on the process of film-forming strain p. Salmonellae, isolated from frozen meat products. The data scanning electron microscopy: loosening the bacterial biofilm matrix dissolution, and the resulting possible increase in permeability to disinfectants, create preconditions possible use of recombinant enzymes of marine origin in the regulations sanitization and disinfection of the production environment objects in the meat processing industry.

Podvolotskaya Anna Borisovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Fishchenko Evgenia Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Son Oxana Mikhailovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Naumchuk Marina Alexeevna, Student
Far Eastern Federal University,
Building G, Ayaks, o. Russkiy, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Balabanova Larisa Anatolievna, Candidate of Biological Science
Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
159 Prospect 100 let Vladivostoku, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Alyokhina N.N., Ponomaryova E.I., Uryvskaya N.V. Grain Bread with Hop Processing Products

P. 31-33 Key words
bioactivated grain of wheat; thick leaven; grain bread; dry leaven; hop broth.

To improve the quality of grain bread acidifiers, leaven are used. At the department of technology of bakery, confectionery, pasta and grain processing industries of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies methods for the preparation of thick and dry leavens based on bioactivated wheat grain with hops processing products were developed. The purpose of work: a comparative evaluation of dough properties and the quality of products on the basis of bioactivated wheat grain leavens with hops processing products (thick leavens "Hop broth cereal" and "Hop cereal", dry leavens "Hop broth cereal" and "Hop cereal"). The dough was kneaded with the humidity of 48?% and 30?% of a thick leaven or 10?% of dry leaven. In the process of dough fermentation the following was determined every 30 minutes: titratable acidity, dough volume and the amount of resulting carbon dioxide. The amount of resulting carbon dioxide was measured with risograph National (Manufacturing Lincoln, Nebraska). The products were analyzed on organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters in 24 hours after baking. The studies determined that the samples prepared with thick leaven from bioactivated wheat grain using hop broth are characterized by larger values of titratable acidity, dough volume, the volume of resulting carbon dioxide in the fermentation process and the specific volume of bread. The product did not differ greatly according to organoleptic characteristics. The use of thick leavens from bioactivated wheat grain with hop processing products in bakery products technology will provide the bread with better quality characteristics. However, the application of dry leavens at the baking enterprises will allow to intensify the technological cycle of preparation of grain bread by eliminating the thick leaven preparation process, to reduce the production area, to eliminate the use of additional equipment. Based on these studies It is recommended to prepare grain bread on the basis of thick leaven "Hop broth with cereal " or dry leaven "Hop Cereal".

Alyokhina Nadezhda Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ponomaryova Elena Ivanovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Uryvskaya Nataliya Vladimirovna, Undergraduate
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19 Prospect Revolutsii, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nikoforov-Nikishin A.L., Rodionova E.N., Yudaev V.F.Installation for Increase in Concentration of Oxygen in Fishery Reservoirs

P. 34-36 Key words
absorber; absorption, dispersion; oxygen; construction; habitat; stand; experiments.

The method of an intensification of an increment of fish in a fishery reservoir by increase in the supporting habitat capacity at the expense of increase in concentration of oxygen is offered. The rotor device-absorber in a statics and dynamics is considered. The distinctive features of the device are: generation of negative impulses of pressure; the developed cavitations in which processes of dispergating and absorption of gas in water are intensified. The scheme of the device-absorber and the block diagram of the experimental stand are provided; graphs of concentration depending on the dissolved oxygen in an absorber from the bulk water flow are shown. The graph illustrates that with increase of water flow oxygen concentration increases as the power law. Depending on the volume concentration of the oxygen bubbles produced at its dispersion it is shown that with increase of water flow the dispersion and concentration of oxygen rises. These observations are consistent with the theory of unsteady fluid flow through the rotor device-absorber and the excitation pulse cavitation theory. For oxygen saturation of the fishery reservoir the rotor device-absorber is developed and tested. The device has the following characteristics: the volume expense is up to 30 m3/h and the fluid pressure at the unit inlet is up to 3 MPa. The given experiment results on dispergating and absorption of oxygen in water allow to design an industrial installation for a particular fishery reservoir in order to increase the oxygen concentration and its productivity optimization. At the maximum water and gas volume flow the capacity of the unit 240 kg per hour of evenly dissolved oxygen only.

Nikoforov-Nikishin Alexey Lvovoch, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor;
Rodionova Elena Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Yudaev Vasily Fedorovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy,
73 Zemlyanoy Val St., Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A List of Articles Published in the Journal «Storage and Processing of Farm Products» in 2016