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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №2/2020



INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-March, 2020

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ENSURING THE PRODUCTS QUALITY

Kovaleva I.L., Soboleva O.A., Sevostyanova E.M.The Influence of "Accelerated Aging" Methods on the Preservation of Consumer Properties of Soft Drinks in Order to Predict Shelf Life

P. 6-10 Key words
soft drink; natural aging; organoleptic indicators; shelf life; temperature; accelerated aging; physico-chemical indicators.

Abstract
Shelf life of soft drinks most often ranges from 6 to 12 months at present. There is a need for rapid assessment of shelf life in this regard. There are no single indicators for assessing the change in the quality of these products over the shelf life. This publication describes research on the "accelerated aging" method to predict the shelf life of soft drinks. The method consists in alternating heating, aging and cooling of the product for 30 days. Samples of soft drinks with sugar, sweeteners, carbonated and non-carbonated in various types of packaging were examined. Organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators, the content of sweeteners and organic acids were evaluated after 15 and 30 days of the experiment. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on these indicators was tested in the process of "accelerated aging" of prototypes. The results obtained were compared with control samples that were stored under standard conditions, and with expired samples (natural aging). It was found that the option of "accelerated aging" for 30 days is optimal. The organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators of the prototypes are comparable to those of expired samples. The content of sweeteners on the 15th day of the experiment is comparable with the indicators of natural aging. The content of organic acids, with the exception of ascorbic acid, in the process of accelerated and natural aging in soft drinks decreases slightly. Studies on the selection of objective indicators that reflect the change in the quality of soft drinks over the shelf life are ongoing.

References
1. Shterman SV, [et al.]. Obobshchennaya metodika prognozirovaniya srokov dlitel'nogo hraneniya pishchevyh produktov [Generali­zed methodology for predicting the shelf life of food products]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2014;5:24-28. (In Russ.)
2. Sidorenko YuI, [et al.]. Prognoz srokov hraneniya prodovol'stvennyh tovarov na osnove eksperimentov, vypolnennyh pri povyshennyh temperaturah [Forecasting shelf life of food products based on experiments performed at elevated temperatures]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'skohozyajstvennoj produkcii [Storage and processing of agricultural products]. 2013;3:27-32; (In Russ.)
3. Sidorenko YuI, [et al.]. Prognoz srokov hraneniya prodovol'stvennyh tovarov na osnove eksperimentov, vypolnennyh pri povyshennyh temperaturah [Forecasting shelf life of food products based on experiments performed at elevated temperatures]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'skohozyajstvennoj produkcii [Storage and processing of agricultural products]. 2013;4:30-32. (In Russ.)
4. Hasanov AR, Matveeva NA. Metod ASLT dlya opredeleniya srokov godnosti funk­cional'nyh napitkov [ASLT method for determining the expiration dates of functional drinks]. Molodoj uchenyj [Young scientist]. 2017;8:82-87. (In Russ.)
5. Matveeva NA, Hasanov AR. Prognozirovanie sroka godnosti metodom uskorennogo testirovaniya v tekhnologii napitkov funkcional'nogo naznacheniya [Prediction of shelf life by accelerated testing in functional beverage technology]. Nauchnyj zhurnal NIU ITMO. Seriya "Processy i apparaty pishchevyh proizvodstv" [Scientific journal NIU ITMO. Series "Processes and Food Production Equipment"]. 2016;4:75-82. (In Russ.)
6. Shkol'nikova MN. Metodologicheskie aspekty formirovaniya i ocenki kachestva mnogokomponentnyh napitkov na osnove rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Methodological aspects of the formation and quality assessment of multicomponent drinks based on plant materials.]. Abstract Dr. techn. sci. diss. Kemerovo: KemTIPP; 2012. 40 p. (In Russ.)
7. Sevost'yanova EM, Kovaleva IL, [et al.]. Vybor i obosnovanie kriteriev ocenki kachestva bezalkogol'nyh napitkov v processe "uskorennogo stareniya" [Selection and justification of criteria for assessing the quality of soft drinks in the process of "accelerated aging"]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2019;4:12-15. (In Russ.)
8. Nechaev AP, Traubenberg SE, [i dr.]. Pishchevaya himiya [Food chemistry]. Edition 3, amended. Saint-Petersburg: GIORD; 2004. 140, 146-160 p. (In Russ.)
9. Shumann G. Bezalkogol'nye napitki: syr'e, tekhnologii, normativy [Soft drinks: raw materials, technologies, standards]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya; 2004. 101 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Kovaleva Irina L.;
Soboleva Olga A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Panasyuk A.L., Kuz'mina E.I., Egorova O.S., Rozina L.I., Letfullina D.R.Influence of Treatment with Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-based Preparations on the Quality of Fruit Wines

P. 11-14 Key words
quality characteristics; polyvinylpolypyrrolidone; products of condensation and polymerization of phenolic substances; fruit wine.

Abstract
The variety of types and ubiquity of fruit raw materials allows us to produce a wide range of fruit wines. At the same time, one of the main tasks for the manufacturer of this category of wines is to preserve the quality characteristics of the finished product for a long time. This article presents the results of studies of the effectiveness of preparations based on polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) in order to correct the color of oxidized fruit wines. Industrial samples of fruit wines with clear signs of polyphenol oxidation were studied. We set the optimal terms of wine processing, and also studied the influence of temperature regimes on the effectiveness of processing fruit wines with preparations based on PVPP. In experimental and control samples of wines, the total content of phenolic substances, optical density indicators D420 and D520 were determined, as well as indicators of color intensity and hue were calculated. An increase in the contact time of wine with drugs contributed to a decrease in the values of the total content of phenolic substances and the optical density of D420 and D520. It was found that the processing of fruit wines at a temperature of 10 °C is ineffective, while the treatment with preparations at 22 °C allowed to reduce the content of condensed forms of phenolic substances as much as possible. To eliminate defects in fruit wines associated with the oxidation and polymerization of polyphenols, the optimal processing time was 3-10 days. It is shown that the treatment of white and red fruit wines with signs of polyphenol oxidation with preparations based on PVPP helps to reduce the content of brown-colored products of condensation and polymerization of phenolic substances.

References
1. Strategiya razvitiya pishchevoi i pererabatyvayushchei promyshlennosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2020 goda [Strategy for the development of the food and processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020]. Avaliable at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902343994. (In Russ.)
2. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL. Mirovoe vinogradarstvo i vinodelie v kontse vtorogo desyatiletiya XXI veka [World Viticulture and Winemaking at the End of the Second Decade of the 21st Century]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:6-8. (In Russ.)
3. Sel'skoe khozyaistvo v Rossii. 2019: Stat. sb. [Agriculture in Russia. 2019: a Statistical compendium]. Moscow; Rosstat, 2019. 91 p. Avaliable at: https://www.gks.ru/storage/mediabank/sh_2019.pdf. (In Russ.)
4. Makarov SS, Zhirov VM, Presnyakova OP. Otsenka perspektiv proizvodstva fruktovykh vin iz svezhego syr'ya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Assessment of prospects for the production of fruit wines from fresh raw materials in the Russian Federation]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2017;2:8-11. (In Russ.)
5. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Reitblat BB. Teoriya i praktika plodovogo vinodeliya [Theory and practice of fruit winemaking]. Moscow; Promyshlenno-konsaltingovaya gruppa "Razvitie", 2012. 396 p. (In Russ.)
6. Xiao Z, Fang L, Niu Y, Yu H. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine. Food Chemistry. 2015;186:69-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.050. (In Eng.)
7. Weber F, Larsen LR. Influence of fruit juice processing on anthocyanin stability. Food Research International. 2017;100 (3):354-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.06.033. (In Eng.)
8. Balanov PE, Smotraeva IV. Rozlivostoikost' plodovo-yagodnykh vinomaterialov i puti ee povysheniya [Bottling resistance of fruit and berry wine materials and ways to improve it]. Izvestiya Sankt-peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Izvestiya of Saint Petersburg state agrarian Uni­versity]. 2017;2(47):74-79. (In Russ.)
Authors
Panasyuk Aleksandr L., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuz'mina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Egorova Olesya S.;
Rozina Larisa I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Letfullina Dilyara R.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Borodulin D.M., Reznichenko I.Yu., Prosin M.V., Shalev A.V., Potapova M.N., Golovacheva Ya.S. Research of the Joint Impact of Microwave Radiationand Oxygen on the Process of Extraction in the Technology for Producing Alcoholic Beverages

P. 15-19 Key words
oxygen exposure; extraction process; microwave radiation; alcohol technology.

Abstract
The possibility of intensifying the extraction process in the technology for producing alcoholic beverages using oak wood chips is shown. The work was carried out at the Kemerovo State University, the engineering center of the Institute of Engineering Technologies. The purpose of the research was to determine the quality indicators of the extract under the combined effect of oxygen and microwave radiation on the extraction process to develop an effective way to intensify the process of extracting the target components from oak wood chips into an aqueous-alcoholic solution. Water-alcohol solutions with an alcohol content of 50?% in a certain way were subjected to microwave radiation and oxygen in a batch extractor. The duration of exposure to oxygen varied from 5 to 15 minutes, microwave - cure from 1 to 3 minutes. The samples examined quality indicators characterizing consumer properties. Instrumental methods of analysis were used in the work: in model samples, the optical density was analyzed by the spectrophotometric method, the polyphenol content by the Yerumanis method, and the dry matter content by drying. It was noted that the combined effect of oxygen and microwaves led to an increase in optical density by 2.2 times, and, consequently, to the intensification of extraction. The maximum polyphenol content (273 mg/dm3) was detected in the sample, which was subjected to the maximum combined effect. A directly proportional increase in the solids content in the samples was established in relation to an increase in the exposure time of factors. The complex effect on the extraction process, thus, contributes to the intensification of the process of extracting the target components, may find practical value in the technology of alcoholic beverages.

References
1. Burachevskij II, Vorob'eva EV, Veselovskaya OV, Galyamova LP. Proiskhozhdenie, klassifikaciya i tekhnologiya prigotovleniya viski [The origin, classification and technology making whiskey]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2013;1:9-14. (In Russ.)
2. Novikova IV. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty intensivnoj tekhnologii spirtnyh napitkov iz zernovogo syr'ya s primeneniem ekstraktov drevesiny [Theoretical practical aspects of the intensive technology of alcoholic beverages from raw materials using wood extracts]. Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga; 2014. 150 p. (In Russ.)
3. Lukanin AS, Bajluk SI, Sidorenko AN, Zrazhva SG. Vyderzhka kon'yachnyh spirtov v staryh dubovyh bochkah s ispol'zovaniem produktov pererabotki drevesiny duba [Aging of cognac spirits in old oak barrels using products of oak wood proctssing]. Vinogradstvo i vinodelie [Winegrowing and winemaking]. 2010;3:34-36. (In Russ.)
4. GOST 5962-2013. Viski. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standard 5962-2013. Whiskey. Technical condition]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2014. 5 p.
5. GOST 6709-72. Voda distillirovannaya. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standard 6709-72. Distilled water. Technical condition]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2007. 178 p.
6. Borodulin DM, Potapov AN, Prosin MV. Investigation of Influence of Oxygen on Process of Whiskey Ripening in New Design of Extractor. Advances in Engineering Research, 2018;l (151):578-583. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/agrosmart-18.2018.108.
7. Borodulin DM., Prosin MV, Potapova MN, Shalev AV. Issledovanie vliyaniya mikrovolnovogo vozdeistviya na protsess sozrevaniya viskovykh distsillyatov [Investigation of the influence of microwave exposure on the maturation process of temple discilites]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2019;4:141-453. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36107/spfp.2019.154.
8. Borodulin DM, Vechtomova EA, Fajner AA, Klopova KV. Ekstraktor periodicheskogo dejstviya dlya izvlecheniya celevyh komponentov iz dubovoj shchepy [Batch extracting target components from oak wood chips]. Russia patent RU 2644914.2018.
9. Pokrovskaya NV, Kadaner YD. Biologicheskaya i kolloidnaya stojkost' piva [Biological and colloidal resistance of beer]. Moscow: Food industry; 1987. 273 p. (In Russ.)
10. Borodulin DM, Salishcheva OV, Vechtomova EA, [et al.]. Opredelenie soderzhaniya polifenolov v krepkih alkogol'nyh napitkah [Determination of polyphenols in strong alcoholic beverages]. Yavlenie perenosa v protsessakh i apparatakh khimicheskikh i pishchevykh proizvodstv: Materialy II Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [The phenomenon of transfer in processes and devices of chemical and food production: Proceedings of the II International Scientific Conference]; 2016; Voronezh. Voronezh: Voronezh state University of engineering technologies; 2016. p. 431-434. (In Russ.)
11. Egorova EYu, MorozhenkoYuV, Reznichenko IYu. Identification of aromatic aldehydes in the express assessment of quality of herbal distilled drinks. Food and Raw Materials. 2017;5 (1):144-154. (In Russ.)
Authors
Borodulin Dmitriy M., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Reznichenko Irina Yu.,Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Prosin Maksim V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Shalev Aleksey V.;
Potapova Marina N., Candidate of Technical Science;
Golovacheva Yana S.
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya Str., Kemerovo, 650000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sevostyanova E.M., Kuz'mina E. I., Sviridov D.A., Shilkin A.A., Ganin M.Yu.The Influence of Water Treatment Methods Assessment on Packaged Waters Isotopic Characteristics

P. 20-23 Key words
identification; isotopic composition; stable isotope mass spectrometry; water treatment methods; mineral and drinking water.

Abstract
Currently, the problem of identifying falsified mineral and drinking water is especially urgent, since this group of food products is consuming by all segments of the population. The mineral waters identification is basing on the principle of chemical composition specificity and constancy. Carrying out only comparative chemical analysis does not allow establishing the product origin place, because regardless of the source geographical location, the molecules of chemical compounds have the same structure. The mass spectrometric method for determining isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in mineral waters is the most promising method for solving this problem. At All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry, to study the effect of various water treatment methods on the isotopic characteristics of various origins waters researches have been carried out. Natural waters of various sources as objects of the study were selected: water from underground wells, lake water, water after water treatment. The isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen was measured using an isotope mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific (Bremen) GmbH), a Delta V Advantage model with universal online interface GasBench II, which allows one to determine oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios in the studied samples in concentrations from 200 nmol to 20 mmol. The research results showed that mineral waters of central Russia (Vologda and Lipetsk regions) differ in oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition. In mineral water from Vologda region, the proportion of "light" isotopes 16Î and 1H is greater than mineral water from Lipetsk region. This is due to Vologda region geographical location, in particular, its proximity to the North Pole. Depending on geographical location of the mineral water field, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic characteristics can have significant differences - from 10 to 70‰ for hydrogen and from 4 to 9‰ for oxygen. The studied water treatment methods [iron removal, filtering, UV irradiation, membrane filtration (reverse osmosis)] do not significantly affect the isotopic composition of the finished product.

References
1. Niculaua M, Cosofret S, Cotea VV, [et al.] Consideration on stable isotopic determination in Romanian wines. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2012;48 (2):25-31. (In Eng.)
2. Camin F, Wehrens R, Bertoldi D, [et al.]. H, C, N and S stable isotopes and mineral profiles to objectively guarantee the authenticity of grated hard cheeses. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2012;711:54-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.10.047. (In Eng.)
3. Bontempo L, Camin F, Manzocco L, [et al.]. Traceability along the production chain of Italian tomato products on the basis of stable isotopes and mineral composition. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2011;25 (7):899-909. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4935. (In Eng.)
4. Schellenberg A, Chmielus S, Schlicht C, [et al.]. Multielement stable isotope ratios (H, C, N, S) of honey from different European regions. Food Chem. 2010;121 (3):770-777. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2009.12.082. (In Eng.)
5. Kuz'mina EI, Sevost'yanova EM, Shilkin AA. Novye podkhody k identifikatsii bezalko­gol'nykh napitkov [New approaches to the identification of soft drinks]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018;2:60-63. (In Russ.)
6. Sevost'yanova EM, Khorosheva EV, Remneva GA, [et al.] Izotopnaya mass-spektrometriya pri identifikatsii mineral'nykh vod [Isotope mass spectrometry in the identification of mineral waters]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2015;6:32-34. (In Russ.)
Authors
Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science;
Kuz'mina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Sviridov Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Shilkin Aleksey A.;
Ganin Mihail Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Kobelev K.V., Volkova T.N., Selina I.V., Sosinova M.S. Methods of Alcohol-free and Low Alcohol Beer Production

P. 24-30 Key words
nonalcoholic beer; dealcoholization; limited fermentation; sensory low; alcohol beer.

Abstract
The nonalcoholic and low alcohol beer market has significant growth in the past years and forecasted to keep growing. However, nonalcoholic and low alcohol beer has organoleptic issues and lacks acceptance from many consumers. The production of nonalcoholic and low alcohol beers can be divided into two main categories: physical methods and biological methods. The physical methods (dealcoholization) focus on gentle and the most selective ways possible to remove ethanol from normal strength beers to not compromise the taste. The biological methods are based on limited ethanol production during fermentation. The new approach to reduce the ethanol formation is the application of special, so-called nonconventional, non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Investigations on the application of yeasts from non-Saccharomyces sector are expanding in recent years. These strains can potentially introduce new flavors to nonalcoholic and low alcohol beers. This method is also attractive because it can be performed without special equipment, as opposed to physical methods. Taste defects in nonalcoholic and low alcohol beers are due to an undesirable effect derived from the main ways of eliminating or reducing the ethanol in beer. All dealcoholization technologies are responsible for the characteristic sensorial defects in the final product due to insufficient wort aldehyde reduction and a loss of volatiles (higher alcohols and esters). According to many authors, all the technologies led to significant losses of volatiles, the smallest being observed in the case of the membrane processes. This review presents an overview and comparison of these techniques and provides an evaluation of sensorial properties of low alcohol and an alcohol-free beer.

References
1. Muller M, Bellut K, Tippmann J, Becker T. Physical Methods of Dealcoholization of Beverage Matrices and Their Impact on Quality Attributes. ChemBioEng Rev., 2017;4:310-326. DOI: 10.1002/cben. 201700010. (In Eng.)
2. Bellut K, Michel M, Zarnkow M, [et al.]. Application of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Isolated from Kombucha in the Production of Alcohol-Free Beer. Fermentation. 2018;4 (66):1-19 DOI: 10.3390/fermentation4030066. (In Eng.)
3. Bellut K, Arendt EK. Chance and Challenge: Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Nonalcoholic and Low Alcohol Beer Brewing - A Review. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 2019;77 (2):77-91. DOI: 10.1080/03610470.2019.1569452. (In Eng.)
4. Branyik T, Silva DP, Baszczynski M, [et al.]. A review of methods of low alcohol and alcohol-free beer production. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012;108 (4):493-506. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.09.020. (In Eng.)
5. Mangindaan D, Khoiruddin K, Wenten IG. Beverage dealcoholization processes: Past, present, and future. Review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2018;71:36-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2017.10.018. (In Eng.)
6. Blanco CA, Andres-Iglesias C, Montero O. Low alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2016;56 (8):1379-1388. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.733979. (In Eng.)
7. Non-Alcoholic Or Low Alcohol Beer Production. // White Labs News (San Diego, Ca, USA). Available at: https://www.whitelabs.com/news/non-alcoholic-or-low-alcohol-beer-production (accessed: 20.03.20). (In Eng.)
8. Kunze W, Pratt S. Technology Brewing & Malting, 4th ed., 2010. (In Eng.)
9. Bellut K, Michel M, Hutzler M, [et al.]. Investigation into the Potential of Lachancea fermentati Strain KBI 12.1 for Low Alcohol Beer Brewing. J. of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 2019;77 (3):157-169. DOI: 10.1080/03610470.2019.1629227. (In Eng.)
10. De Francesco G, Sannino C, Sileoni V, [et al.]. Mrakia gelida in brewing process: An innovative production of low alcohol beer using a psychrophilic yeast strain. Food Microbiology. 2018;76:354-362. DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.06.018. (In Eng.)
Authors
Kobelev Konstantin V., Doctor of Technical Science;
Volkova Tat'yana N., Candidate of Biological Science;
Selina Irina V.,Candidate of Technical Science;
Sosinova Marina S.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kiselev M.Yu.From History of Brewing in Chuvashia

P. 31-33 Key words
archive; history; brewing; Prokofiev A.?P.; the Russian Academy of Sciences; Chuvash Republic.

Abstract
The article provides information on the report of A.P. Prokofiev "Brewing at the Chuvash" stored in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, when he was a graduate student at the Research Institute of Ethnic and National Cultures of the East, dated May 7, 1927. The report describes the brewing process, which was observed by a scientist in the summer of 1926 in the village of Algeshevo, Togashevsky volost of the Cheboksary district of the Chuvash Autonomous Republic. Special brewing shacks and brewing items were described: beer boiler; beer vat with accessories (twig, cork, spoon); beer trough; utensils for "creation"; beer tub beer storage; dishes for collecting residual wort; large beer scoop; scooped for wort; funnel and sieve for filtering beer. The procedure for preparing malt, brewing beer, making yeast, fermenting and filtering beer is given. According to the speaker, the greater the amount of beer received per unit of malt, the beer is worse in its nutritional value and pleasantness for drinking (it does not foam and is not thick); the less beer produced, the better qualities it had. At the same time, the quality of the beer also depended on skillfully prepared malt: barley was considered the best malt, and therefore the best beer. The strength of the beer depended on the good quality of the hops; Chuvash beer strength has not been studied by chemical analysis methods, but it is undoubtedly higher than factory beer made in Russia, and also much more nutritious than the second. The scientist suggested conducting joint research by ethnologists, medical workers and economists, which could prompt the republic's economy authorities to organize a brewery. The current state of brewing in Chuvashia confirmed the words of the scientist about the need to develop this industry, which has become one of the leading both in the region and throughout Russia, and Chuvash beer remains one of the high-quality and sought-after beers. The information provided will expand the source study base on the history of brewing in Russia, in particular, in the Republic of Chuvashia, and can be used for educational and research purposes.

References
1. Upravlencheskaya i nauchnaya dokumentatsiya Nauchno-issledovatel"skogo instituta narodov Sovetskogo Vostoka [Management and scientific documentation of the Research Institute of the peoples of the Soviet East]. Arkhiv Rossiiskoi akademii nauk (ARAN). F. 677, Op. 1, D. 104, L. 23-53.
2. Marr NYa. Chuvashi - yafetidy na Volge [The Chuvash are Apatity on the Volga]. Cheboksary: Chuvash. gos. izd-vo; 1926. 75 p. (In Russ.)
3. Smirnov IN. Permyaki: istoriko-etnograficheskii ocherk [Permyaks: historical and ethnographic essay]. Kazan': Tipografiya Imperatorskogo Universiteta; 1891. 289 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Kiselev Mikhail Yu., Candidate of Historical Sciences
Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
34, Novocheremushkinskaya Str., Moscow, 117218 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Chernobrovina A.G., Roeva N.N., Kulikova N.E., Popova O.Yu.Enzymatic Juice Fraction of Wild-growing berries: Receiving, Analytical Studying of Ingrediyentny Structure and Prospect of Its Application

P. 34-39 Key words
cowberry and crimson enzymatic juice; organic acids; fermental medicines; berries of raspberry and cowberry.

Abstract
Creation of the modern technology solutions for processing of fruit and berry raw materials directed to preservation of valuable food ingredients of raw materials and also development of products of food with the set functional properties requires the solution of the whole complex of tasks. For the successful solution of tasks in work modern fermental medicines are chosen as a vector and MEK on their basis for processing of berries of raspberry and cowberry are created. The comparative analysis of results of a research on contents and composition of useful substances in enzymatic juice fractions of berries is carried out. Positive dynamics practically on all components which are contained in FSFM and FSFB is revealed: on organic acids, polyphenolic substances in FSFM increases almost by 2.5 times whereas in FSFB by 1.2 times including to flavonoids twice and respectively by 1.2 times, to catechins in FSFM by 2.3 times and by 1.5 times of FSFB. Àpplication of the received enzymatic juice fractions for production of food with properties, set, useful to health, is recommended.

References
1. Chernobrovina AG. Fermentativnyj gid­rolizat krasnoj smorodiny, ego biohimicheskaya harakteristika i primenenie pri poluchenii pishchevyh produktov [Enzymatic hydrolyzate of red currant, its biochemical characteristics and use in the preparation of food products]. Abstract of candidate's thesis. Moscow: Moscow state University of Food production; 2008. 186 p. (In Russ.)
2. Pokrovskij VI, Tutel'yan VA, Poznyako­vskij VM. Politika zdorovogo pitaniya. Federal'nyj i regional'nyj urovni [Healthy Food Policy. Federal and regional levels]. Novosibirsk: Sib. univer. izd-vo; 2002. 339 p. (In Russ.)
3. Bogatyrev AN, Pryanichnikova NS, Makeeva IA. Natural'nye produkty pitaniya - zdorov'e nacii [Natural food is the health of the nation]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2017;8:26. (In Russ.)
4. Chernobrovina AG, Roeva NN, Popova OYu. Vybor i optimizaciya uslovij obrabotki yagod maliny [The selection and optimization of the processing conditions of raspberry berries]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2016;9:27-29. (In Russ.)
5. Chernobrovina AG, Traubenberg SE, Nikitin AV. Primenenie biotekhnologicheskih priemov dlya pererabotki yagod krasnoj smorodiny i brusniki [The use of biotechnological techniques for processing berries of red currant and lingonberry]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [News of universities. Food technology]. 2008;2-3:67-70. (In Russ.)
6. Sun J, Chu Y-F, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of ordinary fruits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002;50 (25):7449-7454. DOI: 10.1021/jf0207530 (In Eng.)
7. Bykov IM, Basov AA, Bykov MI, Han­fer'yan RA. Sravnitel'naya harakteristika antioksidantnogo potenciala i energeticheskoj cennosti nekotoryh pishchevyh produktov [Comparative characteristics of the antioxidant potential and energy value of certain foods]. Voprosy pitaniya [Nutrition Issues]. 2013;3:77-80. (In Russ.)
8. Tutel'yan VA, Lashneva NV. Biologicheski aktivnye veshchestva rastitel'nogo proiskhozhdeniya. Flavonoly i flavony: rasprostranennost', pishchevye istochniki, potreblenie [Biologically active substances of plant origin. Flavonols and flavones: prevalence, food sources, consumption]. Voprosy pitaniya [Nutrition Issues]. 2013;1:4-10. (In Russ.)
9. Alekseenko E.?V., Traubenberg S.?E., Chernobrovin D.?Yu., [et al.]. Sposob polucheniya kontsentrata brusniki [A method of producing a concentrate of cranberries]. Russia patent RU 2452277.2012.
Authors
Chernobrovina Antonina G., Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Roeva Natalya N., Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor;
Kulikova Natalia E., Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Popova Olga Yu.
International technological college of Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Krikunova L.N., Zakharov M.A., Obodeeva O.N.The Direction of Improving the Distillate Technology from Bakery Returnable Waste

P. 40-44 Key words
protein; bakery returnable waste; cereal bran; free amino acids.

Abstract
Baking returnable waste is an unconventional raw material for the distillates production. The carbohydrate complex of this raw material type is characterized by a higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in comparison with grain, primarily starch, dextrins, oligo-, di- and monosaccharides. The revealed differences made it possible to positively assess the new type of raw material, since it had advantages in the yield of distillate from raw material unit. At the same time, the baking returnable waste was characterized by reduced content of both total proteins and soluble forms. Therefore, in the developed technology of distillates from this raw material type, enzymatic preparations of proteolytic action (with an increased dosage rate), as well as fermentation activators with a high content of amino acids, were used. As an alternative, a variant using grain bran, characterized by a high content of nitrogen-containing components, is proposed. The objects of the study were wheat bran obtained from enterprises in Moscow and the Moscow region. Assessment of the bran protein complex included determination of total protein, soluble protein, amine nitrogen, and free amino acid concentration. It was found that the total protein content is practically independent of the grain size distribution of the bran; on the contrary, it was revealed that the finely ground bran is distinguished by the maximum content of soluble protein and amine nitrogen. The content of free amino acids in wheat bran exceeds their content in baking waste (wheat bread) on average 10-15 times. The content of such important for distillate technology amino acids as threonine, valine, leucine and isoleucine in wheat bran, in comparison with baking waste, increases by 16-22 times, 5-6 times, 15-23 times, 4-8 times respectively. The influence of the bran granulometric composition of both on the total amino acid content and on the number of individual amino acids was revealed. In addition, a clear dependence was revealed of an increase in the free amino acids total content in the series large bran -> medium bran -> small bran. In general, analysis of the protein complex of wheat bran showed that, compared with baking waste obtained from wheat flour, they are characterized by an increased in total protein content of an average of 1.2-2.9%, an increased soluble protein mass fraction of 3.7-7.9 times, amine nitrogen 10.0-18.6 times, the total content of free amino acids 10.4-15.7 times.

References
1. Oganesyancz LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN, Ryabova SM. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz zernovogo syr'ya [Method of distillate production from grain raw materials]. Russia patent RU 2557397C1. 2015.
2. Oganesyancz LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN, Osipova VP. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz zernovogo syr'ya [Me­thod of distillate production from grain raw materials]. Russia patent RU 2557399C1. 2015.
3. Oganesyancz LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN. Tekhniko-ehkonomicheskoe obosnovanie ehffektivnosti proizvodstva distillyatov iz vozvratnykh otkhodov khlebopekarnogo proizvodstva [Feasibility study of the efficiency of distillate production from returnable bakery waste]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018; 2:66-69. (In Russ.)
4. Krikunova LN, Peschanskaya VA, Zaxa­rov MA. Issledovanie protsessa poluche­niya osakharennogo susla iz vozvratnykh otkhodov khlebopekarnogo proizvodstva [Investigation of the process of obtaining sugar-sweetened wort from the returnable waste of bakery production]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018:3:20-23. (In Russ.)
5. Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Issledovanie belkovogo kompleksa vozvratnykh otkhodov khlebopekarnogo proizvodstva [Research of protein complex of returnable waste of bakery production]. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovatsionnykh pishchevykh produktov [Technology and commodity science of innovative food products]. 2018;4:63-66. (In Russ.)
6. Bodrova OYu, Krechetnikova AN, Il'ya­shenko NG, Shaburova LN. Aktiviruyushchii ehffekt vozdeistviya drozhzhevogo ehkstrakta na kletki Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Activating effect of yeast extract on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdelii [Production of alcohol and distillery products]. 2006;3:29-30. (In Russ.)
7. Li Eh, Piggott Dzh. Spirtnye napitki: Oso­bennosti brozheniya i proizvodstva [Alcoholic beverages: fermentation and production Features]; Russ. ed. A.?L. Panasyuk. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya; 2006. 552 p. (In Russ.).
8. Sarishvili NG, Reitblat BB. Mikrobiologicheskie osnovy tekhnologii shampanizatsii vina [Microbiological fundamentals of technology of champagne wines]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost'; 2000. 364 p. (In Russ.)
9. Vitol IS, Meleshkina EP, Kandrokov RX. Produkty pererabotki zerna tritikale kak ob'ekt dlya fermentativnoi modifikatsii [Products of grain processing triticale as an object for enzymatic modification]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2016;9:14. (In Russ.)
10. Kolpakova VV, Ulanova RV, Kulikov DS, [et al.]. Transformatsiya vtorichnykh produktov pererabotki zerna na krakhmal, pishchevye i kormovye belkovye produkty [Transformation of secondary products of grain processing into starch, food and feed protein products]. Sovremennoe sostoyanie, problemy i perspektivy razvitiya agrarnoi nauki: materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Current state, problems and prospects of development of agricultural science: Proceedings of the IV International scientific and practical conference]; 2019; Yalta. Simferopol: Publishing House Printing House "Arial", 2019. pp. 346-348. (In Russ.)
11. Gaivoronskaya IS, Kolpakova VV. Belkovye kompozitsii iz zernovykh kul'tur s povyshennoi biologicheskoi tsennost'yu, sintezirovannye s fermentom transglyutaminazoi [Protein compositions from grain crops with increased biological value synthesized with the enzyme transglutaminase]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019;4:28-29. (In Russ.)
12. Vitol IS, Meleshkina EP, Karpilenko GP. Biokonversiya vtorichnykh produktov pererabotki zerna triticale [Bioconversion of secondary products of grain processing triticale]. Innovatsionnoe razvitie pishchevoi, legkoi promyshlennosti i industrii gostepriimstva: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 60?letiyu Almaatinskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta [Innovative development of food, light industry and hospitality industry: Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Almaty technological University]; 2017; Almaty. Almaty: ATU, 2017. pp. 31-33. (In Russ.)
Authors
Krikunova Luydmila N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Zakharov Maksim A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Obodeeva Ol'ga N.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Dubinina E.V., Krikunova L.N., Trofimchenko V.A., Tomgorova S.M.Comparative Evaluation of the Cornel Berry Fermentation Methods in the Production of Distillates

P. 45-49 Key words
change in physical and chemical composition; volatile components; cornel fruits, fermentation method.

Abstract
Recently, drinks based on fruit distillates have gained wide popularity. The study of the biochemical composition of dogwood fruit showed the need to develop regime parameters for preparing raw materials for distillation. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal method of fermentation of dogwood fruits. As an object of research, 3 samples of fermented raw materials obtained by different methods were studied: fermentation of unclarified juice (Sample 1); not full fermentation of pulp without stone and its afterfermentation (Sample 2); fermentation of pulp without separation of juice (Sample 3). The fermentation process was carried out by dry yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae race Red Fruit. Sample 3 had a higher fermentation activity, with the highest alcohol content at a minimum concentration of sugars in the wort. There was a decrease in the concentration of volatile acids by 1.5 times compared to sample 2 and an increase in the concentration of titrated acids. Depending on the choice of fermentation method, the concentrations of individual organic acids, such as tartaric, lactic, citric and succinic, changed. Sample 3 contained ethyl acetate and small concentrations of enantium ester and a higher concentration of phenylethyl alcohol. The use of dogwood juice for fermentation contributed to an increase in methanol by 1.5-2.0 times. In general, the results of the research showed the advantage of fermentation of the pulp, allowing to reduce the duration of the process by 2 times, increase the ethanol content by an average of 1.4%, reduce the concentration of methanol and higher alcohols, and accumulate valuable flavor-forming volatile components.

References
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2. Li E, Piggott Dzh. Spirtnye napitki: Osobennosti brozheniya i proizvodstva [Alcoholic beverages: Features of the fermentation and production] Saint Petersburg: Professiya; 2006. 552 p. (In Russ.)
3. Balcerek M, Pielech-Przybylska K, Patelski P, [et al.]. The effect of distillation conditions and alcohol content in "heart" fractions on the concentration of aroma volatiles and undesirable compounds in plum brandies. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 2017;123:452-463. DOI: 10.1002/jib.441 (In Eng.)
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5. Oganesyanc LA, Loryan GV. Izuchenie letuchih komponentov shelkovichnyh distillyatov [Study of volatile components of mulberry distillates]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2015;2:17-20. (In Russ.)
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8. Oganesyanc LA, [et al.]. Ispol'zovanie netradicionnogo syr'ya pri proizvodstve plodovyh distillyatov [Use of non-traditional raw materials in the production of fruit distillates]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2014;5:20-22. (In Russ.)
9. Oganesyanc LA, [et al.]. Resursosberegayushchaya tekhnologiya distillyata iz vishnevoj mezgi [Resource-saving technology of distillate from cherry pulp]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food Industry]. 2013;7: 29-31. (In Russ.)
10. Zhang Q-A, Fan X-H, Zhao W-Q, [et al.]. Evolution of some physicochemical properties in Cornus officinalis wine during fermentation and storage. European Food Research and Technology. 2013;237 (5):711-719. DOI: 10.1007/s00217?013?­2045?3 (In Eng.)
11. Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN, [et al.]. Ocenka biohimicheskogo sostava plodov kizila kak syr'ya dlya proizvodstva distillyatov [Assessment of the biochemical composition of dogwood fruit as a raw material for distillate production]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:44-47. (In Russ.)
12. GOST 33834-2016. Produkciya vinodel'­ches­kaya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazohromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii letuchih komponentov [State standart 33834-2016. Wine production and raw materials for its production. Gas chromatographic method for determining the mass concentration of volatile components.]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 11 p.
13. GOST 33410-2015. Produkciya bezal­kogol'naya, slaboalkogol'naya, vinodel'­ches­kaya i sokovaya. Opredelenie soderzhaniya organicheskih kislot metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj hromato­grafii [State standart 33410-2015. Non-alcoholic, low-alcohol, wine and juice products. Determination of organic acid content by high-performance liquid chromatography]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 18 p.
14. Oganesyanc LA, [et al.]. Nauchnye aspekty proizvodstva krepkih spirtnyh napitkov iz plodovogo syr'ya [Scientific aspects of the production of spirits from fruit raw materials]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2012;1:18-19. (In Russ.)
15. Oganesyanc LA, [et al.]. Kachestvennyj i kolichestvennyj sostav letuchih komponentov plodovyh vodok [Qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile components of fruit vodkas]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2013;6:22-24. (In Russ.)
Authors
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Krikunova Luydmila N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Tomgorova Svetlana M., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolmo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ermolaeva G.A., Shagiev M.Yu.A Drink with Antioxidant Properties Based on Clitoria Ternatea, Hibiscus and Lychee

P. 50-54 Key words
ànchan; hibiscus; lychee; drink; polyphenols; ternatins; antioxidant properties.

Abstract
According to scientific and technical literature, flowers of Anchan (Clitoria ternatea), hibiscus and juice from lychee fruits were selected as raw materials for drinks with antioxidant properties. Anchan and hibiscus flowers contain phenolic compounds, therefore, presumably, have antioxidant properties. According to the literature, Anchan has a high content of anthocyanin compounds - ternatins - with a stable blue-violet color, which is of interest for preparing a drink with stable properties. Each of the selected types of raw materials has a rich vitamin and elemental composition. The work studied the indicators of raw materials and drinks: the content of dry and polyphenolic substances, antioxidant activity (AOA), acidity. It was established that the data on AOA and the content of polyphenols in samples of Anchan, hibiscus and lychee juice testify to their rather high potential when used in drinks. The greatest AOA was shown by lychee juice, a little less - hibiscus. The highest polyphenol content has hibiscus. A direct relationship between the content of polyphenolic substances and AOA was not noted. Two samples of a drink with different juice contents selected from four had balanced organoleptic characteristics and are recommended for the human diet as drinks with AOA.

References
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Authors
Ermolaeva Galina A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Gruppa BAS Ltd,
22/2/5 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shagiev Mikhail Yu.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia