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Beer and beverages №1/2020


The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-December, 2019

Oganesyants L.A., Panasiuk A.L.World Viticulture and Winemaking at the End of the Second Decade of the 21st Century

P. 6-8
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS;
Panasiuk Aleksandr L., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Dubinina E.V., Oganesyants L.A., Peschanskaya V.A., Semipyatniy V.K., Chistova A.A.Prediction of Sparkling Wine Quality Based on Original Wine Material Determination of Additional Indicators of Physicochemical Composition

P. 9-13 Key words
wine materials; sparkling wines; regression analysis; physicochemical composition.

Improving the domestic sparkling wines quality is one of the priority tasks of the wine industry. The organoleptic characteristics of sparkling wine are formed as a result of secondary fermentation of circulation mixture, the basis of which is dry table wine material or blend of wine materials. The control in the initial wine materials of only indicators, regulated in the current standard, does not always ensure the production of high-quality products. In this regard, there is a need to expand the list of controlled physicochemical parameters of the original wine materials. The purpose of this work was to create a mathematical model that allows us to predict the sparkling wine quality based on additional indicators of physicochemical composition of the original wine materials. As the objects of study were used 32 samples of white dry table wine materials and experimental samples of sparkling wines obtained on their basis by bottle method in the laboratory of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry. In addition to controlled physicochemical parameters and organoleptic assessment, the objects of the study determined pH, oxidation-reduction potential, two-sided film dynamic stability, mass concentrations of amine, ammonia nitrogen, amino acids, phenolic substances, volatile components, glycerin, organic acids, ash and ash alkalinity. As well as calculated indicators: tartaric acid mass fraction in organic acids composition, ratio: ethyl lactate mass concentration and the sum of esters; sum of enanthic esters and sum of esters; mass concentration of 1?propanol and the sum of higher alcohols. Based on the results obtained using regression analysis, an equation that included 14 factors was constructed - the numerical characteristics of wine materials, and the response - the value of tasting score of the finished sparkling wines (F). The most significant factors are pH, ORP, amine nitrogen and ash mass concentrations, tartaric acid mass fraction in free organic acids composition was established. The created mathematical model makes it possible to predict the quality of sparkling wine with a sufficient accuracy degree based on the results of evaluating additional physicochemical parameters of the initial wine material.

1. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Kuz'mina EI, Zyakun AM. Izotopnye harakteristiki vin iz rossijskogo vinograda [Isotopic characteristics of wines from Russian grapes]. Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2015;4:10-12. (In Russ.)
2. Panasyuk AL, [i dr.]. Pokazateli "zola i ee shchelochnost'" v sisteme kriteriev podlinnosti stolovyh vin [Indicators "ash and its alkalinity" in the system of criteria for authenticity of table wines] Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2011;1:20-21. (In Russ.)
3. Shelud'ko ON. Teoreticheskoe obosnovanie i razrabotka effektivnyh metodov ocenki kachestva vinodel'cheskoj produkcii [Theoretical justification and development of effective methods for assessing the quality of wine products]: Abstract Dr. tehn. sci. dis. Krasnodar, 2018. 48 p.
4. Babaeva MV, Dubinina EV. Issledovanie kachestvennogo i kolichestvennogo sostava fenol'nyh soedinenij stolovyh vin s cel'yu ih identifikacii [Research of qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds of table wines in order to identify them]. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii [Product quality control]. 2018;8:48-53. (In Russ.)
5. GOST 33336-2015. Vina igristye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standard 33336-2015. Sparkling wines. General specifications]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 12 p.
6. Avakyanc SP. Biohimicheskie osnovy tekhnologii shampanskogo [Biochemical bases of champagne technology]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost'; 1980. 351 p. (In Russ.)
7. Sobolev EM, Mishin MV. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii igristyh vin [Improving the technology of sparkling wines]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [Izvestiya vuzov. Food technology]. 2005;2-3:19-21. (In Russ.)
8. Oganesyants LA, [i dr.]. Povyshenie kachestva igristyh vin na osnove ispol'zovaniya produktov destrukcii vinnyh drozhzhej [Improving the quality of sparkling wines based on the use of wine yeast degradation products]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2011;1:28-29. (In Russ.)
9. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Sovershenstvovanie ocenki kachestva stolovyh vinomaterialov dlya igristyh vin [Improving the quality assessment of table wine materials for sparkling wines]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018;3:72-75. (In Russ.)
10. Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Andrievskaya DV, [I dr.]. Ocenka kachestva belyh suhih stolovyh vinomaterialov dlya proizvodstva igristyh vin [Assessment of the quality of dry white table wine materials for the production of sparkling wines]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2019;2:52-56. (In Russ.)
11. Fetisov EA, [i dr.]. Planirovanie i analiz rezul'tatov tekhnologicheskih eksperimentov [Planning and analysis of the results of technological experiments]. Moscow: Izd. dom "Stalingrad"; 2015. 98 p. (In Russ.)
12. Semipyatnyj VK, Ryabova AE, Egorova OS, Vafin RR. Optimizaciya eksperimental'nogo modelirovaniya novyh receptur napitkov metodami matematicheskoj statistiki [Optimization of experimental modeling of new beverage recipes using mathematical statistics]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018;3:48-51. (In Russ.)
13. GOST 33410-2015. Produkciya bezal­ko­gol'naya, slaboalkogol'naya, vinodel'­ches­kaya i sokovaya. Opredelenie soderzhaniya organicheskih kislot metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj hromatografii [State Standard 33410-2015. Non-alcoholic, low-alcohol, wine-making and juice products. Determination of the content of organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography.]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 18 p.
14. FR.1.31.2012.13428. Metodika izmerenij massovoj koncentracii svobodnyh aminokislot v napitkah alkogol'nyh i bezalkogol'nyh metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj hromatografii [Method for measuring the mass concentration of free amino acids in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography]. Svidetel'stvo ob attestacii no. 01.00225/205?48?12. (In Russ.)
15. GOST 33409-2015. Produkciya alkogol'naya i sokovaya. Opredelenie soderzhaniya uglevodov i glicerina metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj hromatografii [State Standard 33409-2015. Alcoholic and juice products. Determination of carbohydrate and glycerol content by high performance liquid chromatography]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 10 p.
16. GOST 33834-2016. Produkciya vino­del'­cheskaya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazo­hromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii letuchih komponentov [State Standard 33834-2016. Wine production and raw materials for its production. Gas chromatographic method for determining the mass concentration of volatile components]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 11 p.
17. Agabal'yanc GG. Himiko-tekhnologicheskij kontrol' vinodeliya [Chemical and technological control of winemaking]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost'; 1968. 612 p. (In Russ.)
18. Trofimchenko VA, Osipova VP, Mahrova IV, Rotaru IA. Optimizaciya fiziko-himicheskogo sostava tirazhnoj smesi pri proizvodstve igristyh vin v butylkah [Optimization of the physical and chemical composition of the circulation mixture in the production of sparkling wines in bottles]. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishchevyh produktov [Technology and commodity science of innovative food products]. 2019;6:16-22. (In Russ.)
19. Oganesyants LA, Rejtblat BB, Dubinchuk LV, Moiseeva AA. Puti ustraneniya i preduprezhdeniya tonov redukcii pri vtorichnom brozhenii [Ways to eliminate and prevent reduction tones in secondary fermentation]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2015;5:7-13. (In Russ.)
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS;
Peschanskaya Violettà A.;
Semipyatniy Vladislav K., Candidate of Technical Science;
Chistova Alexandra A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shelekhova N.V., Shelekhova T.M., Skvortsova L.I., Poltavskaya N.V.Research of the Composition of Grain Distillates, Process Water, Whiskey and Rum by Capillary Electrophoresis

P. 14-19 Key words
whisky; identification; ionic composition; cations; capillary electrophoresis; alcohol; rum.

An important area of improving analytical control methods is the development of new approaches to the identification of alcoholic beverages. In the course of research, an express method developed for determining the mass concentration of ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium cations in alcoholic beverages by capillary electrophoresis. Analysis time is 6-7 minutes, sample preparation is not required. The technique can be used to study the composition of grain distillates, process water, whiskey, and rum. Studies were carried out to identify and quantify ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium cations in alcoholic beverages. More than 50 electrophoregrams were obtained in experimental studies. Based on the analysis of experimental data, it was shown that all the studied drinks have the same qualitative composition of cations, however, the quantitative composition varies significantly. It was found that the mass concentration of cations in the studied whiskey samples is: ammonium 0.38-3.02 mg/dm3; potassium 0.14-24.44; calcium 0.16-3.24; sodium 2.50-41.77; magnesium 0.08-0.91 mg/dm3. It was revealed that sodium prevails in the composition, which makes up 54-77?% of the total number of identified ions. The ionic composition of grain distillates and process water, which have a significant effect on the composition of whiskey, is studied. As a percentage of the total number of identified ions in the process water, sodium accounts for 42-80?%, calcium 2-22, potassium 2-10, ammonium 2-17, magnesium 2-9?%. It was found that the mass concentration of cations in the studied grain distillates is in the range: for ammonium 0.22-1.15 mg/dm3; potassium 0.15-8.20; calcium 0.30-2.87; sodium 0.45-9.77; magnesium 0.08-0.80 mg/dm3. The developed technique compares favorably with expressivity, high accuracy, lack of sample preparation, low consumption of reagents, low cost of analysis and allows monitoring technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages, revealing patterns, studying the dynamics of the ionic composition during aging and blending, formulating identification criteria in order to identify counterfeit products.

1. Nikitina SJ, Shahov SV, Pyl'nyj DV, Rudakov OB. Analiticheskij kontrol' kachestva rektifikovannogo jetanola, vodok i spirtovyh distilljatov [Analytical quality control of rectified ethanol, vodka and alcohol distillates]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018;6:56-60. (In Russ.)
2. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy kontrolja tehnologicheskih processov proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Improving the control system of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2017;1:34-36. (In Russ.)
3. Novikova IV, Agafonov GV, Jakovlev AN, Chusova AE. Tehnologicheskoe proektirovanie proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Technological design for the production of alcoho­lic beverages]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatel'stvo Lan'; 2015. 384 p. (In Russ.)
4. Agafonov GV. Innovatsionnyye resheniya v tekhnologii proizvodstva alkogol'noy produktsii [Innovative solutions in the technology of alcohol production]. Materialy VI otchetnoi nauchn. konf. prepod. i nauchnykh sotrudnikov VGUIT za 2017 g. [Proceedings of the VI reporting scientific. conf. teacher and research staff of VSUIT for 2017]; 2018; Voronezh. 2018, p. 59. (In Russ.)
5. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV, Poljakov VA. Nauchnoye obespecheniye kontrolya biotekhnologicheskikh protsessov proizvodstva etilovogo spirta [Scientific support for the control of biotechnological processes of production of ethyl alcohol]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2016;1:16-20. (In Russ.)
6. Rimareva LV, Overchenko MB, Ignatova NI, [et al.]. Nakopleniye metabolitov drozhzhami Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1039 pri kul'tivirovanii na zernovom susle [Accumulation of metabolites by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1039 during cultivation on grain wort]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2016; 5:23-27. (In Russ.)
7. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija kontrolja kachestva alkogol'noj produkcii [Current state and prospects of development of quality control of alcoholic beverages]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019;4:117-118. DOI: 10.24411/0235?2486?2019?10059 (In Russ.)
8. Rudakov OB, Nikitina SJ. Trendy v analiticheskom kontrole kachestva pit'evogo jetanola [Trends in analytical quality control of drinking ethanol]. Analitika i kontrol' [Analytics and control]. 2017;3:180-196. (In Russ.)
9. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA. Primenenie metodov kapilljarnogo jelektroforeza v kontrole kachestva i bezopasnosti spirtnyh napitkov [Application of capillary electrophoresis methods in quality control and safety of alcoholic beverages]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2015;11:39-42. (In Russ.).
10. Komarova NV, Kamencev YS. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po ispol'zovaniyu sistem kapillyarnogo elektroforeza "KAPEL'" [Manual for the Use of Capillary Electrophoresis Systems "KAPEL"]. Sankt-Peterburg: Izdatel'stvo Veda; 2006. 212 p. (In Russ.)
11. Shelekhova NV. Sistema avtomatizirovannogo monitoringa kachestva i bezopasnosti alkogol'noj produkcii metodami kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [System of automated monitoring of quality and safety of alcoholic beverages by methods of capillary electrophoresis]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2012;4:20-22. (In Russ.)
12. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA, Rimareva LV. Kapilljarnyj jelektroforez - vysokojeffektivnyj analiticheskij metod issledovanija sostava slozhnyh biologicheskih sred [Capillary electrophoresis is a highly effective analytical method for studying the composition of complex biological media]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2017;2:34-38. (In Russ.)
13. Becker Y. Chromatografiya. Instrumental'­naya analitika: metody chromatografii i kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Chromatography. Instrumental analysis: methods of chromatography and capillary electrophoresis]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Tekhnosfera; 2009. 458?p. (In Russ.)
14. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV. Issledovaniye ionnogo sostava poluproduktov i otkhodov spirtovogo proizvodstva s primeneniyem metoda kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Study of the ionic composition of intermediates and wastes of alcohol production]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2015;8:12-15. (In Russ.)
15. Yushchenko GI. Istochniki i prichiny obrazovaniya osadkov v vodkakh [Sources and causes of precipitation in vodka]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdeliy [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2010;3:30-31. (In Russ.)
16. Gernet MV, Popov KI, Krechetnikova AN. Novyye podkhody k vyyasneniyu mekhanizmov obrazovaniya pomutneniy v likerovodochnoy produktsii [New approaches to elucidation of the mechanisms of formation of turbidity in alcoholic beverages]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdeliy [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2004;4:32-33. (In Russ.)
17. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Rasshireniye anali­ticheskikh vozmozhnostey kapillyarnogo elektroforeza dlya issledovaniy spirtnykh napitkov [Expansion of analytical capabilities of capillary electrophoresis for research of alcoholic beverages]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019;11:68-71. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.24411 / 0235?2486 2019?10181.
Shelehova Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Science;
Shelehova Tamara M., Candidate of Technical Science;
Skvortsova Lyubov' I.;
Poltavskaya Natal'ya V.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4b Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ferzauli A.I., Ushakova Y.V., Khoklova A.A., Yakubà Yu.F., Shchetinina A.S. The Effect of Extracts of Fern and Grape Pomace on the Quality of Non-alcoholic Beverages

P. 20-24 Key words
ànalysis; pomace; cations; acids; beverage; composition.

The main indicators of the quality of non-alcoholic beverages obtained using Orlyak fern extract and grape pomace are discussed. To determine the chemical composition of non-alcoholic beverages used methods of capillary electrophoresis, organoleptic tests. As a result of analytical studies, it was established that fern extract did not cause an increase in the concentrations of chloride anions, sulfate, increased the content of potassium cation, calcium. The dosage of the extract showed the properties of an effective preservative, starting at 0.025% by volume. Experiments on the dosage of the extract of grape pomace of red grapes in different formulations of non-alcoholic beverages led to an increase in the mass concentration of potassium cations by 50-100% of the level of the initial content. The content of cations of calcium, sodium, magnesium did not change significantly, which was consistent with the initial content of cations in the extract of grape pomace. The appearance in the beverages of a number of organic acids typical of grape raw materials, which have biological activity and improve taste characteristics, is noted. The color of the drink acquired a faint pink hue. The dosage of grape pomace extract of white grapes in various dosages led to an increase in the mass concentration of the biologically valuable potassium cation up to three times from the initial one. While the concentration of the other studied cations remained almost unchanged. Organic acids characteristic of grape raw materials are found in the finished beverage. The dosage of white grape extract did not change the color of the non-alcoholic beverages, it improved the taste and aroma characteristics. Thus, to increase the content of biologically active substances in the recipes of non-alcoholic beverages, extracts from wild-growing raw materials and extracts of grape pomace can be used.

1. Vorobyeva TN, Prakh ÀÀ, Troshin LP. Obo­gashchenie vinogradnogo syr'ya biologicheski aktivnymi veshchestvami, povyshayushchimi pishchevuyu tsennost' vinodel'cheskoi produktsii [Enrichment of grape raw materials with biologically active substances increasing the nutritional value of wine products]. Nauchnyi zhurnal KubGAU Scientific journal KubGAU. 2015;109:1-12. (In Russ.)
2. Dontsoy RV. Napitok bezalkogol'nyi [Non-alcoholic drink]. Russia patent RU 2532927. 2014. (In Russ.)
3. Martynenko AN, Bobyrev VI, Pavlenko HM, [et al.]. Sposob proizvodstva ekstraktov dlya bezalkogol'nykh napitkov iz plodovo-yagodnykh vyzhimok [Way of production of extracts for soft drinks from a fruit and berry residue]. Author's certificate of the USSR 4727547113/ 1991. (In Russ.)
4. Dominguez-Perles R, Teixeira AI, Rosa E, Barros AI. Evaluation of (poly) phenols in grape stems (Vitis vinifera L.) using food/pharmaceutical compatible solvents and reaction surface treatment techniques. Food Chem. 2014;164:339-346. (In Eng.)
5. Gonzalez-Paramas AM, Esteban-Ruano S, Santos-Buelga C, [et al.]. Flavanol content and antioxidant activity in wine industry by-products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2004;52 (2):234-238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0348727 (In Eng.)
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7. Teixeira A, Baenas N, Dominguez-Perles R, [et al.]. Natural biologically active compounds from by-products of winemakers as health promoters: overview. Int. Magazine Mol.?Sci. 2014;15 (9):15638-15678. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150915638 (In Eng.)
8. Wang H, Wu Sh. Preparation and antioxidant activity of Pteridium aquilinum-drained oligosaccharide. Biological macromolecules. 2013;61:33-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.06.053 (In Eng.)
9. Panasyuk AL, Kuz'mina EI, Sviridov DA, Koscova TE. Glubokaya pererabotka otkhodov vinodeliya s primeneniem ekstraktsii dioksidom ugleroda [Deep processing of winemaking wastes using carbon dioxide extraction]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2014;8:17-19 (In Russ.)
10. Dallas C, [et al]. The effect of SO2 on the extraction of individual anthocyanins and colored matter of three Portuguese grape varieties in winemaking. Vitis. 1994;33:41-47. (In Eng.)
11. Salaun M, Charpentier S. Rapid analysis of organic and amino acids by capillary electrophoresis: application to glutamine and arginine content in ornamental shrub. Journal of Plant Physiol. 2001;158:1381-1386. (In Eng.)
Ferzauli Aset I., Post-graduate;
Ushakova Yana V., Candidate of Biological Science;
Khokhlova Anna A., Candidate of Biological Science;
Yakubà Yuriy F., Doctor of Chemical Science
North Caucasian Federal Research Center of Horticulture, Viticulture, Wine-making,
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, 350901 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shchetinina Anna S., Student
Kuban State University,
149, Stavropolskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350040, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Khaev O.V., Kachmazov G.S., Tuaeva A.Yu.Intensive Method of Combined Mashing-filtering in Beer Production with Separate Processing of Cereals

P. 25-29 Key words
mashing, filtration, grain products, flushing water, saccharification, enzyme preparation.

Under production conditions, the possibility of separate mashing of unmalted grain products and malt in an innovative installation for preparing beer wort with the combination of mashing and filtering stages in drums with a rotating inner mesh drum was studied. The rubbed raw materials are placed in permeable bags that rotate with the drum. Within 2 h, crushed malt and / or unmalted grain products are mixed with water and the grain is washed twice with water. The first wort, the first and second washing water enter the brewing apparatus for additional starch sugaring. Then boiling of wort with hops follows, its cooling, fermentation, and packing according to traditional technology. For the first time on equipment of this type, mashing of unmalted barley, wheat, and oats was carried out separately from the bulk of the malt. Grain products were used in a ratio of 9 parts of unmalted materials and 1 part of malt with the addition of an enzyme preparation. The fermentation apparatus fermented the wort of five brews: one obtained by mashing with unmalted materials and four from malt. Analysis of the wort from 100% malt and obtained by replacing the malt with unmalted material and beer showed a satisfactory accumulation of alcohol as a result of fermentation, a slight increase in mash viscosity, and satisfactory organoleptic characteristics of beer. An innovative combined method of mashing-filtering allows obtaining beer of satisfactory quality both when using 100% malt and with partial replacement (in our experiments, 18%) of unmalted materials.

1. Kajtukov ChM. Patent no. 2396312 Ustanovka dlja prigotovlenija susla [Installation for making wort] Russia patent 2396312.
2. Kajtukov ChM. Patent no. 2396313 Sposob prigotovlenija susla [Wort preparation method] Russia patent 2396313.
3. Haev OV., Kachmazov GS. Osobennosti poluchenia piva na ustanovke "Satenik". [Features of getting beer at the Satenik installation]. Sovremennye problemy tehniki i tehnologii pishhevyh proizvodstv: Materialy XX Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Modern problems of engineering and technology of food production: Materials of the XX International Scientific and Practical Conference], Barnaul, Izd-vo AltGTU, 2019, p. 362. (In Russ.)
4. Narciss, L. Kratkij kurs pivovarenija [Short brewing course]. [Narciss with the participation of V. Buck]. SPb.: Professija, 2007. 640 p. (In Russ.)
5. Shvil'-Medaner A., Jengl'mann J., Prajs F., Bil'ge D., Pal R. Novaja tehnologija fil'trovanija zatora (chast' 5). [New Mash Filtering Technology (Part 5)] / Mir piva. [Beer world]. 2018. no. 3. Pp. 117-121. (In Russ.)
6. GOST 31711-2012 Pivo. Obshhie tehnicheskie uslovija [State Standard 31711-2012. Beer. General specifications].
7. GOST R 55292-2012 Napitki pivnye. Obshhie tehnicheskie uslovija [State Standard R 55292-2012/ Beer drinks. General specifications].
8. TR EAJeS 047/2018 "O bezopasnosti alkogol"noj produkcii" [Technical regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union no. 047/2018. On the safety of alcohol].
9. Ermolaeva GA. Spravochnik rabotnika laboratorii pivovarennogo predprijatija [Brewery Lab Employee Handbook]. St. Peterburg, Professija. 2004. 546 p. (In Russ.)
10. Doronina AS., Prohas'ko LS., Lihodumova MA. K voprosu o primenenii nesolozhenogo syr'ja v pivovarenii [On the use of unmalted raw materials in brewing]. Molodoj uchenyj. [Young scientist], 2014. no. 10. Pp. 138-139. (in Russ.)
11. Kiselev IV. Lodygin AD., Perevyshina TA. Primenenie ovsa kak nesolozhenogo materiala pri razrabotke novyh sortov piva. [The use of oats as unmalted material in the development of new beers]. Pivo i napitki. [Beer and drinks]. 2012. no. 2. Pp. 16-17. (In Russ.)
12. Meledina TV. Syr'e i vspomogatel'nye materialy v pivovarenii [Raw materials and auxiliary materials in brewing]. T.V. Meledina. SPb., Professija. 2003. 304 p. (In Russ.)
13. Meledina TV. Dedegkaev AT., Afonin DV. Kachestvo piva: stabil'nost' vkusa i aromata, kolloidnaja stojkost', degustacija [Beer quality: stability of taste and aroma, colloidal resistance, tasting]. St. Peterburg, ID Professija. 2011. 152 p. (In Russ.)
Khaev Oleg V., Postgraduate;
Kachmazov Gennadiy S., Candidate of Veterinary Science, Docent;
Tuaeva Albina Yu., Undergraduate
North Ossetian State University after K.?L. Khetagurov,
44-46, ul. Vatutina, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, North Caucasian Federal District, 362025, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zhitkov V.V., Fedorenko B.N.The Usage of Beer Spent Grain as an Alternative Energy Source

P. 30-33 Key words
bioenergy; biogas; spent grain; brewing; food industry; power plant.

In recent years, interest in biogas production processes has increased significantly - this is manifested not only in the increasing number of planned and biogas plants under construction, but also in the interest of an increasing number of agricultural structures, utilities, and food industry enterprises. The energy industry also does not worry so much about production decentralization thanks to the construction of biogas plants. For the food industry, biogas production technologists provide an opportunity for cheap utilization of organic waste from the main production, as well as using biogas at your enterprise you can not only save money, but in many cases you can also get additional profit on "bio-electricity". Brewing, which generates a sufficiently large amount of waste every day in the form of spent grain raw materials - beer grains are potentially the beneficiaries of the possibility of processing the waste into additional production and commercial advantages. Today, powerful plants that produce large amounts of electricity already exist, which also use an excess of thermal energy. Engines with power from several tens of kW to hundreds of kW can operate on biogas. Compared with them, the production of current from wood, straw and other types of dry biomass makes sense only in megawatt (over 1000 kW) plants with steam turbines. This article discusses all the advantages of intensive use of beer grains as raw materials for the BTE (biomass-to-energy) processes, including direct combustion and biogas production processes with the aim of generating additional electric and thermal energy.

1. Nazarov VI, Bichev MA. Razrabotka processa utilizacii othodov pivovareniya s polucheniem granulirovannogo produkta [Development of a recycling process for brewing waste to produce a granular product] Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2011;3:32-35. (In Russ.)
2. Snicar' AI. et al. Obosnovanie raboty i ekonomicheskoj effektivnosti linii proizvodstva muki iz pivnoj drobiny [Justification of the work and economic efficiency of the production line of beer grain flour] Vestnik "Aromaros-M" [Bulletin "Aromaros-M"]. 2004;1:44-48. (In Russ.)
3. Faradzheva ED, Shahov SV, Korablin RV, Pribytkov AV. Novye vidy biologicheski aktivnyh dobavok iz vtorichnyh resursov pivovareniya [New types of biologically active additives from secondary brewing resources]. Sb. nauch. tr. Voronezh. gos. tekhnol. akad. [Collection of scientific works Voronezh State Technological Academy] 2002;12:59-61. (In Russ.)
4. Rudenko EU. Sovremennye tendencii pererabotki osnovnyh pobochnyh produktov pivovareniya [Current trends in the processing of major brewing by-products]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2007;2:66. (In Russ.)
5. Biryukova MV, Gernet MV, Ermolaeva GA. Tekhnologicheskie raschety proizvodstva piva na vysokoproizvoditel'nom oborudovanii i na minipivovarennyh zavodah [Technological calculations of beer production on high-performance equipment and mini-breweries] // Nauchno-informacionnyj material (NIM) GOUVPO "Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj universitet pishchevyh proizvodstv" [Scientific information material (NIM) of GOUVPO "Moscow State University of Food Production"], 2010. (In Russ.)
Zhitkov Vladimir V., Magister;
Fedorenko Boris N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Muslov S.A., Arutyunov S.D., Khurshudyan S.A., Egorova O.S.Juices and Soft drinks: Influence on the Condition of the Consumer's Teeth

P. 34-38 Key words
Young's modulus, juices and soft drinks, hardness and roughness of tooth enamel.

The article presents a review of literature data on the effect of juices and soft drinks on the tooth enamel mechanical properties. Juices, nectars, fruit drinks, juice containing and soft drinks are very popular among consumers. Data on the volumes of production (consumption) of these drinks show the need for research on the effects of juices and soft drinks on consumer's health, clearly distinguishing between positive and negative effects. Such mechanical properties as elastic modulus, hardness (micro- and nanohardness), and surface roughness of tooth enamel are considered. Particular attention of presented in the article researches is given to the citrus juices influence, as well as the highly carbonated soft drink like "Cola" on teeth mechanical properties. Soft drinks which contain phosphoric acid cause a greater effect of tooth enamel softening than fruit juices containing citric acid, has been established. In this case, acidic drinks contribute to calcium loss. There are experiments are described in which was tested the ability of artificial saliva to remineralize enamel, treated with soft drink like "Cola". Presented results of in vitro Knoop enamel hardness testing, in which the application of paste, containing amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), with continuous replenishment of saliva solution for 48 hours, contributes to significant enamel hardening, softened with highly carbonated soft drink was found. Carbonated and fruit soft drinks reduce the enamel mechanical properties, while the roughness of the enamel increases. The consumption of carbonated drinks is one of etiological factors that cause tooth erosion. Efforts to protect teeth from erosive substances should include measures such as reducing the consumption of citrus and carbonated drinks.

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3. Obzor rynka proizvodstva sokov [Overview of the juice production market]. Availa­ble from: https://www.openbusiness.ru/biz/business/obzor-rynka-proizvodstvo-sokov. (In Russ.)
4. Rynok sokov poshel v rost [The juice market has grown]. Available from: https://expert.ru/2019/07/11/ryinok-sokov-poshyol-v-rost-hotya-i-ne-dolzhen-byil/media/331541. (In Russ.)
5. Pol'za i vred tsitrusovykh dlya organizma vzroslykh i detei [Benefits and harms of citrus for adults and children]. [Internet]. [cited 2011 Feb 7]. Available from: https://specialfood.ru/sf-sovety/dlya-diabetikov/polza-i-vred-citrusovyx-dlya-organizma-vzroslyx-i-detej. (In Russ.)
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13. Remizov SM. Vliyanie na emal' zubov cheloveka kislykh produktov. Osnovnye stomatologicheskie zabolevaniya [The effect of acidic products on the enamel of human teeth. Main dental diseases]. Ìoscow: Meditsina; 1981. 67-69 p. (In Russ.)
14. West NX, Hughes JA, Addy M. The effect of pH on the erosion of dentine and enamel by dietary acids in vitro. J Oral Rehabil. 2001;28:860-4.
15. Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. Susceptibility of deciduous and permanent enamel to dietary acid induced erosion studied with atomic force microscopy nano indentation. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004;112:61-6.
16. Fallahinejad Ghajari M, Nabavi Razavi S. Comparing the effect of Iranian soft drinks with the standard sample; Calcium ion analysis. J Tehran Univ Med Sci. 2007;20:27-32.
17. Ganss C, Lussi A, Klimek J. Comparison of calcium/ phosphorus analysis, longitudinal micro radiography and profilometry for the quantitative assessment of erosive de?mine­ralization. Caries Res. 2005;39:178-84.
18. Schlueter N, Hara A, Shellis RP, Ganss C. Methods for the measurement and characterization of erosion in enamel and dentine. Cari­es Res. 2011;45 (1):13-23.
19. Devlin H., Bassiouny M., Boston D. Hardness of enamel exposed to Coca-Cola® and artificial saliva. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2006;33 (1):26-30.
20. Tantbirojn D., Huang A., Ericson M., Poolthong S. Change in surface hardness of enamel by a cola drink and a CPP - ACP paste. Journal of Dentistry. 2008; 36(1): 74-79.
21. Lebedenko IYu, Arutyunov SD, Muslov SA, Useinov AS. Nanotverdost' i modul' Yunga zubnoi email [Nanohardness and Young's modulus of tooth enamel]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Meditsina [Bulletin of the peoples' friendship University of Russia. Series: Medicine]. 2009;4:637-638. (In Russ.)
Muslov Sergey A., Doctor of Biological Science, Associate Professor;
Arutyunov Sergey D., Doctor of Medical Science, Professor
Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University,
20-1 Delegatskaya Str., Moscow, Russia 127473, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Khurshudyan Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Egorova Olesya S.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.?M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Romanenko E.S., Sosyura E.A., Esaulko N.A., Selivanova M.V., Aysanov T.S., Mil'tjusov V. E., Gavrilyuk V.V., German M.S.Study of the Properties of Therapeutic and Prophylactic Drink Based on Biologically Active Components of Milk and Fruit Juices

P. 39-43 Key words
nonalcoholic beverage; milk; sucrose; whey-polysaccharide fraction; fruit syrup; fruit juice; functional beverage.

Depending on the type of raw material used, you can achieve a completely new interesting taste and quality characteristics of the drink. So now more and more interest is shown to functional drinks. The purpose of the work is to obtain functional beverages based on the whey-polysaccharide fraction of milk, apple and orange juice. Scientific research was carried out on the basis of the Stavropol State Agrarian University (Stavropol territory, Stavropol), in the educational and scientific laboratory of technology of winemaking and food from plant raw materials. The brand of pectin necessary for obtaining the whey-polysaccharide fraction for beverages was established. In the production of the developed drink, it is necessary to use a whey-polysaccharide fraction with pectin of the CJ 204 brand. For the production of whipped cocktails in the catering network uses SPF obtained by pectin brand AM 201. The ratio of components in the production of a drink based on SPF and fruit syrup was established. Analysis of the dynamics of stratification of the whipped mixture shows that for the production of whipped cocktails, the following component composition is required: the whey-polysaccharide fraction obtained with pectin am 201 in an amount of 88%, the fruit syrup should be in an amount of 12%. Whipping time - 60 seconds. The influence of the multi-factor system of components on the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of the drink was established. Their composition was determined: SPF in an amount of 70%, fruit juice in an amount of 30%, sucrose is contained in an amount of 6%. With this amount of juice, the mass fraction of SPF solids in 100 g of the drink is about 4.5 g, which corresponds to the medical and biological recommendations.

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6. Sosyura EA, Bogomolova OA. Vidy napitkov funktsional'nogo naznacheniya [Types of functional drinks]. Primenenie sovremennykh resursosberegayushchikh innovatsionnykh tekhnologii v APK: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Application of modern resource-saving innovative technologies in the agricultural sector: Proceedings collection]. Stavropol': StGAU; 2013. p. 218-221. (In Russ.)
7. Zobkova ZS, Shherbakova SA. Ispol'zovanie funktsional'nykh pishchevykh ingredientov tvorozhnoi syvorotki [Use of functional food ingredients of curd whey]. Molochnaya promyshlennost' [Dairy industry]. 2007;4:54. (In Russ.)
Romanenko Elena S., Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor;
Sosyura Elena A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Esaulko Nataliya A., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor;
Selivanova Mariya V., Candidate of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor;
Aysanov Timur S., Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Mil'tjusov Vladimir E., Candidate of Technical Science;
Gavrilyuk Vladimir V., Candidate of Technical Science;
German Mariya S.
Stavropol State Agrarian University,
12, Zootehnicheskij per., Stavropol, 355017 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Peschanskaya V.A., Dubinina E.V., Krikunova L.N., Trofimchenko V.A.Assessment of the Biochemical Composition of Dogwood Fruit as a Raw Material for Distillate Production

P. 44-47 Key words
biochemical composition of juice; organic acids; fruits of cultivated and wild dogwood; saccharides.

Expanding the range of alcoholic beverages based on fruit distillates in the domestic alcohol market through the use of new types of fruit raw materials provides for an assessment of their biochemical composition. One of the potential types of fruit raw materials for producing distillates and beverages from them is dogwood (C?rnus mas). Dogwood fruits, both cultivated and wild, have a strong pleasant aroma, which is enhanced by heat treatment. This property of dogwood will allow to get products with original organoleptic characteristics. Three samples of fresh fruits of cultivated varieties and two samples of wild dogwood fruits of the 2019 harvest were used as objects of this research. Region of growing was the foothills of Kabardino - Balkaria. The biochemical composition of the fruit was evaluated based on the results of determining the mass fraction of soluble solids in the juice, the mass concentration of saccharides, organic acids, phenolic substances, and the amount of active acidity. It was found that compared with other types of fruit raw materials, dogwood fruits are characterized by a higher content of titrated acids: from to 32.4 g/dm3. The mass concentration of phenolic substances in dogwood fruits was 1.2-1.6 g/dm3, which, on average, is 1.5 times higher than in plums and apricots. Saccharides in dogwood fruits are mainly represented by monosaccharides - glucose and fructose (98.9% of the total). It was found that the main organic acid in the juice of dogwood fruits is malic acid, which makes up more than 70% of the amount of free organic acids. Based on the results of the study of the biochemical composition of the fruits of cultivated and wild dogwood, a conclusion is made about the possibility of using dogwood in the production of fruit distillates. The established features of the biochemical composition of dogwood fruits must be taken into account when developing the regime parameters for preparing it for distillation.

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Peschanskaya Violetta A.;
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Krikunova Ludmila N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Sevostyanova E.M., Kobelev K.V. XXIV International Contest "The Best: Beer, Soft Drink, Mineral,Drinking Water of the Year"

Ermolaeva G.A. Rosglavpivo Competition and the Forum "Brewing Industry of the Russian Federation - 2030: a Look into the Future"