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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №5/2017

URGENT PROBLEM OF SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT IN AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Titov E.I., Tikhomirova N.A. Multi-level Training for Agriculture

P. 5-8 Key words
Individual education; multi-level training; food products.

Abstract
The training of specialists in the meat processing, dairy and fish raw materials and the production of animal origin products is carried out by the institutes, academies and universities of our country for more than 100 years. One of the oldest universities is the Moscow State University of Food Production, which began training of meat industry specialists in 1930. For the 86 year period, about 30 thousand highly skilled specialists were trained who successfully work at meat, fish, and dairy enterprises; In the civil service; In Scientific Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in scientific branch centers of Russian and foreign companies, as well as in the industry of children's, functional and sports nutrition. Multilevel higher education (HE) provides the following levels: 1 st level HE - bachelor's degree -> bachelor's degree; 2 nd level HE - magistracy -> master; 3rd level HE - postgraduate study -> PhD; 4 th level HE - doctoral studies -> doctor. Since 2014, the implementation of the third level of training (postgraduate study) with the qualification of a teacher-researcher within the framework of the WSSD on 19.00.00 in the field of food technologies and biotechnologies has been started. In the models of education, the concept is transferred from the professional sectoral competency requirements. Competence includes qualifications in the framework of technical and functional knowledge, skills and abilities. To implement the Food Security Concept of the country, the strategy for improving the quality of food products in Russia until 2030 and providing the modern meat, dairy and fish industry of the country graduates of the relevant vocational and qualification profile and the status of implemented practical-oriented education. Integration of the university with production is realized through continuous and comprehensive communication with enterprises of industry of various forms of ownership, branch and academic science. Links with educational institutions are being improved and integrated.

Authors
Titov Evgeniy Ivanovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Tikhomirova Natalia Alexandrovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Sapronova L.A.Methods for Improving the Quality of Crystalline Sugar

P. 9-14 Key words
microbiological purity; pectin; consumer properties; sugar; ethyl alcohol.

Abstract
The indicators of sugar quality and their compliance with the standard are determined. It was revealed that only three out of ten samples of sugar produced according to the standard (according to the information in the labeling), meet the requirements of the standard. The most common deviation is the increased chromaticity and reduced sucrose content. The microbiota of sugar is determined. The highest microbiological contamination was detected in sugar samples of reduced quality. In most samples, mi-celiac fungi, heat-resistant spore-forming, mucus-forming and acid-forming bacteria were detected. The possibility of a significant decrease in the content of microorganisms, especially mucus-forming bacteria and mycelial fungi, has been shown. A decrease in the mass fraction of moisture, an increase in the content of sucrose, a reduction in color, a lack of clumping because of washing the sugar crystals with ethyl alcohol was detected. The advantage of treating sugar with a water-alcohol solution with a volume fraction of ethyl alcohol of 85?% is shown. The correspondence of microbiological parameters of sugar processed with ethyl alcohol to the requirements for sugar intended for the production of canned milk, baby food products and the biopharmaceutical industry has been determined. The possibility of obtaining granulated sugar with a pectin evenly spread on sugar crystals has been established. It is determined that the organoleptic parameters and humidity of sugar enriched with pectin do not exceed the current standard requirements for sugar. A distinctive characteristic of the product may be the presence of a light fruit flavor. The characteristics of sugar enriched with high-esterified citrus, low-esterified apple and citrus pectin were determined. Thus, to increase the consumer properties of sugar can be both improved microbiological purity of sugar, and its enrichment with useful components, such as pectin.

Authors
Sapronova Lyudmila Alekseevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Terentyev S.E., Khonova M.B.Scientific and Practical Basis of Alcoholation of Fruit and Berry Juices

P. 15-17 Key words
exit; quality; fruit and berry juices; fortification; raw materials; enzymes.

Abstract
Studies on the processing of fruit and berry raw materials and the production of spirituous juices were carried out in the conditions of LLC "Chegem Vinpischeprom" and at the department "Technology of production and processing of agricultural products" of the Kabardino-Balkarian State University. As research objects were fruit and berry raw materials: apples, cherries, cranberries, plums, apricots, black currant, cornel, cherry plums, raspberries and strawberries growing in the territory of the CBD. On the protoplasm of plums, apricots, black currant, cornelian, and cherry plum, the mechanical effect exerted a slight influence. With the compression of these raw materials, the juice yield was small. Therefore, these fruits were treated with the enzyme preparation Pektavamorin P10x to facilitate the isolation of the juice before pressing. Thus, the rate of flow of juice is directly proportional to the pressure during pressing. However, with an excessively sharp increase in pressure, the capillaries strongly narrow, the rate of leakage of the juice decreases, so the pressure should be increased slowly as the juice escapes. The yield of juice depends on the type and quality of the raw materials, the degree of its grinding, the pressing regime and other factors and is usually 50-70?% of the weight of the raw material.

Authors
Terentyev Serguey Evgenyevich, Candidate of Agrarian Science, Associated Professor
Smolensk State Agrarian Academy,
10/12 B. Sovetskaya St., Smolensk, 214000, Russia
Khonova Madina Borisovna, Doctor of Agrarian Science, Professor
Cabardino-Balcarian State Agrarian University by B. M. Khokov,
1a Lenina prosp., Nalchik, Cabardino-Balcaria, 360030, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Solomin D.A.; Solomina L.S.The Factors Influencing the Process of Oxidation of Tritikale Starch

P. 18-22 Key words
oxidation of starch; technology factors; triticale starch; physicоchemical properties.

Abstract
The results of researches on a possibility of producing the oxidized starch from triticale starch are stated in this work. The influence of various technology factors on physicochemical properties of the oxidized triticale starch. The oxidation of starch was made by potassium permanganate in acidic medium using a two-stage method of starch processing with reagents. Using this method it was supposed to introduce hydrochloric acid and potassium permanganate solutions into starch suspension. It was determined that the principal parameters of the process of starch oxidation are concentration of hydrochloric acid in a liquid phase, a consumption of potassium permanganate and duration of starch processing with reagents. It is shown that the oxidized starch samples received at different processing conditions differ on flowability of pastes, jelly strength, content of the reducing substances. While increasing an oxidizer consumption and duration of starch oxidation the curves of starch jellystrength pass through a maximum. It was revealed that the sample of the oxidized triticale starch preliminary hydrolyzed with the hydrochloric acid within 50 min at concentration of 2.5?% in a liquid phase and then processed by potassium permanganate within 40 min had the largest jelly strength. The oxidizer consumption in this case was 0.20?% by dry substances of starch. The comparative estimation of physicochemical properties of oxidized starch produced at identical conditions from corn, wheat and triticale starches showed that the oxidized triticale starch according to the major indexes is an average position between corn and wheat starches. The oxidized corn starch has the highest jelly strength, flowability of paste and content of reducing substances. While oxidation of starch with potassium permanganate the oxidized starches of high brightness (the bleached starches) were received. Triticale starch is a new type of raw materials for the production of oxidized grain starches. The results of researches are the basis for the development of the oxidized triticale starch technology with its subsequent introduction at the enterprises of starch industry.

Authors
Solomin Dmitry Anatolievich;
Solomina Lidiya Stepanovna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russia Research Institute for Starch Products,
11 Nekrasova St., Kraskovo, Moscow region, 140051, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS?PRODUCTS

Kazaryan R.V., Fabritskaya A.A., Borodikhin A.S., Matvienko A.N., Troshin A.N., Miroshnichenko P.V., Panfilkina E.V.Effectiveness of Antitoxic Properties of Vitamin-mineral Fodder Concentrate

P. 23-26 Key words
livestock; feed; concentrate; mycotoxins.

Abstract
Shows the results of studies on the efficacy of the antitoxic properties of vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate on laboratory animals, with the combined action of mycotoxins. The study was conducted on on mature white rats of both sexes. Marked the best results of the experimental group animals treated in addition to the basic diet of vitamin-mineral forage concentrate "Tetra+" in contrast to the control groups of animals. In the experimental group, for the entire period of the experiments, was not observed deviations in behavior and in physiological condition of laboratory animals. It is noted that in the experimental group were not the case, unlike the first control group receiving the basic diet with mycotoxins. Revealed, in the experimental group of animals the increase in weight for 15 and 45 days of experiments did not yield the mass gain of the second control group of animals receiving normal diet without mycotoxins. It is established that in the first control group of animals received the main diet with mycotoxins, weight gain was significantly lower than of experimental and second control groups: on day 15 of the experiments - by 8.8 and 8.1?% respectively, and 45 day experiments - 37.2 and 36.5?%, respectively. The data indicate about the negative impact of toxins on weight gain of animals, which is associated with a decrease in feed intake, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and increasing intoxication. As a result, depleted compensatory functions of the body and affects vital organs of detoxification. It should be noted that these negative phenomena were absent in the experimental group animals, as well as in the group of animals receiving the basic ration without mycotoxins. In this way on the basis of experiments conducted on laboratory animals, it can be concluded that vitamin-mineral fodder concentrate shows not only antitoxic, but also hepatoprotective properties.

Authors
Kazaryan Robert Vramovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Fabritskaya Alla Andreevna, Post-graduate Student;
Borodikhin Alexander Sergeevich;
Matvienko Alina Nikolaevna
Krasnodar Research Institute for the Storage and Processing of Agricultural Products
2 Topolinaya Alleya, Krasnodar, 350072, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Troshin Andrey Nikolaevich, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences;
Miroshnichenko Petr Vasilievich, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences;
Panfilkina Elena Viktorovna, Post-graduate Student
Krasnodar Research Veterinary Institute,
1, 1-ya Liniya St., Krasnodar, 350004, Russia, krasnodarnivi@mail. ru; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sushkova V.I., Ustyuzhaninova L.V. Wheat Bran as the Base of Unified Technologies in Feed Production

P. 27-30 Key words
antagonistic activity; feed sinbiotics; lactobacteria; probiotics; wheat bran; unified technology; fermentolysat.

Abstract
In this research work the prospect of using wheat bran as valuable raw material for unified technologies of feed production, particularly feed sinbiotics, is considered. The approbation of previously proposed feed synbiotics and synbiotic supplements production unified technology based on the use of wheat bran has been carried out. The wheat bran fermentolysat with urea addition was used as a substrate for fermentation of lactobacteria strain Lactobacillus acidophilus RNCIM (VKPM) B-4992. This strain was extracted from gastrointestinal tract of a healthy calf and has probiotic characteristics. It's basic probiotic and technological properties, unspecified on a passport, were identified previously. As a result of the proposed technology approbation, 6 samples of feed synbiotic products for calfs have been obtained in different marketable forms: liquid, concentrated, dry, concentrated immobilized and dry immobilized. Living lactobacteria concentration was not less than 109 CFU?/?g for liquid, concentrated and concentrated immobilized preparation forms and not less than 107 CFU?/?g for dry and dry immobilized preparation forms. Basic feed characteristics and antagonistic activity of obtained synbiotics and synbiotic supplements have been determined. Feed nutritional parameters values of concentrated and dry preparation forms were a little higher. All samples had high antagonistic activity. The strain L. acidophilus RNCIM (VKPM) B-4992 has a very low survivability during the heat drying process. The immobilization on activated carbon allowed to increase the preservation of this strain cells during the heat drying process, but living cells concentration in a finished dry product was less than 109 CFU?/?g.

Authors
Sushkova Valentina Ivanovna, Doctor of Biological Science;
Ustyuzhaninova Ludmila Vasilievna
Vyatka State University,
36 Moscovskaya St., Kirov, 610000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zaytseva L.V., Yudina T.A., Ruban N.V.The Quality of Rye Flatbread with Addition of Chia Flour and Oil and Fat Product of Enzymatic Interesterification

P. 31-34 Key words
enzymatic interesterification oil product; Chia flour; quality indicators; rye flatbread.

Abstract
In accordance to The principles of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of healthy nutrition of the population for the period till 2020 it is necessary to increase the production of enriched food products of mass consumption. Taking into account the existing deficit in the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids by Russians, the enrichment of bakery products with this acids is actual. Objective: to investigate the effect of Chia flour containing 33?% fat, and 61.6?% of omega-3 fatty acids on physicochemical and organoleptic quality indicators of rye flatbread. The work was performed at Moscow State University of Food Production. We used traditional methods of assessing the quality of the rye flatbread. Chia flour was added in amounts of 1.5?% and 2?% by weight of flour, respectively reducing the amount of wheat flour in the formulation from 10?% to 8.5?% and 8.0?% by total weight of flour (90?% rye flour). Enzymatic interesterification oil product corresponded the GOST 31648-2012 and didn't contain dangerous trans-fatty acids. In the result, it was found that the enrichment of the rye flatbread with Chia flour in an amount of 1.5-2.0?% by weight of flour has a positive effect on performance. The specific volume of products increased by 14-21?%, the dimensional stability was increased by 15-25?%, improved organoleptic descriptors. The best results were achieved with the addition of Chia flour in an amount of 1.5?% by weight of flour. Additional replacement of margarine in the formulation of rye flatbread for enzymatic interesterification oil product further more enhanced this effect, that indicates the advisability of such replacement from the point of view of improving the quality of bakery products. The authors believe that the replacement of wheat flour at 1.5?% of Chia flour and the replacement of margarine for enzymatic interesterification oil product in the formulation of rye flatbread improves physico-chemical and organoleptic indicators.

Authors
Zaytseva Larisa Valentinovna, Doctor of Technical Science
Union of Food Manufacturers of the Customs Union,
21 building 1 Noviy Arbat St., Moscow, 119019, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yudina Tamara Alekseevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ruban Natalya Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoye Shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



CONTROL OVER QUALITY ANDSAFETY OF AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Kudryashov L.S., Kudryashova O.A., Sarantsev T.A. Some Aspects of the Use of Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate in Meat Products

P. 35-37 Key words
aroma; safety; taste; meat products; nitrite; nitrate; nitrosamines; salting.

Abstract
It is known that in meat, nitrate is partially converted to nitrite and substances formed during the decomposition of nitrite react with myoglobin, give the meat products a pink-red color, a specific taste, aroma, and have a preservative effect on it, thereby ensuring its safety. Under certain conditions, nitrites introduced into meat products can serve as a source of formation of nitrosamines. To date, there is no exact evidence that sodium nitrite, even at relatively high concentrations, can have a harmful effect on the human body. The problem of using nitrate and sodium nitrite in the production of meat products is one of the most urgent. The complexity of solving the problem of using nitrates and nitrites is that, on the one hand, these substances have a positive effect on color, taste, aroma, stability of meat products during storage, and on the other hand, they can be precursors of the formation of carcinogenic compounds - nitrosamines. Reducing the level of nitrosamines through improved technology and the use of inhibitors will improve the sanitary and hygienic state of meat products and will reduce the loads of nitrite and nitrosamines per person. The actual task is to find ways to reduce the content of residual nitrite in meat products or to eliminate the contact of meat products with nitrogen oxides. The works of the Gorbatov's All-Russian Research Institute of Meat Industry showed that in order to decrease the content of residual sodium nitrite in smoked-boiled hams in a syringe brine, it is recommended to inject sodium isoascorbinate, and also to study the effect of various doses of nitrite and sodium nitrate on the quality parameters and safety of boiled sausages of long-term storage, that at the present time the mechanisms of formation and degradation of nitrosamines in the process of production and storage of meat products have not yet been fully clarified. However, the relationship between various methods of processing meat products, the regime parameters of production processes and the content of nitrosoamines in them is now practically established. Reducing the level of nitrosamines in meat products through improved technology and the use of inhibitors will improve the sanitary and hygienic state of products and will reduce the load of nitrite and nitrosamines on the human body.

Authors
Kudryashov Leonid Sergeevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
All-Russian Scientific Institute of Meat Production of V. M. Gorbatov,
26 Talalikhina St., Moscow, 109316, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kudryashova Olga Alekseevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Sarantsev Taras Aleksandrovich, Student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tolkacheva S.V., Krylova L.A. Diversification Toolkit for Managing the Resource Potential of Food Industry Enterprises

P. 38-40 Key words
production diversification; diversification management tools; resource potential.

Abstract
The resource potential of an entrepreneurial structure can be treated as a set of different types of enterprise resources necessary to ensure their sustainable development in the context of risk-creating factors of the external and internal environment. Resources of food enterprises can be conditionally divided into traditional and non-traditional ones. The traditional resources include financial and material-technical, the main feature of which is their limited use. Non-traditional resources include knowledge, information, intellectual, technological, communication resources - they are unlimited and not subject to physical depreciation. A model of the structure of the resource potential of a commercial organization is presented, including elements that have different functional purposes as the main structural components. The main directions of activity of food industry enterprises in improving the efficiency of using raw materials are considered. In the context of the need for rational import substitution, the need to optimize and expand the profile of the activities of food enterprises in the aspect of adapting to the needs of processing enterprises and the market of agricultural raw materials and foodstuffs using the diversification tool is proved. The prerequisites, motives and goals of diversification of the activity of the industrial enterprise under study are established. The revealed features of diversification of food industry enterprises will allow to diversify in the most effective areas. The result of this diversification will be an increase in the efficiency of the enterprise, both in terms of performance indicators, and in terms of available resources in a competitive environment.

Authors
Tolkacheva Svetlana Vladimirovna, Candidate of Economic Science;
Krylova Larisa Alexanderovna
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND?EQUIPMENT

Babakin B.S., Voronin M.I., Aytikeyev R.B., Suchkov A.N., Babakin S.B.Effective Cold Accumulators in the Dairy Industry

P. 41-43 Key words
accumulator of cold; modeling; heat and mass transfer; thermal load; energy saving.

Abstract
The use of cold accumulators in the production processes of the dairy industry is one of the effective methods for improving the quality of the products received and reducing energy costs. To create high-efficiency cold accumulators, it is necessary to develop and describe various types of models that cover both heat and mass exchange processes in conditions of different geometries of the latter's surfaces and optimize hydrodynamic resistances, which will significantly reduce energy consumption. A mathematical model is developed and the dependence of the period of treatment of the coolant on the volume concentration of cold storage elements is presented. Cooling of the liquid system by a collective of frozen balls is formulated within the boundary value problem for the heat equation. The solution of the problem was obtained by the averaging method. Examples are given of the arrangement of elements in cold storage cells and the thermal load on industrial cold accumulators in dairy production. To substantiate the innovative technology for cooling a liquid medium based on the phenomenon of heat transfer from a liquid medium to a collective of frozen spheres, an analytical apparatus for predicting the process of heat transfer in spheres is proposed. Based on the axisymmetric model of the heat transfer process in the liquid medium adjacent to the sphere, an approximate solution of the boundary value problem for the heat equation is obtained and analytical dependences on the radius and time of the temperature distribution in the liquid, convenient for engineering calculations, are obtained.

Authors
Babakin Boris Sergeevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Voronin Mikhail Ilyich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Aytikeyev Ryspek Beyshenovich, Post-graduate Student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Suchkov Alexander Nikolaevich, Post-graduate Student
Moscow Polytechnic University,
38 B. Semenovskaya St., Moscow, 107023, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Babakin Sergey Borisovich, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Refrigeration Industry
12 Kostikava St., Moscow, 127422, Russia