+7(499) 750-01-11 (ext. 68-98); +7(916) 969-61-36
foodprom@foodprom.ru

  

 



Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №10/2016

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING
Semenov E.V., Slavjanskij A.A.Features of the Suspension Separation Process Calculation in the Settling Auger Centrifuge Rotor

P. 5-10 Key words
rotor; sedimentation; flow structure; suspension; auger; centrifuge.

Abstract
The settling centrifuge with continuous sludge discharge screw (OGSh) is used in the food, chemical and other industries. This type of machine is designed for the separation of suspensions with undissolved solid phase hydrated crystalline and granular products, classification by size materials, clarification of suspensions of low concentration. To separate suspensions of insoluble solid phase particle size of 5-74 microns and a volume content of 5-30?% and use centrifuges with continuous screw discharge of sediment. Centrifuges type OGSh used for dewatering of sewage sludge. In recent years, in a production environment conducted experiments on sludge dewatering of urban waste water collecting in a continuous horizontal centrifuge with screw discharge of dewatered sludge. Humidity dewatered sludge is 50-80?%. This type of centrifuge OGSh for the purpose of dewatering of urban sewage sludge is recommended for plants with capacity up to 40,000 m3?/?day. A characteristic design feature of centrifuges - the presence of the drum in the form of a solid rotor and a screw rotating shaft with large, differing by 1-2?%, angular velocities. Quantitative analysis of the process of separation of suspensions OGSh must take into account the flow structure, kinetics of formation of a precipitate on the rotor wall thickening the treated fluid system, variability of particle suspensions in size and others. Based on the physical-mechanical and geometric parameters of rotating equipment such as settling screw centrifuges, as well as based on the characteristics of the treated liquid disperse systems, made of physical and mathematical modeling of the process of sedimentation of suspended particles in the slurry medium size in the working volume of the OGSh. The object of the study served as a process of centrifugal separation systems such as liquid sugar massecuite production. As a control process parameter used lightening factor - synthetic (integrative) severity index of liquid separation system. As a result of numerical experiments to analyze dependence of clarification on a centrifuge performance on the equipment type OGSh-50 data were obtained close to those observed in the actual operation of the centrifuge, and consistent with the physical and mechanical sense of the phenomenon under investigation. The article is of interest to the scientific and technical relations for professionals working in the design of centrifugal technology for the food, chemical and other industries.

Authors
Semenov Evgeniy Vladimirovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Slavjanskij Anatoliy Anatolievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky (the First Cossacs University),
73 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kurbanova M.Zh., Dodaev K.O., Kurbanov Zh.M.Changes in the Structural and Mechanical Properties Fruits and Vegetables in the Drying Process

P. 11-15 Key words
mathematical model; vegetables; fruits; state of the body; structural and mechanical properties; drying process.

Abstract
There are causes of changes in the structural and mechanical properties of materials under high-intensity processing. The effect of these properties on the shape, sizes and structure of the product during drying. The role of mathematical modeling in depth understanding of the processes of heat and mass transfer during changes of structural and mechanical (rheological) properties of fruits and vegetables by drying. The mathematical description of deformation under the influence of the initial impulse to the fruit and vegetables and further drying, describes the equation relating the stress and strain in the process. The conclusion of the mathematical description of the method is carried out using a combination of simple mechanical models (model) bodies and their ideal equations. Phenomenological analysis of vegetables and fruits is presented that the composition, they consist mainly of liquid (juice), solid (cell frame) and a gaseous phase, which during the heating process and the removal of moisture behave differently. For example, fruits (apples, apricots, peaches, pears, etc.) Behave as viscous-plastic, visco-elastic and visco-elastic body. It must be remembered that a deformation occurs in all drying periods, said body in the state more or less occurs throughout the length of the process, as the drying process proceeds unevenly. There are consisted model state of the body for periods of drying fruits and vegetables. Using the method of combination of simple mechanical models (model) bodies and their ideal equations developed a mathematical model changes in the structural and mechanical properties of fruit and vegetables on the initial period of the drying process. A single differential equation obtained by changing the structural-mechanical properties of the first and second periods of drying and analysis performed at various states of tension and viscosity of interaction for fruit and vegetables during the initial pulse: it is obtained an equation determining the deformation of the body at any time at a constant shear stresses; it is obtained an equation that determines body tension at any time t. There are processed mathematical model of changes in the structural and mechanical properties of the object in the subsequent drying periods: it is obtained a single equation for the variation of structural and mechanical properties of the second and third periods of drying; it is accepted the equation of Kelvin-Voigt, as an equation changes in the structural and mechanical properties for the third period of drying fruits and vegetables.

Authors
Kurbanova Madina Zhamshedovna;
Dodaev Kuchkor Odilovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute,
32 Navoiy St., Tashkent, 100011, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kurbanov Zhamshed Mazhidovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Samarkand Institute of Economics and Service,
47 Amira Timura St., Samarkand, 703000, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING
Koptelova E.K., Lapidus T.V., Mannova I.G., Lukin N.D.Vodification of Starch by Impregnating the Enzyme Preparation

P. 16-20 Key words
viscosity; impregnation; starch; modification; rheology; technology; fermentation; enzyme preparation.

Abstract
It is known that approximately the fourth part of starch produced in the wolrd is exposed to physical, chemical, biochemical treatment to receive the modified starch with the properties necessary for consumers of various scopes of application. The main difference between enzymatically and chemically broken-up starch is that selectivity of enzyme influence guarantees the uniform distribution of a degree of molecules polymerization. There are presented the results of research of enzyme break-up of Amylum at its saturation (impregnation) by a solution of the enzyme preparation of a new generation Spezyme XTRA by Genencor received from a genetically modified strain of Bac. Licheniformis. It is a temperature resistant a-amylase, the fissile at low ðÍ, does not demand calcium addition. The object of research is corn starch which quality conformed to requirements of the national standard. Influence of a ferment preparation at 0.001-1.0?% dosage on the rheology of corn starch defined at various concentration of starch paste and duration of fermentation process is studied; it's shown that tendency of paste to jellification decreases with an increase in dispensing of enzyme, at the same time viscosity of starch sharply decreases. Organoleptically the discoloration of iodic test from blue-violet to cherry and yellow, and also emergence of the good gluing ability is noted. Fermentation of starch small humidification will allow to receive starch pastes of decreased viscosity and high glutinosity at not less than 30?% concentration. On the basis of the obtained data, the flow diagram and the mode of receiving the modified starch by impregnation are developed by its impregnation with a solution of amylolytic enzyme preparation.

Authors
Koptelova Evgeniya Kuz'minichna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Lapidus Tat'yana Vladimirovna;
Mannova Inna Georgievna;
Lukin Nikolaj Dmitrievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products,
11 Nekrasov St., Kraskovo, Moscow Region, 140051, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Abdullaev A.S., Nurmukhamedov H.S., Abdullaeva S.S., Abdurakhimova A.U.Non Traditionally and Effective Technology for Production of Food Powders of Roots

P. 21-25 Key words
grinding; classification; root; cooling; cleaning; puree; drying; three phase pseudo liquefied layer.

Abstract
Currently, the food industry is dire need of food powders from vegetable raw materials, which are widely use. There is a defense of industrial enterprises for processing agricultural raw on the level of research and development. Most of the existing technologies are equipped with a lot of power, it is not always possible to obtain products that meet the highest requirements. The purpose of the work - the creation of non-traditional and effective technology of food powders from the root tubers. The work performed at the Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute. The developed technology for producing fine powders from edible tubers, root method is based on the instantaneous pressure relief (IPR), which serves for cleaning and for fractionation of solid non-uniform systems of mashing in a three phase fluidized bed process which proceeds parallel to the purified washing the tubers, and also a high-speed grinding, after drying the pelletized conglomerates wherein cooling occurs simultaneously milled particles. After cleaning the tubers are cut into cubes it is to clean objects by IPR and treated for puree. It was revealed that the mash from the mash in contrast obtained with the traditional method, partially dry and contains less moisture. To remove the remaining moisture puree obtained is sent to the vacuum dryer. In the next step the dried material is fed into the chopper speed. In these devices, along with the grinding material at the same time the process of cooling the particles occurs. With high-speed grinding layer turbulence- ground particles, which allows to classify the fine fraction. It is found that in devices of this type may conduct partial fractionation particulate material, is separation of the fine fraction (< 0.1 mm) prior to discharge. The results showed that dietary powders root tubers obtained by the developed technology meet the requirements of GOST and technical specifications for such products.

Authors
Abdullaev Alisher Shonazarovich, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor;
Nurmukhamedov Habibulla Sagdullaevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Abdullaeva Sadockat Shonazarovna;
Abdurakhimova Aziza Urazolievna
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute,
32 Navoiy St., Tashkent, 100011, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Nityaga I.M., Shamanova L.A., Rozaeva A.V., Samuylenko A.Ya. Validation of Test-systems, that are Based on Inhibition of Enzyme Activity «In Vitro» and on Immune Microarray Analysis, for Screening of Pesticides in Feed

P. 26-28 Key words
water; immunomicrochip analysis; inhibition of enzyme activity "in vitro"; pesticides; feed of plant origin.

Abstract
Deep attention is paid at present to a problem of contamination of forage and food with pesticides, many of them appear to be toxic to humans and animals and some of them are dangerous in terms of long-term effects, as they have hepatropic, cancirogenic, mutagenic and terratogenic actions. For screening control of cattle-breeding, especially of small farms, speedy methods on the base of inhibition of enzymatic activity "in vitro" and immunomicrochip analysis can be used. The purpose of the work presented was a validation of test-systems and a development of modified and screening methods for determining organophosphorus pesticides and pesticides from the class of imidazoles containing in vegetative forage and water. The work was fulfilled in Moscow state University of food production and all-Russian research and technological Institute of biological industry. As tests objects the specimens of vegetative forages and drinking water from natural open springs were taken, then these specimens were artificially contaminated with organophosphorus pesticides. These specimens were tested in advance by high performance liquid chromatography for the lack defined toxicants. For defining of organophosphorus pesticides test-systems "AbraxisOP?/?C" were used. The results were registered by change of a color grade by a method of colorimetric definition using a vertical photometer by 405 nm. Immunomicrochip analysis detection of pesticides from the class of imidazoles was made with a test-system "AnthelminticsArray" applied together with semi-automatic chemiluminometer Evidence investigator "Randox" (Great Britain). In results of researches a test-system validation was made and modified and adopted screening methods for defining organophosphorus pesticides and pesticides from the class of imidazoles containing in vegetative forage and water on the base of inhibition acetylcholinesterase activity with a colorimetric determination of the final result on the vertical photometer and also immunomicrochip technology were developed. The methods feature high sensibility and relatively low cost. In addition, a period of analysis makes 1-2 hours including a preparation of test specimens that makes them prospective for control of pesticides in vegetative forage and drinking water from natural open springs.

Authors
Nityaga Inga Michailovna, Candidate of Biological Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoye shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shamanova Ludmila Alexandrovna;
Rozaeva Anna Vladimirovna;
Samuylenko Anatoliy Yakovlevich, Doctor of Veterinary Science, Professor, Academician of RAS
All-Russian Research and Institute of Technology of the Biological Industry,
pos. Biokombinat, Shchelkovo district, Moscow region, 141142, Russia


Rimareva L.V., Overchenko M.B., Ignatova N.I., Serba E.M., Martynenko N.N.Features of Selected Races of Alcohol Yeast with Osmophilic and Thermotolerant Properties

P. 29-34 Key words
fermentative activity; yeast cell; generation; grain mash; osmophilic yeast; productivity; thermotolerant properties

Abstract
The article is devoted to the most important fermentation objects - yeast genus Saccharomyces. The paper presents experimental data of physiological characteristics of 43 strains of alcohol yeasts, of selected and supported by the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology, with the ability under anaerobic conditions to synthesize ethanol. Based on the systematization of taxonomic diversity of the genus Saccharomyces yeast established specialized database, which contains information on the collection strains. According to the established authors indicators fermentation of yeast activity and productivity, the ability of yeast to ferment grain crops must of high concentrations or at high temperatures, selected the most promising race and recommendations on their use. The research results are of interest to science and industry, contain new data that may be used in the alcohol industry and in preparation for the processing of vegetable raw materials used in fermentation industries.

Authors
Rimareva Lyubov Vyacheslavovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Ñorresponding Member of RAS;
Overchenko Marina Borisovna, Candidat of Technical Science;
Ignatova Nadezhda Iosifovna;
Serba Elena Michailovna, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor of RAS;
Martynenko Nikolay Nikolaevich, Doctor of Biological Science
All-Russia Research Institute of Food Biotechnology
4b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Vitol I.S., Meleshkina E.P., Karpilenko G.P.Bioconversion of Tritikale Bran Using Enzyme Preparations of Cellulolytic and Proteolytic Action

P. 35-38 Key words
proteolysis products (peptides, amino acids); tritikale bran; cellulolytic and proteolytic enzyme preparations.

Abstract
Enzymatic modification of protein crops can be an important step in the deep processing of raw grain technology. It is now widely studied the possibility of using cellulolytic enzyme complex in composition with amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes for complex deep processing of grain raw materials, produce products with enhanced nutritional value given technological and functional properties. It is known that the use of hemicellulase enzyme preparations action results in a partial destruction of the hemicellulose chains or weaves, can simplify the internal structure of biopolymers and promotes the diffusion movement protein molecules can increase the degree of extraction of protein. The article presents experimental data on the use of enzyme preparations cellulolytic and proteolytic activities and multi-enzyme compositions (MEK) on their basis for the enzymatic modification of triticale grain by-products (bran). The effectiveness of the action of enzyme preparations cellulolytic action on the non-starch polysaccharides triticale bran. Thus, the use of the enzyme preparation "Sherazim 500 L" increases the amount of solubles (RV) of soluble protein and a factor of 2; drug "Viskoferm L" - PB 1.5 times, the soluble protein is 2.5 times. By gel chromatography, fractional composition of the products studied proteolysis proteins tritikalevyh bran using IEC different composition. Significant differences in the picture of the elution fractions and ratio of proteolysis products. It is shown that the proportion of low-molecular nitrogen compounds (? 1000 Dalton) increased as a result of enzymatic modification of 4 times for IEC 1 and B5 times for IEC-2. As a result of the modification of protein components tritikalevyh bran with cellulolytic enzyme preparations and proteolytic action and IEC thereof may be prepared from the secondary products of hydrolyzates processed grain material with a certain ratio of high-, medium- and low-molecular peptides having specific properties. They can be used in the manufacture of a wide range of general food products, functional and therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.

Authors
Vitol Irina Sergeevna, Candidat of Biological Sciences;
Meleshkina Elena Pavlovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
Karpilenko Gennadiy Petrovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Grain and Its Processing Products
11 Dmitrovskoe sh., Moscow, 127434, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Kachmazov G.S., Bagaeva U.V., Gaeva A.A., Khripankova M.S.Using of Vegetable Ingredients in the Recipe of Nutrient Substrate for Increasing Alcohol Tolerance of Yeast

P. 39-43 Key words
fermentation activity; yeast baking; nutrient substrate; resistance to alcohol; herbal supplements.

Abstract
It is known that ethanol acts toxic on all yeast race, but inhibitory concentration varies over a wide range. The complexity of the resistance mechanisms of yeast cells to the ethyl alcohol is also confirmed by the fact that revealed more than 250 genes involved in this process. Insignificant figure for bakery alcohol tolerance can be considered as an additional criterion for assessing sustainability of biomass to adverse environmental factors. Together with the osmotic resistant in environments with high concentrations of sodium chloride that characterizes the functionality evaluation criterion cell wall as a biological membrane. Alcohol tolerance was determined by gassing intensity gauge device with a volume of fermentation flasks 500 ml. The volume of the culture medium was 200 ml. The concentration of ethanol for samples distributed from 8 to 12% in 1% increments. The experiment included 6 plants: Aloe (Aloe arborescens), Raspberry ordinary (R?bus id?eus), plantain (Plant?go m?jor), rooibos (Aspal?thus line?ris), sweet flag rhizome (Calami rhizomata), grape seeds (Vitis vinifera). It was also studied the effect of alcohol tolerance on yeast autolysate. The authors found that the adaptogenic properties to the high content of ethanol in the fermentation medium descending have additives: aloe, grape seed, sweet flag, autolysate, rooibos, plantain and raspberries. The results are of interest to researchers, specialists, and can be used by employees food companies that use yeast in the production process.

Authors
Kachmazov Gennadiy Sozirovich, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences;
Bagaeva Uliana Vladimirovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
North Ossetian State University after K. L. Khetagurov
44-46 Vatutina St., Vladikavkaz, RSO-Alania, 362025, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gaeva Aida Arturovna, Undergraduate;
Khripankova Marina Sergeevna, Undergraduate
ITMO University,
49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg, 197101, Russia


TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
Stepanov V.I., Ivanov V.V., Sharikov A.Yu., Polivanovskaya D.V., Asafov V.A.Extrusion-hydrolytic Method of Wheat and Whey One-stage Processing into Liquid Feed

P. 44-48 Key words
hydrolysis; liquid feed; grain; whey; enzyme; extrusion cooking.

Abstract
Use of whey instead of water in the extrusion hydrolytic grain refining technology to produce enriched liquid feed their biochemical composition of valuable nutrients and increases the overall value of the feed and zootechnical performance. Advanced technology of grain and liquid food waste products processing on the basis of integration of extrusion cooking and biocatalysis in one reaction system was developed. New technology allows to produce starch-based hydrolysates with solids contain up to 60?%. Produced hydrolysates with various concentration of solids, consistency, and nutritional value can be used as liquid feed for different farm animals. It was found that starchy substrates produced by extrusion cooking at 185 °Ñ temperature, 1.5 ÌPa pressure at die and 16?% moisture content had a good solubility in water and whey during enzyme processing. It was shown that solubles content depended on time, solids and whey concentration. It was found that whey solids had no influence on diffusion process of starch hydrolysis. Rheological properties of starchy hydrolisates with the whey supplementation were investigated. It was shown that whey-added hydrolisates had a heightened values of dynamic viscosity compared with water-based media at the same enzyme dosage and solids concentration. Dynamic viscosity increase correlated with whey content in the media and measured up 1.3-2.3 times. Replacement of water with the whey enhanced chemical composition of hydrolysates with nutrients. Developed technology of grain processing with utilization of dairy industry wastes allows to produce enriched liquid feed in one technological stage ensuring resource saving.

Authors
Stepanov Vladimir Ivanovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ivanov Vicktor Vitalievich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Sharikov Anton Yurievich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Polivanovskaya Dariya Viktorovna
VNIIPBT - branch of FGBUN "FRC of nutrition and biotechnology"
4b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Asafov Vladimir Alexandrovich, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Research Institut of Dairy Industry,
35-7 lyusinovskaya St., Moscow, 115093, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.