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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №4/2016

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Oganesyants L.A., Peschanskaya V.A., Osipova V.P.Feasibility Study of Alcoholic Beverages Production Prospects from Artichoke

P. 5-8 Key words
biochemical properties; inulin; alcohol; Jerusalem artichoke; enzymatic treatment; fructose-containing carbohydrates.

Abstract
This work had study of technical and economic efficiency of the use of artichoke as the main raw material for the production of alcoholic beverages. Shows data for high productivity artichoke, its resistance to adverse growing conditions, including high concentrations to xenobiotics, sulfur oxides, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, etc. The features of the biochemical composition of artichoke. The main valuable components for the wine industry in the tubers of artichoke are fructose carbohydrates in an amount up to 75-85?%, which is higher starch content in major crops by 15-20?%. These polymers (inulin and its fractions) of water and more readily heat and enzymatic treatment, than starch. The data on the fractional composition of artichoke fructose carbohydrates grade "Skorospelka". According to the results of German and local scientists have shown that the artichoke tubers are highly inulinaznoy activity. It is noted that when using artichoke as raw material for the production of alcoholic beverages to be considered high content of pectic substances with a high degree of methoxylation and active pectinesterase. Сonfirmed the benefit of using dried artichoke in storages.

References
Authors
Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Peschanskaya Violetta Alexandrovna;
Osipova Valentina Pavlovna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries,
7 Rossolimo St., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abdullaeva S.Sh., Nurmukhamedov Kh.S., Abdurahimova A.U., Abdullaev A.Sh., Khadjibaev A.Sh. Effect of Live Steam Drying Root in Purified by Instant Pressure Relief

P. 9-12 Key words
moisture; root; instant discharge pressure; hot steam; cleaning; predrying; puree.

Abstract
Previous studies on cleaning the aforesaid materials by instant pressure relief acquired positive results, provided a minimum loss of raw materials and low energy costs while maintaining the quality indicators of the feedstock. During the process of such raw materials an important role plays the cleaning process. Storage of crude purified pulp or further processing is accompanied by a dripping process - drying. Objective: To investigate the influence of the values of overpressure in the steam drying of sugar beet and potato are purified by the instant pressure relief (MMSD). This cleaning process takes place in a confined space and then snap back to atmospheric pressure. During the experiments, the initial moisture content of sugar beet ranged to 53-69?%, relative pressure steam 2.6-6.0 and peeled tubers equivalent diameter of from 50 to 150 mm. The work was performed at the Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology. We determined the effect of pressure steam from 0.22 to 0.6 MPa when cleaning root tubers MMSD dripping on the intensity of the purified pulp, increased to 15.5?%. The experimental data on partial drying when cleaning vegetables MMSD generalization and a formula, the error does not exceed 8.5?%. An analysis of the experimental data revealed the following optimal operating parameters of effective cleaning of root crops by instant pressure relief: relative overpressure р/р0 = 2.75-3.80; heating rate dt/dt = 1,0-1,15 °C/s; the duration of the process t = 90-150 s. Comparison of experimental data on the combined process of cleaning and partial drying shows that the initial of high values of humidity is a beneficial effect on the implementation process, because high humidity promotes the production of more steam inside the object. Therefore, excess moisture, which is the initiator spoilage of agricultural raw materials, including roots and tubers, the purification method instantaneous depressurization intensifies the cleaning process and reducing the operating pressure steam.

References
Authors
Abdullaeva Sadokat Shonazarovna;
Nurmukhamedov Khabibulla Sagdullaevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Abdurahimova Aziza Umaralievna, Master's Degree;
Abdullaev Alisher Shonazarovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Khadjibaev Akbar Shavkatovich, Student
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute,
41 Mirzo Ulugbek St., Tashkent, 100079, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sorochinsky V.F. The Change of a Boundary Grain Layer Temperature in the Metal Silo

P. 13-16 Key words
grain; metal silo; layer; temperature.

Abstract
It's established that in the last few years the increase of grain reservoir is achieved mainly by building the metal silo. However in some cases it's required that theyhave some extra thermal insulation, as the lack of it leads to significant limitations of its usage, especially under the condition of significant climate changes that are typical for the most regions of Russia. At the same time, there are obviously not enough researches on the change of a boundary grain layer temperature under variable weather conditions. The present article presents results of the conducted estimation of the change of a boundary grain layer temperature at different temperature changes of an ambient air, based on the calculation methods. On the base of the calculation of Bio criteria value it's shown that for the metal silo thermal resistance of its metal side panel can be ignored and the temperature of the grain layer surface can be considered equal to the environment temperature as well as the thermal boundary conditions of the grain mound can be recognized as the first type boundary conditions. Under these assumptions and with Fourier number taken into account the relative excessive temperature of the boundary grain layer during the process of its heating by the environment is calculated; this temperature has become a base of defining the change of the temperature of a boundary grain layer. The results of the temperature change estimation for the boundary wheat layer in the process of its heating from initial 10 °С at the constant free-air temperature 40 °С and at its increase from 10 °С with a speed rate of 3 °С per hour are given as an example. It's established that the most significant changes of the boundary layer temperature occur as far as the boundary layer thickness is less or equal to 3-5 centimeters provided that the heat passage proceeds at the expense of the thermal conduction. At that, with knowledge of the changes of the grain layer relative excessive temperature, it is possible to calculate the temperature fields of the boundary area at the different initial values of the grain temperature, ambient air temperature and the speed rate of its change during the grain heating or cooling.

References
Authors
Sorochinsky Vladimir Fedotovich, Doctor of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing
11 Dmitrovskoye Shosse, moscow, 127434, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Antipov S.T., Owsyannikov V.Y., Korchinskiy A.A.Design Simulation of the Technological System the Refrigerator Concentration of the Liquid Media

P. 17-21 Key words
liquid medium; concentration, the mathematical simulation; technological process.

Abstract
The technological processes of the concentration of liquid food and biotechnological media at present intensively are developed. Nevertheless, is required the development of new methods and ways, which permit implementation of control both by the parameters of the functioning of complex technical units and systems and by the development of new technical systems. Article is dedicated to the creation of the generalized concept of the simulation of the technological system, which ensures the qualitative concentration of liquid food or biological media, which is been based on the method of low-temperature action on the workable product. In this case the system of refrigerator concentration is represented in the form the mathematical description of the functioning of the complex of the technological equipment, which is the collection of the interconnected subsystems of complex technological system. The procedure of analysis includes the production of the collection of possible versions, the sifting of unsatisfactory versions and the selection of acceptable versions for the concrete production situation. The developed procedure allows simultaneously with the procedure of the selection of basic technological equipment of the line of the concentration of liquid food and biotechnological media to accomplish selection of auxiliary apparatuses and installations. For the realization of the procedure indicated we proposed the algorithm, which is been based on the basic condition of set theory, realized in the form of the mathematical apparatus, according to which, is achieved the directed sorting of all versions of the equipment of technological machine complex and step by step sifting from entire many such versions of the equipment, which do not correspond to the technological parameters, accuracy and stability of the functioning of the corresponding machine complex. The task of the selection of the best versions of the complexes of the concentrated equipment it is proposed to form as a result sorting and the comparisons of all versions, which entered after the stage of the department of ineffective. But very procedure of analysis is reduced to the procedure of the conditional optimization of the selection of the best versions.

References
Authors
Antipov Sergei Tihonovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Owsyannikov Vitaly Yurevich, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor,
Korchinskiy Aleksandr Andreevich, Post-graduate Student
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
19 Prospect Revolutsii, Voronezh, 394000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Abdullaev A.Sh., Nigmadjanov S.K., Nurmukhamedov Kh.S., Temirov O.S., Usmonov B.S.Fine Grinding of Pelletized Materials in the High-speed Flowing

P. 22-26 Key words
deformable materials; grinding; conglomerate; puree; sugar beet; high speed chopper; Jerusalem artichoke.

Abstract
Shredded friable materials are the basis for a variety of products that consume a third of the world's energy resources. By grinding achieved: an increase in the specific surface area, improved particle size distribution, increase the reactivity of the powders. Traditionally, solid food material is milled by impingement, abrasion and cutting. There are various methods to save valuable vitamins and minerals by grinding. Objective: To investigate the effect of the step arrangement of rods and the output shaft speed on the degree of milling the pelletized after drying Jerusalem artichoke puree and sugar beets in high-speed grinder turbolopastnogo type. The work was performed at the Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology. A determining influence on the pitch placement rods working shaft in the range of t?/?d = 0.6 to t?/?d = 0.98, and its rotation from 172 to 984 min-1 to measure the dry grinding pulp. The authors believe that the separation of work space-speed grinder into two zones, ie coarse and fine grinding increases the efficiency of the process. With an increase in the numerous values of pitch placement of the rods in the area of fine grinding to t?/?d = 0.98 general pattern is stored there. Influence pitch placement of rods on your shaft shows the unequivocal increase in the degree of grinding with a deformable material decrease in the value t?/?d. When the angular velocity v = 14.6 s-1 and step placing cores t?/?dm= 0.98 i = 1.55 value, and if t?/?d = 0.6, respectively, the numerical value is i = 2.85, ie. there is an increase in 1.84 times. Similar results were recorded by the degree of grinding and for other values of the angular velocities. A generalization of the experimental data on the fine particles of Jerusalem artichoke a formula to calculate the extent of grinding. Accuracy of the formula in the range of angular velocity n = 14.6-254.3 s-1 and step placement of the rods in the area of fine grinding t/d = 0.5-0.98 for Jerusalem artichoke does not exceed ±7.45?%, while for the red beet ±7.9?%.

References
Authors
Abdullaev Alisher Shonazarovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Nigmadjanov Samugdzhan Karimdzhanovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Nurmukhamedov Khabibulla Sagdullaevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute,
41 Mirzo Ulugbek St., Tashkent, 100079, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Temirov Odil Shukurovich
Shurtan gas-chemical complex,
Shurtan, Guzar District, Kashkadarya region, 181300, Uzbekistan
Usmonov Batir Satvaldievich, Candidate of Technical Science
Fergana Polytechnic Institute
86 Ferganskaya St., Fergana, 712028, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Semenov E.V., Slavjanskij A.A., Lebedeva N.N., Deshevaya I.Yu. Especially the Separation of Suspension in the Rotor Collections Augers Centrifuges of Continuous Action

P. 27-32 Key words
continuous action; rotor; sedimentation; suspension; centrifuge; auger.

Abstract
Collection screw centrifugecontinuous action (СНS) are used in the food, chemical and other industries. This type of machine is designed for splitting suspensions with insoluble solid phase, dehydration of crystalline and granular products, classification of material by size, clarification of suspensions of low concentration. For separation of suspensions with insoluble solid phase particles size 5-74 microns and surround the content of 5-30?% apply collection continuous centrifuge with Auger discharge sludge. Сentrifugestype ofСНS used for dewatering sewage sludge. In recent years, the production conditions carried out experiments on sediment dewatering of municipal wastewater in continuously operating collecting horizontal centrifuges with unloading Auger dewatered sludge. Dewatered sludge moisture is 50-80?%. When the centrifuge type of СНS for the purposes of the dehydration of urban wastewater is recommended for stations up to 40,000 m3?/?day. This type of machine is designed for splitting suspensions with insoluble solid phase, dehydration of crystalline and granular products, classification of material by size, clarification of suspensions of low concentration. The characteristic design feature of these machines is the drum as a solid rotor and the Auger, rotating on the shaft with large, differing by 1-2?%, angular velocity. The quantitative analysis of separation of suspensions at the СНSmust take into account the kinetics of formation of sediment on the wall of the rotor, the concentration of processed liquid systems, variability of particles suspended in size, etc. The purpose of work: on the basis of the physical-mechanical and geometrical parameters of сollection screw centrifuge, as well as precipitation based on dispersive characteristics of the treated liquid systems, generate physical and mathematical modelling of the process of sedimentation in suspensions of particles of small size in the implementation of the СНS. The object of study of centrifugal separation process chosen system type of massecuite sugar production. As the management used the coefficient of lift is a synthetic (integrative) indicator of the severity of the separation of the liquid system. As a result of a numerical experiment on the analysis of dependence of performance from the specified coefficient of lightening equipment type СНS-50 had been received data, equal real.

References
Authors
Semenov Evgeniy Vladimirovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Slavjanskij Anatoliy Anatolievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Lebedeva Nataliya Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Deshevaya Irina Yurievna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky (the First Cossacs University),
73 Zemlyanoy val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Yudaev V.F., Sychev A.M.The Dynamic Viscosity Coefficient of Hydroethanol Solution

P. 33-38 Key words
water; the viscosity of the solution; a quantum system; transients; self-diffusion; energy levels; ethanol.

Abstract
From plots of natural logarithm of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of a solution of ethanol in water on the inverse absolute temperature, at a constant concentration of the components derived piecewise linear functions. Their processing power has allowed to find three energy levels and the transition energy between two levels. With increasing temperature of the solution increases the internal energy of the particles. Energy levels and energy transfer in general depend on the concentration of components. Dependence of the logarithm of the ratio of the solution viscosity on the concentration of ethanol Fe at different temperatures are about the kind of parabolas, whose branches are directed downwards. A maximum of parabolas with increasing temperature from 0°C to 80°C is slightly shifted from the Fe ? 0.54 to 0.38. The logarithm of the maximum value of viscosity on temperature is reduced in the form cuacnopalan functions, consisting of three direct three temperature intervals: (0; 20) °С; (20; 40) °С и (40; 80) °С. The rate of change of the maximum of the logarithm of the coefficient of viscosity with change in temperature from the temperature of the solution has the form of damped oscillations with increasing temperature the amplitude of the speed variation decreases. Processing tabular data allow us to calculate the energy levels of the aggregates of the particles in the solution as quantum systems, temperature and energy of a quantum transition from one energy level to another, the interval of temperatures at which the particle is located at one energy level. Cuacnopalan function can be represented in analytical form, which can be used to solve hydrodynamic problems with dissipation of mechanical energy into heat when the food machines in the flow of a viscous fluid is inhomogeneous temperature field and the viscosity of the liquid, which allows to speak about the representativeness of the results of this work.

References
Authors
Yudaev Vasily Fedorovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Sychev Andrey Mikhailovich, Post-graduate Student;
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky (the First Cossacs University),
73 Zemlyanoy val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Artikov A.A., Masharipova Z.A.The Calculation of the Drying Process of Vegetable Origin Materials Based on Sorption-Evaporative Properties

P. 39-42 Key words
moisture; pressure; computer model; concentration; mass exchange; balance; drying; temperature.

Abstract
For the calculation of the drying materials is essential evaporation of sorptive properties, which affect the two-phase equilibrium system. When drying materials of vegetable origin is relatively complex shape of desorption of water vapor molecules from the material, accompanied by energy absorption. The complexity of the calculation process of drying materials is the determination of the equilibrium state of the system-air material. Especially characterized by the expression of drying material for moisture in the air. In most cases, the calculation of the drying process of materials is allowed use of the equilibrium state of the system water (clean) - the air, and not accounting sorption-evaporative material properties lead to the dynamic errors of calculation. The accounting balance of the material air with system the sorption-evaporative properties material of plant origin - the pumpkin. The character is tics of the sorption-evaporative properties of the material in the concentration of atmospheric moisture with the water desorbed from the material. The results of experiments on an example pumpkin humidity 15, 20, 25 and 80?%. Taking as a basis the equilibrium temperature of the material, formalized computer model of the transition of the material-air balance and the method of calculation of the drying process, the temperature of drying material. Shows the character of the dynamic changes in the indices of the transition-to-air material in the equilibrium state at the time of the drying process. While maintaining the overall system pressure and air flow equilibrium temperature of the drying material from the initial value gradually decreases to a minimum value. For comparison, consider the equilibrium temperature of pure water, it will also gradually decrease (the lower curve), but the temperature of the water has a smaller value due to the hysteresis. Accordingly, during the batch drying would decrease the concentration of water in the gas phase and its partial pressure decreases (the upper graph) the concentration of water in the phase of drying capillary porous material of plant origin - pumpkin.

References
Authors
Artikov Askar Artikovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Masharipova Zulhumar Atabekovna
Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute,
41 Mirzo Ulugbek St., Tashkent, 100079, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



USING SECONDARY RESOURCES AND NEW TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS

Sinitsyn A.P., Osipov D.O., Shashkov I.A., Tsurikova N.V., Velikoretskaya I.A., Sereda A.S., Kostyleva E.V., Zverev S.V.Utilization of White Lupine Hulls in the Biotechnological Processes

P. 43-47 Key words
lupine hulls; Penicillium verruculosum; Penicillium canescens; enzymatic hydrolysis; fermentation media.

Abstract
Due to the high contentof protein comparable to soy proteinby the quality, lupine is a promising raw material for the food and feed industry. Separation of hullswhich amount from 10 to 20?% of lupine seeds allows obtaininga product with crude protein content of 50?%. In terms of industrial processing of lupine, the problem of their utilization becomes urgent. Lupine hulls consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and can be used as a resource for enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars with their subsequent conversion to alcohols (biofuels), organic and amino acids, biopolymers and other products of the microbial synthesis. Lupine hulls NSPcan also be considered as a source of carbohydratesin culture media for the microbial fermentations to obtain different enzyme preparations. The aim of the investigations was to study the possibility of lupine hulls utilizationas a substrate for bioconversion to sugars, and as a major component of the fermentation media for cultivation Penicilliumstrains - highly activeproducers of technically important enzymes. It was found that the conversion degree of lupine hulls accounted to 68?% when using Penicillium verruculosum carbohydrases complex after pretreatment with a 1?% sulfuric acid solution, which makes the lupine hulls promising substrate for obtaining sugars by enzymatic conversion. It was shown that lupine hulls can be successfully used as a cheap component of culture media for enzymes biosynthesis by highly active producers belonging to Penicilliumgenus. Substitution of 25?% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with lupine hulls in culture medium for P. verruculosum 105 - a producer of carbohydrase complex resulted in a gain in cellulase (CMC-ase) activity by 12?% and in xylanase activity - by 21?%. Total replacement of MCC with lupine hulls did not lead to a noticeable decrease in the strain productivity. Introduction of lupine hulls instead of soy hulls to the fermentation medium for the cultivation of P. canescens 25 - xylanase and serine protease producer, had no effect on the level of serine protease biosynthesis, and contributed to the increase xylanase activity by 10?%.

References
Authors
Sinitsyn Arckadiy Panteleymonovich, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1-3 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Osipov Dmitriy Olegovich, Candidate of Chemical Science;
Shashkov Igor Alexandrovich;
Research Center of Biotechnology RAS,
33/2 Leninskiy pr., Moscow, 119071, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tsurikova Nina Vasilievna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Velikoretskaya Irina Alexandrovna;
Sereda Anna Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Kostyleva Elena Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology,
4b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zverev Sergey Vasilievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Grain and Products of Its Processing,
11 Dmitrovskoe Shosse, Moscow, 127434, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.