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Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №4/2017



INDUSTRY PROBLEMS

Abdullabekova D.A., Magomedova E.S., Magomedov G.G., Kachalkin A.V.Technological Properties of Yeast Saccaromyches cerevisiae of Various Habitats

P. 4-7 Keyword: yeast habitat; fermentation rate; alcohol tolerance; fermentation.
Abstract: The study of S. cerevisiae yeast, playing a crucial role in the production of quality wines, is one of priority areas in winemaking. Along with pure yeast culture sets, natural substrates and fermentation conditions can serve as a source of effective strains. The goal of the work is the investigation of biotechnological properties of S. cerevisiae isolated from various habitats: grape berries, spring soil of vineyards, home and industrial winemaking. Yeasts were isolated by an accumulative technique; the nucleotide sequence analysis of ITS1-5.8S - ITS2 region and D1 / D2 region domains of 26S (LSU) rDNA. The alcohol tolerance and fermentation energy were detected in synthetic standard medium containing 6.7 gram per liter of Yeast Nitrogen Base (YND, Fluka), where glucose and ethanol were introduced in needed amount. We determined a fermentation activity of strains from loss in weight of the fermenting medium due to the evolution of carbon dioxide gas. The alcohol tolerance of cultures was estimated visually from fermentation traits. It is shown that the quantity of strains able to ferment the medium decreased with increasing the ethanol concentration (4, 8, 12, and 15 per cent). Some of yeast cultures failed to show a fermenting activity even at the lowest concentration of ethanol. The yeast isolated from grape berries and spring soils of vineyards proved to be most tolerable to ethanol. The occurrence of strains with higher fermentation rate is detected in both different vineyard substrates and fermentation conditions, that expands the range of yeast strains searching. It should be emphasized that among natural Saccharomyces there are found the strains comparable and even surpassing as to biological activity the cultures adapted to fermentation industry. We assume that cultures isolated from the yeast set of spring soils deserve close attention owing to their high metabolic activity, which can be stemmed from the natural selection under adverse conditions conducive to generation of persistent strains.
Authors: Abdullabekova Dinakhanum Abilyaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Magomedova Elena Selimovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Magomedov Gadzhi Gasaynikadievich
The Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of the Dagestan Scientific Center,
45, M.Gadzhieva Str., Makhachkala, 367000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kachalkin Aleksey Vladimirovich, Candidate of Biological Science
Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

Pochitskaya I.M., Roslik V.L.Determination of Sugar Content in Wine Products

P. 8-12 Keyword: wine-making products; glucose; high performance liquid chromatography method; sucrose; carbohydrates; fructose.
Abstract: An important parameter of the wine products quality and authenticity is control the sugar content using the methods allowing to determine with high accuracy not only total sugar, but also the individual sugars. The purpose of scientific work is fixing of optimum and calculation of metrological characteristics of developed method of carbohydrates determination in wine-making products using a high performance liquid chromatography. The research was carried out at Republican Unitary Enterprise "Scientific-Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus". The content of fructose, glucose, sucrose has been analyzed in samples of grape wines with various sugars content. Researches were conducted on the liquid chromatograph "Agilent 1200" with the program of data processing "Chem Station". The mixture of carbohydrates was analyzed in the mode of isocratic separation on the chromatographic column filled silica gel with the graft aminopropyl silon groups "Zorbax NH2". Refractometric detector was used for registration of the analyzed carbohydrates. As a result of researches optimum conditions of the chromatographic analysis for determination of carbohydrates content in wine-making products were established: amount of the entered test of 0.005 cm3, column thermostat temperature (40 ± 0,1) °C, eluent feed rate 1.0 cm3/min, utilization of isocratic eluating of mixture acetonitrile / water. Parameters of the refractometric detector were determined. Approximate times of carbohydrates keeping have been determined: 8.6 ± 0.5 min for fructose, 9.2 ± 0.5 min for glucose, 12.4 ± 0.5 min for sucrose. Metrological characteristics of carbohydrates definition method have been calculated: repeatability indicators, intermediate precision, exactness. For fructose, glucose and sucrose in the range of measurements from 1.0 to 20.0 g/dm3 the limit of repetition is 11.5; 11.6; 11.8 %, and a limit of an intermediate precision is 13.7; 14.1; 14.1%. Over 20.0 to 300.0 g/dm3 of value of a repeatability limit were 6.0; 6.2; 5.9 %, the size of a limit of an intermediate precision is 7.6; 7.7; 7.7 % for fructose, glucose and sucrose.
Authors: Pochitskaya Irina Mikhailovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Roslik Valentina Lolievna
Scientific and Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,
29, Kozlova Str., Minsk, 220037, Belarus, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Terentyev S.E., Khokonova M.B.The Use of Cytolytic Enzyme Preparations in Winemaking

P. 13-17 Keyword: wine materials; wort output; qualitative fractions; fermentation of pulp; qualitative fractions; cytolytic enzymes.
Abstract: Cytolytic enzyme preparations refer to very important enzymes used in winemaking. The use of cytolytic enzyme preparations is based on the ability to act fissilely on the pectin of a grape berries, while facilitating juice yield. In connection with this goal of this work was the development and establishment of optimal doses of cytolytic enzyme preparations and modes of fermentation of processed pulp. It is established that the cytolytic enzyme, penetrating the cell membranes, promotes their swelling and acts hydrolytically. At the same time, the semi-soluble shells first become vitreous and hardly noticeable in transmitted light, and subsequently they are destroyed and completely disappear. A purified cytolytic enzyme preparation, cytosine, was used in the work. Fermentation was carried out on the grapes of grape varieties: Aligote, Rkatsiteli, Traminer pink, Cabernet Sauvignon, Noa, Zeibel. It is determined that the duration of the fermentation of the pulp depends on the dose of the drug cytosine and the direction of use of the grapes. So, when making dessert wines from grape varieties, fermentation of the pulp lasts from 3 hours - Rkatsiteli to 9 - Traminer pink; Port - 9-12 and Madeira - 18 hours. Thus, it follows from the foregoing that there is a definite dependence between the humidity of the squeeze and the yield of the wort: with increasing wort yield, the moisture content of the wort is reduced. At a temperature of 20 °C for the tested varieties of grapes, doses of cytosine are 10-15 g / 100 kg of pulp. It has been established that the processing of wine with mesocarhymic is an effective method of increasing the yield of wort and wine materials from a ton of grapes, which depends on the type of grapes, the direction of its use, the year of harvest, the dose of the preparation, the temperature and the duration of fermentation.
Authors: Terentyev Sergey Evgenyevich, Candidates of Agricultural Science
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy,
10/12, B. Sovetskaya Str, Smolensk, 214000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Khokonova Madina Borisovna, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V.M. Kokov
1a, Prospekt Lenina, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria, 360030, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kotenko S.Ts., Aliverdieva D.A., Khalilova E.A., Gasanov R.Z., Abakarova A.A., Palyan Yu.L.New Strain of Yeast for the Production of Red Table Wines

P. 18-21 Keyword: antioxidant activity; biotechnology; Cabernet; vitamins; yeasts; genetics; red wines; selection; phenolic substances.
Abstract: The red table wine from Cabernet grape gains the greatest popularity in Daghestan. There have recently been performed active investigations on detecting new selective indigenous yeast strains for the production of high quality regional wines. Our investigations were focused on improving the biotechnological process for the production of red table wines with due regard to raw material peculiarities and the application of new isolate within the conditions of Daghestan. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain RNCIM (Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms) Y-4270 is selected for the production of red table wines. The identification of the obtained isolate was performed using the nucleotide sequence analysis of 18S rRNA. Morphological, physiological, and cultural characteristic traits of the isolate were studied. The data of investigations on biologically active substances of red wine materials obtained from Cabernet grape and new isolate are presented. In analyzed samples, physical and chemical properties including antioxidant activity (AOA), phenolic substances, vitamins, and organoleptical characteristics were determined. The content of phenolic substances and anthocyanins in a test wine against a control sample were higher by an average of 9 and 28 per cents, correspondingly. The (AOA) of wines was shown to be dependent on varietal features of grape and the biological activity of Y-4270 strain. In a test sample, AOA was up to 26.6 per cent and the content of ascorbic and nicotinic acids was detected to be by 32 per cent and 52 per cent higher than in a control sample. Red wine materials of high quality, rich color, fruit and floral aroma, and balanced flavor were obtained. The strain is tested at the Derbent sparkling wine factory (Daghestan) and recommended for use in the red wine production.
Authors: Kotenko Svetlana Tsalistinovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Aliverdieva Dinara Alievna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Khalilova Eslanda Abdurakhmanovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Gasanov Rasul Zagirovich;
Abakarova Aida Alevdinovna
Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of Dagestan Scientific Center,
45, Gadzhieva Str., Mahachkala, Dagestan Repablic, 367000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Paliyan Julia Leonidovna
Derbent sparkling wine factory,
47b, K. Marks Str., Derbent, Dagestan Republic, 368000, dziv This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Fisun M.N., Egorova E.M., Yakushenko O.S.The Influence of Minting on the Agrobiological Properties of the Grapes of White Technical Grade Kerner

P. 26-29 Keyword: grapes; quality; varieties Kerner; lateral canes; Riesling; growth; productivity of bushes; chasing.
Abstract: Over the past 10 years, in the Central Ciscaucasia region, "ZET" Concern is the most intensively developing vine-growing enterprise, in the lands of wich, since 2008-2012, with planted 931 hectares of vineyards from 56 varieties. The Kerner variety (Trollinger Riesling), which was obtained in the state educational and experimental center for viticulture and fruit growing (Weinsberg, Germany), was one of the most outstanding in its agrobiological and economic properties. In Germany, this variety covers an area of more than 8 thousand hectares. The concern plantings of varieties Kerner laid in 2009 on an area of 10 hectares and is not cultivated in a covering culture. The vineyard of this variety is located on lands with alluvial meadow soils with the placement of bushes 3 1.5 m, laid grafted seedlings on the root of Rupestris. Formation - two-shoulder cordon on two stems with a height of 1.2-1.4 m. The standard was Riesling Rhine. It is established that the Kerner variety surpasses the standard Riesling Rhine variety (its bushes cover for the winter) in a variety of agrobiological properties: the growth force of shoots, yield, average bunch mass, accumulation of sugars, frost resistance. The greater thickness of shoots in the Kerner variety, in comparison with the Riesling variety, indicates the permissibility of increasing the load of bushes with eyes. Topping of shoots in a very strong variety of Kerner, shoots of which reach a length of more than 3 m by June 20-25, showed that early shortening of shoots contributes to the abundant development of lateral canes, especially on bushes with a horizontal arrangement of sleeves. In this case, it is of interest to re-mint the bushes by shortening the increment of stepchilds to form a crop of the following year. Early, at the end of June, chasing the main shoots of this variety allows them to form 15-20 lateral canes on them on one running meter of the main shoot. In this case, the thickness of the 5-8 lower lateral canes shoots at the level of the third internode reaches 8-12 mm, which ensures a sufficiently high yield of good quality.
Authors: Fisun Mikhail Nikolaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Science;
Egorova Elena Mikhailovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Yakushenko Olga Semenovna, Candidate of Biological Science
Kabardino-Balkaria State University. V.M. Kokova,
360030, Nalchik, ul. Lenina, d. 1v, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Petrov V.S., Pavlyukova T.P., Aleynikova G.Yu., Razzhivina Yu.A.The Influence of the Scheme and the Density of Grapes Planting on the Productivity of Riesling Rhine

P. 30-34 Keyword: grape; bush; variety; planting scheme; productivity.
Abstract: Biological properties of the varieties - adaptability, productivity, quality parameters of grape and wine products are revealed most fully when variety agricultural technologies are used in the industrial production. Objective: To explore and identify the optimal scheme and the density of planting vines on the plantation productivity criteria. Research carried out in unstable weather conditionsof moderate continental climate of the south of Russia (Anapa) in a stationary two-factor field experiment. The first factor - row spacing: 3.5; 3.0; 2.5 m, the second - the distance between bushes: 2.0; 1.5; 1.0 m. Technical grape variety Riesling Rhine is used as an object of research. Modern Research methods, recognized in the world practice in the viticulture industry were used. In conditions of high insolation and unstable moisture content of ampelocenozis by atmospheric precipitation there is a steady pattern of change of productivity of grapes under the influence of density and planting schemes bushes, as well as rainfall. During the research, the largest grape harvest of 5.75 kg / bush was in plantations with an average width between rows of bushes when planting density 1666 pcs. / ha under the scheme 3.0 2.0 m. In plantations with wide and narrow aisles, he was less than 0.1 and 29 %, respectively. Grape harvest on the bushes steadily decreases with decreasing distance between the bushes in the ranks and increase the density of planting independently of the width of the rows. The correlation coefficient is - 0.91. Grape yield per unit area (kg / ha) increases with an increase in planting density to 3000 pcs. / ha. With further increase of the density of bush planting in plantations of grapes yield decreases. The highest yield of grapes was under bushes planting density 3333 and 2222 pcs. / ha in plantations with a planting scheme 3.0 1.0 and 3.0 1.5 m, respectively 12.4 and 12.3 t / ha. The correlation coefficient between the grape yield and density planting bushes in the plantations is 0.42. A high correlation was observed between the productivity and the annual amount of precipitation - 0.85. Between productivity and the amount of precipitation for the period of growth of grapes (II June-August), the correlation interdependent was the highest, - 0.98. The influence of other factors on the productivity of grapes was mean and weak.
Authors: Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science;
Pavlyukova Tat'jana Pavlovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Aleynikova Galina Jur'evna, Candidate of Agricultural Science
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Razzhivina Julija Anatol'evna
Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of Viticulture and Winemaking
36, Pionerskiy Pr., Anapa, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Malykh G.P., Erina N.I., Magomedov A.S., Maystrenko T.A.Economic Efficiency of Preplant Preparation of Rooted Grapes Cuttings

P. 35-38 Keyword: Albit; own-rooted seedlings; expenses; the timing of rooting cuttings; economic efficiency.
Abstract: The results of complex researches in viticulture on the preparation of shortened cuttings before planting them on film, and the calculations of economic efficiency of this technique. Experiments were conducted at the nursery of wine farm Burunnyy Shelkovsky area of the Chechen Republic, the soil of the experimental plot were chestnut. During the vegetation period drip irrigation with mineral fertilizers was carried out. Time of rooting of cuttings was studied with the help of the device made by ARRIV&W. It was established that the heating of the basal part of the own-rooted cuttings with the use of steam and by the presence of albite within 15 days, is the most simple and efficient way, especially compared with the processing of them with Kornevin. More effective saturation of the cuttings with Albit occurs when the cuttings in the greenhouse are treated with a 0.2 % solution of Albit (0.5 l per 1 m2 of greenhouse) and cover them with plastic wrap. Then a steam generator delivers steam with 0.2 % solution of Albit through pipes to a greenhouse throughout the period of rooting. The cuttings treated with the steam and then landed on the film formed shoots seven days earlier than untreated. The increase in leaf area was more intensive. It was 720.5 sm2, which is 165.1 sm more than in the control. The highest shoot growth and better aging was also marked. The use of steam is the most simple and more effective method than treatment with Kornevin. Yield of seedlings in the best variant of rooting was 452.5 thousand units, and in the variant with Kornevin the yield was 128 thousand units less. This technique allows improving the yield and quality of seedlings with the lowest labor costs and means. Thus, affordable, reliable and low-cost method of rooting of cuttings provides high quality grape plants from cuttings with a length of 20-25 sm in one growing season. Higher quality of seedlings, saturation of them with macro - and microelements increases the survival rate of seedlings and their development on plantation. Empirical results of saturation of the cuttings by Albit, the rooting period is 15 days (best option) in the cultivation of one million seedlings have been verified by calculation of the economic efficiency. The level of profitability in the processing with Albit for 15 days is 221 %, in the processing with Kornevin - 90.6 %. Every ruble invested in the production of seedlings with cuttings' saturation with Albit provides the 2.21 RUB of income.
Authors: Malykh Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor;
Erina Natalya Mikhaylovna, Candidate of Economical Science;
Magomadov Arbi Sultanovich;
Maystrenko Tatyana Alexandrovna
All-Russia Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making named after Ya.I. Potapenko,
166, Baklanovsky Pr., Novocherkassk, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Shukyurov A.S.Assessment of the Prospects of Some Introduced Varieties of Grapes in the Conditions of Azerbaijan

P. 39-42 Keyword: ampelographic collection; fruitless shoots; fruit-bearing shoots; sugar content; table grape varieties; titrated acidity; productivity; phenology.
Abstract: As a result of long-term research works some introduced and local grapevine varieties, have been investigated in Jalilabad region. Among them the best table grapevine varieties of various time of ripening were selected. These varieties are adaptable to soil-climatic conditions of the Jalilabad and prevail on the complex characteristics. The article tells about the indexes of productivity (productive shoots, productivity coefficient, number of the bunches, bunches` average weight, plant`s productivity, productivity from 1 hectare etc.) and the specifics of the growth and development of the grape varieties cultivated in the Jalilabad region. During the research, depending on the biological characteristics of varieties, they had been given different load standards, and it was determined for each class its own optimal eye load. Because the, during the dry-cut on varieties of the remaining eye load, it was determined for the variety Prima - 30, for sorts Parkent and Sentennial Seedless - 45, for sorts Alfons Lavalle, Autumn Royal and Kardinal - 50, for grape varieties Reed Globe and Sultanina - 60, these marks were determined as optimal eye load. During the research, it was determined that the productivity of introduction of grape varieties, in conditions of Jalilabad is formed on a high level. That is, the average weight of studied grapes varieties is significantly different: the average productivity of the bush is between 6.0 to 12.4 kg, at varieties Kardinal (6.0 kg) and Prima (7.5 kg) - is relatively low. These indicators are: Sultanina (8.2 kg), at Alfons Lavelle (9.7 kg), Autumn Royal (9.8 kg), Reed Globe (10.8 kg), Sentennial Seedless (11.0 kg), Parkent (12.4 kg) were significantly higher. There was held mathematics - statistic research compared with control cards. It was found that productivity of the bush, in comparison with the studied varieties have considerable accuracy (according to the criteria U, p<0.05 and p<0.001) and in the control varieties the average increase is 20.0-51.6.
Authors: Shukurov Azar Salaman Ogly
Azerbaijan Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine making,
Mehdiabad vil., Absheron distr.,Baku, Azerbaijan, Az 0118, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION. WINE AND LIFE

To the 100th Anniversary of his Birth. The Glorious Path of a Professional Winemaker I.P. Gaponov