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Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №3/2017

PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRY

Magomedov M.G., Ramazanov O.M., Ramazanov Sh.R., Magomedov N.D.Variety of Vineyards of Dagestan: Past, Present, Future

P. 4-8 Keyword: native; vineyards; Dagestan; breeding; improvement; variety; assortment; table; technical.
Abstract: In the conditions of a market economy, the importance of grape varieties increases, and it is very difficult to strategically select the appropriate set of mutually complementary varieties for a specific ecological zone or farm. The solution of this problem is especially difficult in Dagestan, where agroecological conditions are very diverse and are caused by the joint impact of the sea, steppe, high mountains. In recent years, in the vineyards of Dagestan, aboriginal varieties are represented by only 3 varieties: Agadai, which occupies 706 hectares or 3.1 % of the total area of the vineyards of the republic and 9.5 % of the total area occupied by table varieties; Hatmi - 1 ha or 0.01 and 0.02 %, Narma - 2.0 ha or 0.01 and 0.02 %, respectively. The improvement of the grapes assortment is a natural process of its change on the basis of a dynamic gene pool with the aim of improving the qualitative composition of a variety of varieties, ensuring an increase in the profitability of the viticulture and wine industry, based on the effective use of the genetic properties of varieties, soil and climatic potential of agroterritories, renewable natural energy sources (light, heat, water, food) in the production process, reducing production costs, increasing the productivity and quality of the grapes. In Dagestan for 45 years (since 1970) the assortment has been updated more than 3 times. During this time, Dagestan varieties Asyl-kara, Gylyabi Dagestansky, Budayshuli, Gimra, Dubut, Koz Uzum, Makhborcibil, Sarah, Tygiz, Hindogny, Yai raisin white, Yai raisin pink and introduced Semillon and Husaine were bred. They were replaced by new ones, both introduced and selection varieties, although many of them turned out to be ineffective. The modern varietal composition of the vineyards of Dagestan is represented by 48 varieties of grapes, including 26 technical and 22 table and canteen. The assortment of table grapes is very poorly represented by high-quality varieties, so it is necessary to expand the areas and fill the market for seedless varieties of grapes such as Kishmish Radiant, Kishmish Hungarian, Kishmish Derbent and others. It is necessary to improve the varietal composition of the vineyards of Dagestan, giving preference to highly valuable aboriginal and selection varieties.
Authors: Magomedov Magomedmirza Gamzaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Ramazanov Omar Magomedovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Ramazanov Shamil' Rustamovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Dagestan State Agricultural University named after M. M. Dzhambulatov
180, M. Gadzhieva Str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367032, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; о This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Magomedov Nadyr Dzhalilovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Control of Viticulture and Winemaking "Dagvino" of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food RD
13, Kirpichnoe Sh., Kaspiysk, Republic of Dagestan, 368303, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

Nerovnykh L.P., Ageeva N.M., Danielyan A.Yu.Influence of Biological Agents on the Process of Secondary Fermentationof Bottled Wine Materials

P. 9-15 Keyword: biological preparations; bioprotekt; glutarom; pressure; the dioxide of carbon; sparkling and foam properties; the foaming ability; selklin; elivit.
Abstract: Are represented the materials of a study of the influence of the biological preparations - of glutaroma, selklina, bioprotekta and aktivita - on the dynamics of second fermentation with the production of sparkling wine on the classical (bottle) technology. It is shown that in the comparison with the bentonite the use of biological preparations in the circulating mixture contributes to the activation of second fermentation, to an increase of the accumulation CO2 in the bottles, to the completeness of the fermentation of sugar. The application of artificial mixtures of bentonite and biological preparations - of glutaroma, selklina, bioprotekta, elivita and aktivita - ensured the an even higher speed of the adaptation of the cells of yeast (s) to the conditions of the fermented medium and a rapid pressure increment, which is explained by synergetic effect. Introduction into the circulating mixture only of biological preparations led to the the insignificant to reduction in the concentration of the titrate acids (to 0.3-0.5 g / dm3) in comparison with the control, with exception of model with the use of aktivita, where it is noted reduction in this index to 1.0 g / dm3. The joint application of bentonite and biological preparations, especially in the mixture aktivitom, contributed to reduction in the quantity of titrate acids more than to 1.3 g / dm3. A change in the nitrous exchange with the use of biological preparations in the circulating mixture is revealed. The protein actively was transformed under the action of the fermentation systems of the wine yeast in the presence of the mixtures of bentonite and biological preparations and amino nitrogen was consumed. However, in these versions they precisely observed the greatest value of the quantity of that foaming ability, specific resistance to the isolation of carbonic acid dioxide and summary accumulation of the dioxide of carbon. Are proposed the mechanisms of the processes taking place, the based on the activation vital activities of the wine yeast and the enrichment of wine by mannoproteinami. The carried out experiments showed the expediency of using the biological preparations during their joint introduction with the suspension of bentonite into the composition of circulating mixture in the technology of Russian champagne in a bottle manner.
Authors: Nerovnyh Lilija Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Maykop state technological university
191, First-of-May Str., Maykop, Republic Of Adygeya, 385000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ageeva Natal'ja Mihajlovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Danieljan Armen Jur'evich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
North Caucasian Regional Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 years of Victory St., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gaina B.S., Borta I.P., Tsyra V.G., Prida I.A.Technological Features of Young Table Wines Production

P. 16-18 Keyword: beta-glucosidase; fermentof the wort; new wine; seed separation; pectinase; grape varieties; malolactic fermentation.
Abstract: It is shown the feasibility of increasing the volume of production the table wines young, implemented before January 1 following the harvest year, which are produced and manufactured in France, Italy, Germany, Bulgaria, Moldova It is proved perspective of using for this purpose the new varieties of interspecific breeding with an early maturation period of berries such as: Legenda, Riton, Luminita, Viorica and others. In conditions of the Republic of Moldova has well recommended varieties of the new selection of Russia, Ukraine, Hungary and Germany. Of the local indigenous grape varieties of high quality wines were are obtained by using Feteaska white and Feteasca royal.Have well proved varieties of the new selection NSC Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking V.E. Tairov (Odessa, Ukraine) Aromatnii, Zagrei, Iskorka and Muscat odeschii (Tkachenco О., Trinkal О., 2015), interspecific hybrids in the F4 Alexandrina, Augustina, Malena and Nistreana (Alexnadrov E., 2015), varieties Cristal and Dostoinii (Russia), Bianca (Hungary), Solearis and Hibernal (Germany) Dunavschilazur (Bulgaria) and others. The advantage of using these grapes is their earliest ripeness, with the harvest to the beginning of September each year. The vines of these varieties ripen a well, and even in conditions of winter the northern border of viticulture in Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary, Germany and other European countries. Using the active of dry yeast with to race beta glikozidaznym action on the precursors of aromatic compounds of grape must and bacteria malolactic fermentation, it is possible to successfully complete the process of complete formation of the young white wines, in which the residual sugar of 0.3 -0.4%, and the residual content of malic acid in the range of 0.2-0.3 g/l. From the European grape varieties the best results were obtained from the harvest of French Merlot; the release of the young red table wine "Primeur" mastered at the works of fine wines "Cricova" on an industrial scale.
Authors: Gaina Boris Sergeevich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician
Academy of Sciences of Moldova
MD-2001, Respublika Moldova, g. Kishinev, bul. Shtefanchel Mare, d. 1, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Borta Ivan Petrovich, Graduate student
Scientific and Practical Institute of Horticulture and Food Technologies
59, Vierul Str., Codru, Moldova, MD-2070,
Cyra Valerij Georgievich
"Cricova" J.S.C.
1, Ungurjanu Str., Krikova, Moldova, MD-2084, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Prida Ivan Andreevich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
LLC "Oenocunsulting"
25, Krjangje Str., Kishinev, Moldova, MD-2064, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Pochitskaya I.M., Subach V.P., Voropay E.N., Roslik V.L.Determination of the Content of Esters in Cognac Production by Vapor Chromatography Analysis Method

P. 19-24 Keyword: cognac; gas chromatography method; esters.
Abstract: Estimation of cognac production quality is carried out mainly by organoleptic method, which is based on wine flavor and aroma. However, this method is subjective and significantly depends on the expert skill and experience. In this regard development of the techniques based on modern tool methods of the analysis is very urgent. The purpose of this work was application of a gas chromatography method for detection and quantitative determination of ester content in cognac. Scientific research was carried out at the Republican Unitary Enterprise "Scientific-Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus". Eleven the esters, most characteristic of cognac products, were chosen for studying and consideration. Eleven esters that most typical for cognac were chosen for studying and consideration. The most optimum conditions of the gas chromatography analysis of ester determination in cognac, such as column thermostat temperature, flow mode, gas carrier and parameters of a vapor-phase extractor - temperature and time of establishment of temperature equilibrium in the steam-liquid system are determined. Metrological characteristics of a method of ester definition are calculated: indicators of repeatability, intermediate precision and correctness. The research of cognac samples produced in France, Moldova and Armenia had shown that samples of the French cognacs had enough totality of esters, the amount of ethyl acetate was about 200 mg / dm3, the total maintenance of an ethylcaprylate and etilkaprat were 20-30 mg / dm3, and other esters - about 1 mg / dm3. The low content of ethyl acetate (no more than 150 mg / dm3), the total maintenance of an ethylcaprylate and etilkaprat - less than 10 mg / dm3, other ether no more than 1-3 mg / dm3 had been noted in the Moldavian cognacs. The Armenian cognacs of seven-year and ten-year had the fullest set of the defined esters, and the amount of ethyl acetate reached more than 500 mg / dm3 for more aged cognac sample. With increase in time of maturing the accumulation of ethyl acetate, ethylpropionate and etilbutirat was observed.
Authors: Pochickaja Irina Mihajlovna, Candidate Of Agricultural Sciences,
Subach Viktor Prokof'evich, Candidate Of Chemical Sciences,
Voropaj Elena Nikolaevna,
Roslik Valentina Lolievna
Scientific and Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
29, Kozlova Str., Minsk, Belarus, 220037, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Guguchkina T.I., Antonenko M.V., Prakh A.V., Kondratiev P.N. High Quality of Kuban Wines - The Result of Concern for Grapes of the Company "Syngenta"

P. 25-28 Keyword: quality of wine; Sensory evaluation; System of protection of grapes.
Abstract: The conducted researches convincingly prove the positive effect of the integrated protection system of "Syngenta" on the chemical composition of grapes and the quality of the products of its processing. As objects of research used grapes and wines from grape varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, obtained with the use of various plant protection systems, and grown in 2016 in LLC Fanagoria-Agro in Temryuk district. The grapes were harvested at the time of full technological maturity and processed according to the classical technology of red wine making in the microwinery of the HCRRIHV. The main components of the chemical composition of wort and wines were determined by the methods of the current GOST using high-tech equipment and modern analytical methods, including highly effective capillary electrophoresis and gas-liquid chromatography. The regularities of the change in the tasting evaluation of the experimental wine materials are determined depending on the grape protection system, which are due to the biochemical processes occurring during formation and maturation of the wine. The increase in the tasting evaluation of some wine materials was caused by the appearance of bright varietal shades in the fragrance, as well as the development of harmony and softness in taste during aging. All samples of red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red dry wine materials obtained from grapes threatened by protection systems had a higher tasting score of 8.2 to 8.6 points, compared to control samples obtained from grapes not treated with protective equipment. It was found that the "Syngenta" protection system promoted the production of low-oxidized wines, as evidenced by a decrease in wines of mass concentrations of acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acetoin. It is established that the system of protection of the company "Syngenta", applied on grapes, allowed to realize the potential of the grape plant, and had a beneficial effect on the physicochemical parameters of grapes and wine materials, as well as on the organoleptic properties of the investigated wines.
Authors: Guguchkina Tatyana Ivanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Antonenko Mikhail Viktorovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Prakh Anton Vladimirovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
North-Caucasian Regional Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture,
39, 40 Let Pobedy St., Krasnodar, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gorobets Dmitriy Anatol'yevich;
Kondrat'yev Pavel Nikolayevich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
LLC "Syngenta",
72, E. Bershanskoy St., Krasnodar, Russia, 350911, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Nenko N.I., Ilina I.A., Petrov V.S. Biochemical Evaluation of the Adaptive Potential of Grape Varietiesin Conditions of Low-Temperature Stresses

P. 29-33 Keyword: grapes, low temperature stress, physiological and biochemical regularity, ecological-geographical origin
Abstract: Vineyards under the conditions of the South of Russia are influenced by abnormal weather manifestations of moderately continental climate in the form of low-temperature and water stresses. The system yield losses, the decline in quality of food products, the increase in expenses in the technological process are a consequence of abnormal weather manifestations. The purpose of research is the revealing of correlation dependences of the temperature and water influence during cold period of year on biochemical and physiological indicators and state parameters of grapes plants under the natural and modelled environment conditions. A scientific hypothesis: the consideration of plants adaptability to abiotic stresses as the composite complex of physical and chemical processes defining the activity and the direction of the corresponding physiological functions coordinated by a genome and corrected by the environment. The objects of research are the technical grapes varieties: trans-species hybrids of the Europe-Amur-American group of early and middle period of maturing. The methods of research are traditional in a field experiment on the ampelografic collection of FGBSI AZESV&W of NCRRIH&V during the period from 2013 to 2016 under the agric and ecological conditions of the Black Sea wine growing area. The results of research of physiological and biochemical regularities of formation of adaptation stability of grapes varieties in winter period depending on their origin are given in the article. Under the natural and modelled conditions the grapes varieties are selected depending on their ecological and geographical origin: in a group of early ripening varieties - the Crystal, among middle ripening varieties - Dostoiny and Krasnostop AZOS, these grapes varieties have a bigger resistance to influence of stressful factors of the winter period. Among the indicators that most clearly characterizes the frost resistance of studied grapes varieties, the highest correlation is observed between value of changing in the content of combine water form and the content of proline (Correl.=0,9), and for the grapes of Krasnostop AZOS - the correlation between content of proline and sucrose (Correl.=0.6) in the tissues of the vine. The optimal physiological and biochemical parameters of winter hardiness (in a state of deep and forced rest) and ranges of their variation under the winter conditions of 2012-2016 are established.
Authors: Nen'ko Natalija Ivanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Sceinces, Professor,
Il'ina Irina Anatol'evna, Doctor of Technical Sceinces, Professor,
Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sceinces
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Malykh G.P., Magomadov A.S., Maystrenko T.A., Titova L.A.Acceleration of the Process of Root Formation in Truncated Cuttings and its Influence on the Quality of Grape Seedlings

P. 34-38 Keyword: Albite; Kornevin; yield of seedlings; macro- and microelementssaturation; rooting own-rooted cuttings; the survival rate.
Abstract: The paper presents the results of study of the timing of root formation under the action of a high temperature vapor compared to the processing with preparation "Kornevin". To accelerate callus formation and saturation of the cuttings by albite thedevise developed in Y. I. Potapenko Institute for viticulture and winemaking was used (authors: Malih G. P A. S. Magomadov, Gvozdic, Jakovlevoj O. L). In the early spring the soil warms badly, and heel the root system develops poorly, and sometimes not formed. To improve the thermal regime, a more powerful development of seedlings and to control weeds in open soil, soil covered with a polyethylene film of 5 meters width, length 100 meters. Technology of preparation of cuttings for planting were: 20 days before planting, 3 eye cuttings of Augustine variety were cut, and aligned in bundles of 200. The control was soaking the cuttings to restore the desired concentration of moisture in them. The cuttings were soaked for two days, plunging into the water in the lower part, is 2 / 3 of their length. Before planting the upper ends of cuttings were soaked to paraffin to 2 / 3 of their length. Planting was carried out to a depth of 20 sm square power - 20 10 sm. During the growing season, regular watering (drip irrigation) with the introduction of water soluble fertilizers with a reliable protection of young plants against mildew and oidium. The best results were obtained in 3d variant when rooting cuttings for 15 days., where the yield of standard seedlings of 90.5 % or higher than in the control at 27.1 % and higher than when rooting 10 days 3 %, the fourth option period the rooting 20 days 2 %. The decrease in the yield of standard seedlings in the fourth option occurred due to the fact that when planting with cuttings overly-developed eyes to damage them in the future area of the roots and on apical part of stem. Application kornev proved to be ineffective. Studies have shown that at a temperature of 22…24 °C during 15 days after the landing on film to fall saplings form a stronger root system, higher growth rates of shoots, their length and thickness, the degree of aging of the shoots to the end of the growing season. Survival rate of seedlings on the plantation with new technology of their cultivation with stimulation of the cuttings temperature of steam and saturation with albite within 15 days amounted to 97.8 %, which is higher than the control at 6.5 %.
Authors: Malih Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Magomadov Arbi Sultanovich;
Majstrenko Tat'jana Aleksandrovna;
Titova Larisa Anatol'evna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian scientific research Institute of viticulture and winemaking Y. I. Potapenko
166, Pr. Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov region, Russia, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Fisun M.N., Mazepa E.V., Khaninaev V.I. Table Grapes on the Slopes of Central Ciscaucasia

P. 39-42 Keyword: grapes; liquidity of a crop; table grades; productivity; fructification acceleration.
Abstract: Forward expansion sortens table grades and increase in a consumer demand at fresh grapes dictate necessity of the decision of a problem of manufacture of a high-quality crop, mainly at the expense of introduction of new valuable grades and expansion of the areas of plantings, mainly in the areas territorially close to places of consumption and realisation. In the circumstances in wine growing branch when demand exceeds manufacture, there is actual a problem - in the accelerated rates to spend a bookmark of new plantings and to accelerate their introduction in operation. Proceeding from prospect of development of the market of consumption of table grades, the purpose was put - to test the most perspective table grades of grapes and to develop receptions of the accelerated introduction of plantings in fructification. On total for first three years of vegetation of productivity of bushes, with to leave the variant is allocated for the second year of one fruit link, with addition on one link each next year. Last two variants have no essential advantages before the control though surpass it on 7 % (3rd variant) and concede to the control of 0.5-2.7 % (the fourth variant), that is are in limits of a confidential interval. Data about glucoacides the relation testify to absence of essential distinctions as berries of studied grades depending on their agrobiological properties and experience variants. In the first years of vegetation increase of productivity and, especially qualities of clusters and berries is reached by carrying out fragments and removal of tops плодоносных runaways. Acceleration of the introduction into fructification is reached by use plantafol or nutrivax added in a solution at grapes planting; timely carrying out of agrotechnical actions: formations of one fruit link in the first year of vegetation with the subsequent increase in their quantity to 3-4х for the third year and removal of tops rods in the flowering beginning. Crop improvement of quality is reached by agrochemical means and timely stamping of runaways, and in years with an abundance of deposits during a time of maturing of berries - removal of a part of leaves in a circle of an arrangement of clusters.
Authors: Fisun Michael Nikolaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Mazepa Evgenie Viktorovich, Undergraduate
Kabardino-Balkarian state Agrarian University of V. M. Kokova
1v, Lenina St., Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia, 360030, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,
Haninaev Vadim Ihanovich
LLC "Cardinal - Agro",14A,
Iskuminsky Per., Aleksandriyskaya, Stavropol Region, Russia, 357840



Misrieva B.U. Research of Biophenology of Perspective Grape Varieties for Obtaining High Quality Products

P. 43-46 Keyword: biofenologi grapes; acidity; suar; the ripening time; the amount of effective temperatures.
Abstract: The reaction of grape varieties on the weather conditions are a significant component of the stability of their yields. Obtaining high yields of grapes for the standard of conditions of acidity and sugar content, suitable for further processing technology in various fields of use, it is today an urgent task in viticulture. Dynamics of accumulation of sugars depends on hydrothermal conditions and the growing rate of passage of phenological phases of development. Studies in various provldilisagrocenoses southern Dagestan. As a result of years of research marked by significant fluctuations in the reference values of the sums of active temperatures on years depending on the duration of phenological phases of development of grape plants. Objective - to study biofenologiyu most common table and wine grapes in two contrasting environmental conditions of the area of the southern Dagestan. As a result of years of research marked by significant fluctuations in the reference values of the sums of active temperatures on years depending on the duration of phenological phases of development of grape plants. The sum of active temperatures from bud break to harvest these kinds of studies over the years for a variety Agadai - 2741 °C, for Rkatsiteli - 2726 °C, for a variety Riesling - 2662 °C for Augustine - 1917 ° C early-maturing varieties. The minimum temperature for the ripening of berries is a temperature of 12,5 ° C. With an average daily temperature below 10 °C and high humidity, the accumulation of sugar in the studied varieties of stops and even a few drops. Depending on the growing conditions, the strength of growth of bushes in one and the same class different. In the variety Agadaiphe-phase "Start maturation" and "full maturity" in Suleiman -Stalskom area for 10 days ahead of the passage of the same stages in Tabasaransky area. The number of days from bud burst to full maturity in a region of foothills Tabasaran was 157 days, and in a plain Suleiman Stalsky area - 143 days. vine Aging also occurred in earlier periods. The accumulation of active temperatures amounts from bud break to harvest varies from year to year. Objective - to study biofenologiyu most common table and wine grapes in two contrasting environmental conditions of the area of the southern Dagestan.
Authors: Misrieva Bichihan Usmanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
Branch of FGBU "Rosselkhozentr" of the Dagestan Republic
103, Daganova St., Mahachkala,Dagestan Republic, Russia, 367014, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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