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Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №2/2017

INDUSTRY PROBLEMS

Magomedov M.G., Ramazanov O.M., Mukailov M.D.Table Grapes Conveyors

P. 4-7 Keyword: agronomic; conveyors; intercontinental; varietal; table grape; technological; transport; environmental; ecological-geographical.
Abstract: The system providing year-round population of table grapes occupies a prominent place grape supply problem, both within our country and in the country from abroad. The main elements, or subsystems of the developed system are different conveyors of table grapes. Period table grape consumption even in the south of our country does not exceed 2.5-3 months, and if rationally choose varieties and taking into account the biological characteristics place them in different climatic zones of the south of the country and micro zones within the farm, it is possible to ensure the consumption of grapes from mid-July to the beginning of November. Each region has its own guidelines for the relationship of sorts in conveyors have been developed, depending on the timing of maturation. Task significant extension of the delivery period for table grapes from a bush and its consumption can be solved by the creation of the ecological (geographical), high-quality, agronomic, technological and transport conveyors. In the case of year-round maintenance of the population of our country table grapes is very important grape supply problem from foreign countries, which can also be represented as the ecological and geographical intercontinental conveyor table grapes. Ecological and geographical intercontinental conveyor table grapes - an important component of the system to ensure year-round population of grapes based on different terms of ripening grapes when grown on different continents and transportirovki products. This subsystem allows the consumer to deliver grapes for 12 months a year (June to May).
Authors: Magomedov Magomedmirza Gamzaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Ramazanov Omar Magomedovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Mukailov Mukail Dzhabrailovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Dagestan State Agricultural University named after M.M. Dzhambulatov
180, M. Gadzhieva Str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367032, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , о This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

Makarov S.S., Zhirov V.M., Presnyakova O.P.Production of Fruit Wines from Fresh Raw Materials Prospects Evaluation in the Russian Federation

P. 8-11 Keyword: raw materials; technology; fruit wines; chemical composition of berries.
Abstract: In the Russian Federation the share of canteens fruit wines is only 5% of the total production of wine products. Moreover, the main part of them is produced from the recovered concentrated juices are often low quality. At the same time, there are quite large areas of plantings of fruit and berry raw materials, suitable for manufacture of this category of wines in most climatic zones of Russia. The article presents the analysis of the status and development prospects of raw materials for the production of fruit wines. Has been shown the regions of Russia, where are concentrated the main area of garden crops. The statistics on gross yield and yield of fruit raw materials during the last five years, as in the whole country and for individual regionswere analyzed. It is shown that the existing raw material base creates favorable prospects for expanding the production of high quality fruit wine from domestic fruits and berries. The modern scientific developments in the field of perfection of technology of production of fruit wines were reviewed. The data on chemical composition of fruits of strawberries, raspberries and black currants from the point of view of use as raw material in the production of fruit wineswere analyzed. The analysis showed that the berries have the potential of sugars and organic acids when a deficiency of nitrogenous compounds. Maximum content of total nitrogen is about 0.17 % (straw berries).These berries have a high concentration of vitamin C and they are rich in phenolic compounds including anthocyanins and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. The conclusion about the presence in the Russian Federation a sufficient resource base to expand production of high quality fruit wines possessing a high biological value was made.
Authors: Makarov Sergej Sergeevich, Postgraduate Student;
Zhirov Vladimir Mihajlovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor;
Presnjakova Ol'ga Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow state University of technologies and management named after K. G. Razumovskiy (PKU)
73, Zemlyanoy val Str., Moscow, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gontareva E.N., Ageeva N.M., Biryukova S.A.Research of the Regularity of Changes in the Amino Acid Composition in the Process of Vinification of Red GrapeVarieties

P. 12-15 Keyword: active dry yeast; amino acids; fermentation; vinification; red wine; must.
Abstract: A necessary condition for the competitiveness of wines is the constant improvement of the technology of wine products aimed at improving the quality and expanding the range in line with changing consumer preferences. The most efficient and cost-effective means of influencing the formation of quality indicators table wine serves as the management modes of vinification with the use of active dry yeast. From nitrogen metabolism depends on the construct components of cells and the formation of yeast in the finished product of aromatic substances, so study of the amino acid composition of fermenting grape juice and estimation of the effect of different modes of vinification of red grapes on the processes of assimilation and dissimilation of amino acids by yeasts is relevant and practically significant. The study of amino acid composition of the wort in the fermentation process and finished wine from grapes of Cabernet-Sauvignon was performed using the method of capillary electrophoresis "Capel 105 M" using active dry yeast races, TerranIots and Iots of Premium of different concentrations. If the wort amino acids affect the growth and reproduction of yeast, then the wine they affect the bouquet of the wine, and, consequently, on its organoleptic characteristics. In prototypes of fermenting grape juice was identified 10 amino acids. Analyzing obtained data on the content of total amino acids, we can say that regardless of the method of vinification the process of fermentation in the must of Cabernet- Sauvignon was their uniform assimilation of physiologically active cells of the wine yeast. Perhaps this is due to varietal characteristics of the grape, and genetic features of races of yeast, in particular, their adaptability to high concentrations of phenolic compounds. It should be noted that amino acids are absorbed by the yeast at different speeds. For example, the contents of Proline, glycine, lysine in wort during the fermentation process remained practically unchanged. However, the yeast intensively assimilyatsiya, first and foremost, histidine, valine and phenylalanine. Quantitative analysis of amino acids before and after fermentation showed that the yeast Iots Terroir in the fermentation process absorb more amino acids than Iots Premium 9000. Shows the trend in the concentration of amino acids during fermentation depending on the yeast strain and the method of vinification. The studies selected optimal modes of vinification (fermentation on skins) with the establishment of the optimal dosage of active dry yeast (Terroir Iots, Iots Premium 9000 - 18g / GL). On the basis of the obtained data was developed the technological instructions for the red table wine and dry red table wine. The results have practical and theoretical value, as knowing the contents of nitrogenous substances, can be adjusted to change the conditions of fermentation, and thereby to improve the quality of the obtained wines.
Authors: Gontareva Elena Nikolaevna, Candidate Of Technical Sciences;
Ageeva Natal'ja Mihajlovna, Doctor Of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Birjukova Svetlana Aleksandrovna
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Pochitskaya I.M., Roslik V.L.Determination of Organic Acids in Grape, Fruit and Berry Wines

P. 16-20 Keyword: wine products; the method of high performance liquid chromatography; organic acids.
Abstract: Content and ratio of organic acids is not only the characteristic of quality, but also the authenticity of wine-making products therefore application of the techniques allowing to establish it exact quantity is important. The purpose of the work consisted in development of a mass concentration determination technique of organic acids by method of a highly effective liquid chromatography. Scientific researches have been carried out at Republican Unitary Enterprise "Scientific-Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus". Researches were carried out on the highly effective liquid chromatograph (Hewlett Packard HP 1100) with the diode and matrix detector and system of data processing Chem Station. For separation of organic acids have been used the chromatographic column Zorbax SB-Aq, (3x250) mm, 5 microns. As a result of researches the following optimum parameters of a chromatography were set for determination of content of organic acids: flow rate of eluent - 0.3 cm3 / min., column thermostat temperature - (35±0.1) °C, detection / band width wavelength - 220 / 40, the volume of the entered test - 0.005 cm3. The best separation of acids has been reached using the solution of sodium dihydrogen phosphate concentration of 0.02 mol / dm3 in a mixture as eluent with acetonitrile in the ratio 99.5:0,5. Sample preparation wine consisted in dilution of the sample of 40 times, and filtration. Retention time of organic acids are defined: oxalic - 3.8; wine - 4.2; apple - 4.8; dairy - 5.1; acetic - 5.4; lemon - 6.3; amber - 6.9 min. On the basis of the obtained experimental data and the executed calculations have been established regulation of schedules calibration stability of each acid which values haven't exceeded 13 %. Measurement procedures for determination of organic acids content in wine-making products have been developed, for control of determined indicators the following metrological characteristics of a method (measure values of repeatability, reproducibility, correctness, accuracy and uncertainty) have been calculated.
Authors: Pochickaja Irina Mihajlovna, Candidate Of Agricultural Sciences,
Roslik Valentina Lolievna
Scientific and Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
29, Kozlova Str., Minsk, Belarus, 220037, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Petrov V.S., Ilina I.A., Talash A.I., Ilnitskaya E.T.Stability of Grapes Technical Varieties of the Main Phytopathogens

P. 21-25 Keyword: grape; origin; varieties; tolerance; phytopathogens.
Abstract: Efficient use of plant genetic resources, resistant varieties of grapes to biotic stressors can reduce the chemical load on the environment, improve the quality of food products and increase the productivity of plants and their lifetime. Objective: study and identification resistant to the main pathogens grape varieties for the agroecological conditions of moderate continental climate of southern Russia. Object of study: wine grape varieties of different ecological and geographical origin: Convar occidentalis Negr., Convar orientalis Negr., Convar pontica Negr., intraspecific hybrids of V. vinifera L. and interspecific hybrids. Research methods - traditional, in a field experiment, a comparative study of the varieties in the same agro-ecological conditions in the ampelographic collections AZESV&V NCRRIH&V, c. Anapa in the period from 2007 to 2016. Interspecific hybrids have the greatest resistance to widespread fungal pathogens in the unstable weather conditions of moderate continental climate of the south of Russia. Next, varieties follow in descending order of resistance to downy mildew: of the coast of Black Sea (Convar pontica Negr.), eastern (Convar orientalis Negr.) and intraspecific hybrids. There are the most damage varieties of Western European Eco-geographical group (Convar occidentalis Negr.) have the least resistant. In terms of resistance to oidium in descending order followed by: intraspecific hybrids, varieties of Black Sea Coast (Convar pontica Negr.), eastern (Convar orientalis Negr.) and western (Convar occidentalis Negr.) eco-geographical group. In terms of resistance to gray mold in descending order followed by the variety of the Black Sea Coast (Convar pontica Negr.), interspecific hybrids, western (Convar occidentalis Negr.) and the most susceptible varieties eastern group (Convar orientalis Negr.). Variety of western group (Convar occidentalis Negr.) have the greatest resistance to anthracnose and leaf form of phylloxera, interspecific hybrids - the smallest.
Authors: Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor;
Il'ina Irina Anatol'evna, Doctor Of Technical Sciences; Professor
Talash Anna Ivanovna, Candidate Of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor;
Il'nickaja Elena Tarasovna, Candidate Biological Of Sciences, Assistant professor
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ,



Malykh G.P., Kerimov V.S.Optimization of Macro- and Microfertilizers Doses — The Basisof Grapes High Productivity on Chestnut Soils

P. 26-31 Keyword: the grape seedlings; macro- and micronutrient fertilizers; soil; survival rate of seedlings; plantation's productivity.
Abstract: The paper presents the results tests of a new complex foreign fertilizer Green Go 8 16 24+10СаО that was not previously studied for the effect on the grape plants. Replenishment of soil with macro - and micronutrients Green Go was carried out at a dose of 7.5 kg per hectare in spring, when planted seedlings grow up on 5-10 sm, and for re-making before flowering vine in the dose of 7.5 kg. pur hectare. Here in the fourth variant the highest survival rate of seedlings was obtained - an average of three years to 98.6 % or higher by 13.1 % than in controls and is higher by 7.6 %, where only N15P12K12 was applied. When reducing or increasing the dose of fertilizer the effect greatly reduced in comparison with the fourth varient. Application of Green Go to the soil in a dose of 15 kg. per hectare allowed to increase the intensity of development of plants and their quality. Young grape plants are very sensitive to excess soil acidity and increased dose of fertilizer. The roots that appeared during the growing season developed weaker due to abundance of these elements. Water-soluble calcium contained in the fertilizer to 10 % by weight, significantly reduced the acidity of the soil in the 0-40 cm horizon. It was established that under the influence of fertilizers the strength of growth of bushes, leaf area, number of shoots and their thickness changed, the volume of the root system increased. Improving the nutrient status of the soil affected the yield. In the fourth year of vegetation productivity at best - the fourth variant was 72.01 kg / ha. It is 18.67 / ha higher than without fertilization. The most effective fertilizer on chestnut soils is Green Go 8 16 24+10СаО at a dose of 15 kg / ha.
Authors: Malih Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
All-Russian scientific research Institute of viticulture and winemaking Y. I. Potapenko
166, Pr. Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov region, Russia, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kerimov Waha Sultanovich, Postgraduate student
GUP Vinsovhoz "Soviet Russia"
155, Lenina Str., Rubizhne, Naur region, Chechen Republic, Russia, 366100, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Likhovskoy V.V., Studennikova N.L., Vasylyk I.A.Uvological Assessment of the Crimean Native Grapes Varieties

P. 32-35 Keyword: autochthonous varieties; cluster mechanical qualities; composition index; the average weight of a bunch; functionally pestillate flower type.
Abstract: The high quality of winemaking products allowed preserving many autochthonous grape varieties in the Sudak region of Crimea up to the present day. Since the majority of autochthonous grape varieties possess pestillate flowers, obtaining stable high yields is complicated. The purpose of the work is to investigate the possibility of obtaining persistently high yields from autochthonous varieties by additional pollination. The methodology used in the work involves uvologic evaluation of bunch components. The scheme of the experiment includes 9 autochthonous Crimean grape varieties, specifically: black berry grape varieties - Kefessia, Ekimkara, Krona-42, Gevatkara, with Cabernet-Sauvignon as control; for white berry grape varieties - Kapselskyi belyi, Solnechnodolinskyi, Kok pandas, Sary pandas, Soldaia, Shabash, with Rkatsiteli variety as control. By cluster weight (200 g) all the studied black berry grape varieties surpass control Cabernet-Sauvignon, while Gevat kara variety stands out with the average cluster weight of 560g. Among the autochthonous white berry varieties of special interest with regards to cluster weight are Shabash - 493 g, Soldaia - 486 g and Solnechnodolinskyi - 410.6 g. By this feature they surpass control variety Rkatsiteli. Kefessia variety by its composition index surpasses Cabernet-Sauvignon by 1.9 times, and Krona and Gevat kara - by 1.3 times. Among the studied white berry grape varieties Kapselskybelyi and Shabash showed the highest value for the above feature, 33.4 and 32.3 respectively. The pulp and juice content of a berry in a cluster depends on grape variety. Thus, for black berry varieties this rate is 83.8-85.5 %, slightly outperforming the control; while for white berry varieties it ranges from 85.1 to 91.6 %, reliably surpassing the standard Rkatsiteli variety. The conducted research has proven that additional pollination of varieties with functionally pestillate type of flowers allows increasing cluster mass, thus improving the potential of autochthonous grape varieties to produce higher yields.
Authors: Lihovskoj Vladimir Vladimirovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Studennikova Natal'ja Leonidovna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Vasylyk Irina Aleksandrovna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Russian National Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking "Magarach" RAS
31, Kirov Str., Yalta, Republic of the Crimea, Russia, 298600, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Roychev V.Inheritance of Quantitative Traits in Combinations of Crossing Between Seed and Seedless Grape Varieties

P. 36-42 Keyword: genotype-environment interactions; quantitative traits; hybrid combinations; inheritance; seeded and seedless vine cultivars.
Abstract: An investigation has been carried out into the genotype-environment interactions and the inheritance of commercially significant quantitative traits in hybrid combinations between seeded and seedless vine cultivars. It has been found that, in terms of the traits from the botanical description of cluster, the cross Super Early Bolgar x Russalka 1 possesses the highest selection value, followed by Armira x Russalka 1, and in terms of botanical description and chemical composition of berry - Hybrid 28-13 x Russalka. In a significant part of the traits of the studied hybrid combinations, the genetic stability of additive genes interacting with the environment varies to a different extent in regard to the genotype-environment parameter, but most often the variations are relatively close to the control. The selection of elite hybrid forms shall be more efficient, if conducted according to the traits period of flowering-berry softening (colouring), period of berry softening (colouring) - technological maturity, cluster weight, weight of 100 berries and acids. In the process of inheritance of most of these traits incomplete dominance prevails, mainly towards parent cultivars with low values. The expressivity of dominant genes interacting with the environment is significantly more intense in comparison with the one of additive genes. The values of trait variation coefficients indicate a predominantly destabilizing effect. Inheritance of traits in F1 progeny is specific in the separate hybrid combinations. The trait budding-flowering is characterized by practically the most valuable inheritance - over 20?% in the three crosses; while in the separate crosses - the traits phenophase flowering; softening (colouring) of berries; berry width; cluster shape index; budding - technological maturity; berry shape index; softening (colouring) of berries - technological maturity; berry length; weight of 100 berries; sugars and acids.
Authors: Roychev Venelin, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
Agricultural Univercity
12, Mendeleev blvd.,Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 4000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION. WINE AND LIFE
Results of the Exhibition «Prodexpo-2017»
IV The Black Sea Winemaking Forum will Take Place in Moscow