+7(499) 750-01-11 (ext. 68-98); +7(916) 969-61-36
foodprom@foodprom.ru

  

 



Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №2/2016

PROBLEMS OF THE INDUSTRY

V.S. Petrov, A.L. Bespalov. Adaptability of Grape V. Vinifera L. to Chronic Diseases in the Weather Conditions in Southern Russia

P. 4-7 Keyword: adaptability; grape; pathogens; varieties.
Abstract: Sustainable production of ecological grapes is based on the use of highly adaptive varieties resistant to pests. Purpose of study: To explore and identify genotypes resistant to chronic diseases for use in breeding and organic production of grapes. Different groups of ecological and geographical origin of V. Vinifera L. were used as a research facility: Convar orientalis Negr. (East-Asian), Convar occidentalis Negr. (Western-European), Convar pontica Negr. (Black Sea coast), intraspecific and interspecific hybrids. The works carried out in the vineyards of the All-Russian ampelographic collection in Anapa in unstable conditions moderate continental climate of the south of Russia. Traditional viticulture research methods were used. We studied the adaptive response of the grape varieties of the following chronic diseases: bacterial cancer, infectious chlorosis and grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease. Research has shown that in conditions of high insolation and deficiency rainfall the greatest resistance to bacterial canker, infectious chlorosis and grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease show varieties interspecific hybrids, followed in descending order followed by the variety: Convar orientalis Negr, interspecific hybrids, Convar pontica Negr, Convar occidentalis Negr. Intraspecific hybrids varieties showed the lowest degree of damage to bacterial canker assessing on a 5?level scale, an average of 1.5 points, infectious chlorosis and grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease - 0.1 points. The greatest resistance showed grape varieties: Belgradskiy ranniy, Caramol, Mechta, Muscat ranniy, Rostovskiy ranniy, Favorit, Shasla muscatnaia. Convar orientalis Negr. varieties were struck by bacterial canker by 1.85 points, infectious chlorosis 0.2 points, 0.1 points grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease. The greatest resistance in this group showed varieties: Vasarga belaia, Junga, Jeludioviy, Katta-Kurgan. Convar pontica Negr. varieties were damaged by bacterial cancer by an average of 2.0 points, infectious chlorosis - 0.25 grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease - 0.1 points. The greatest resistance showed grapes Alvarna, Mtsvane kakhetinskiy. Defeat Convar occidentalis Negr. was greatest: bacterial canker 2.35 points, infectious chlorosis - 0.3, grapevine fanleaf degeneration disease - 0.25 points. The highest degree of bacterial cancer disease was observed in varieties Aligote and Sauvignon.
Authors: Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Assistant Professor;
Bespalov Aleksandr Leonidovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy, Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

L.A. Oganesyants, L.N. Krikunova, E.V. Dubinina, G.A. Alieva.Distribution under Distillation of the Volatile Components of Cherry Pulp

P. 9-13 Keyword: cherry distillate; distillation; volatile components.
Abstract: The article is devoted to research of accumulation character of volatile components in the distillate obtained from the fermented mash cherry, in the process of fractional distillation. As a result, it sets the distribution pattern of major groups of volatile components, depending on the strength of the distillate. The major part of the cherry distillate volatile components are higher alcohols. Isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-propanol form the basis of the aromatic profile of cherry distillate. These components are accumulated at the beginning of distillation and the most concentration at the fortress distillate 82,0-64,0 %. It was found, that the maximum concentration of methanol is contain in fraction distillate with alcohol about 90.0-89.0%.It was investigated the dependence of accumulation of volatile components of fruit distillate to fractionation parameters, as one of the main factors, which influence on the quality of fruit spirits. In the experiment, it was investigated variants with selection overhead fraction from 0.5 to 2.5 % to volume of the fermented mash, and collecting the tail fraction when the fortress distillate was 55-50 %. Based on the results of the tasting were built sensory profiles for aroma and taste of the samples with using specific descriptors. Was studed the relationship between the characteristic of tones that present in aroma and flavor of cherry distillate and composition volatile components. It was established that the selection of the overhead fraction in volume of 1.0 to 1.5 % allows to obtain cherry distillates with optimal composition of volatiles components and ensuring its high quality.
Authors: Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Krikunova Ludmila Nikolaevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Dubinina Elena Vasilyevna, Candidate оf Technical Science;
Alieva Gelana Alilovna, Candidate оf Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the brewing, beverage and wine industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



A.L. Panasyuk, E.I. Kuzmina, L.I. Rozina, D.R. Letfullina. The Monomeric Forms of Anthocyanins from Grape Wines of Don Autochthonous Varieties

P. 14-17 Keyword: wine; grape; pigments; monomeric forms of anthocyanins; polyfenols.
Abstract: The grape berry possesses the unique biochemical structure, which is presented by a large number of compounds of various classes. The red grapes varieties are notable for presence of anthocyanins - the compounds causing coloring of grapes and wine produced of it. Nowadays we can find in the market the varietal red wines which are not corresponding to their denominations, produced with the use of unregistered raw materials containing natural dye-stuffs, which can be hardly identified. The purpose of the research was to study the structure of anthocyanins monomeric forms of the Don autochtonous grapes varieties, and to define their ratios depending on a grapes variety for the development of the high-quality wines identification criteria. As the object of researches the Krasnostop Zolotovsky and Tsimlyansk Black autochtonous grapes varieties which are cultivated in the Rostov region were chosen. The qualitative structure of the anthocyanins monomeric forms and their ratio were determined by the method of a highly effective liquid chromatography with diode and matrix detecting on the liquid chromatograph with the diode and matrix detector "Adilent Technologies 1200" ("Adilent", USA). The 8 monomeric forms of anthocyanins have been identified: delphinidin-3?glucoside, cyanidin-3?glucoside, petunidin-3?glucoside, peonidin-3?glucoside, malvidin-3?glucoside (non-acylated) and acylated forms: malvidin 3 (6ўў-acetyl) -glucoside, peonidin 3 (6ўў-cumaril) -glucoside, malvidin 3 (6ўў-cumaril) -glucoside. The most part of studied grapes varieties anthocyanins consist of non-acylated anthocyanins containing three hydroxyl groups (malvidin-3?glucoside, delphinidin-3?glucoside и petunidin-3?glucoside). The anthocyanins which contain two hydroxyl groups are presented with peonidin-3- and cyanidin-3?glucosides. The findings of investigations confirm the conclusion that at an identical qualitative structure of the anthocyianins monomeric forms, their quantitative ratios sometimes considerably differ, depending on a grapes variety.
Authors: Panasyuk Alexandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Rozina Larisa Ilinichna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Letfullina Dilyara Ramilevna, Postgraduate
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the brewing, beverage and wine industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



A.A. Shirshova, T.I. Guguchkina, T.P. Pavlyukova, V.S. Petrov, A.V. Prakh. Effect of Planting Scheme on the Biochemical Composition of White Table Wine Materials from Variety Rhine Riesling

P. 18-23 Keyword: chemical composition; wine materials; organoleptic evaluation; planting scheme.
Abstract: The great importance in viticulture in terms of quality and quantity of the harvest is of the order of placement of bushes and finding their better nutrition area. Objective: To study the effect of different planting schemes (2.5x1, 2.5x1.5, 2.5x2, 3x1, 3x1.5, 3x2, 3.5x1, 3.5x1.5, 3.5x2) grape varieties Riesling quality indicators wine. The grapes were grown in the in Anapa Zone Experimental Station (Krasnodar region), then from it wine materials were prepared according to the classical technology white wines in the plant miniwinemaking. Determination of the chemical composition of the wine carried out in accordance with accepted in winemaking techniques using high-performance gas-liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, infrared, atomic absorption spectrometry and others. All experienced wine materials by physical and chemical indicators meet the requirements of GOST 32030-2013 "Table wines and table winestocks. General specifications". The lowest concentration and the total accumulation of metal cations defined in wine materials from planting schemes 2.5x1, 2.5x1.5 and 3x2. The test samples of wine grapes with various planting schemes, 13 aminoacids found. Of the essential amino acids were found 6: b-Phenylalanine, leucine, methionine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, their number varied from 22 to 54 mg/dm3. Most of all essential aminoacids accumulate in the wine materials from the grapes from planting scheme 3.5x1, less - 3x1.5. The highest mass concentration of essential amino acids (tyrosine, arginine, histidine, proline, serine, a-alanine, glycine) was observed in grape wine materials schemes with 3x2 and landing 3.5x1.5 - 304-358 mg/dm3. The study found differences in the biochemical composition of white table wine from grape varieties Riesling, vintage 2014, depending on the area of the power plant. By organoleptic characteristics and chemical indicators stood out wine samples obtained from grape planting schemes 3x1.5, 3x2, 3.5x1.
Authors: Shirshova Anastasija Aleksandrovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Guguchkina Tatjana Ivanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor;
Pavljukova Tatjana Pavlovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science, Assistant Professor;
Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Assistant Professor;
Prah Anton Vladimirovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy, Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

E.A. Egorov, N.M. Ageeva, T.I. Guguchkina, M.I. Pankin.Assortments of Local Grape Selection for the Production of Top-Quality Wines

P. 25-30 Keyword: winemakings material; the high-quality wines; clones; protoklony; selection; the type of grapes.
Abstract: For an improvement in the quality of wines and creation of exclusive wine-making production it is expedient to use types of grapes of local selection, including clones and protoklony. In this case the origin of raw material, the tying of quality for the specific place of the cultivation of raw material and production of finished product is attached in the domestic legislation of the countries and in the international documents. In connection with this one of the priorities of the development of wine making appears technological sortoizuchenie of local types, clones and protoklonov for the purpose of the improvement of assortment for the production of the faults of the highest category of quality, first of all - for the production of the faults of geographical indications and with the designation of the place of origin. In Russia for expanding the production of high-quality faults are expedient the regional specialization of wine making taking into account the assortment of grapes, the creation of the scientifically substantiated classification of wine-making production taking into account differences in the quality composition of raw material, the observance of the reglamentirovannykh conditions of the production of high-quality faults - the quality composition, oriented to the types of local selection, and the strictly defined physical chemistry parameters of the raw material, produced under the conditions of concrete locality; the technology of production, which is been based on the principles of classical wine making; the guarantee of protection of designations from the possible falsification, the creation of banks and data bases, the development of bioinformation tekhnologiy. The conducted investigations showed that the red types of grapes of selection SKZNII it was grey and AZOS twisting they possess the sufficiently high technological reserve of the phenol connections, including of anthocyan, they are characterized by the high values of antioxidant activity, by stably high organoleptic estimations and they do not be inferior according to these indices to known European types. The white types of grapes are clones and protoklonami Chardon, Sovinon Blanc, Aligote. Is established the high quality of white table winemakings material from these clones and protoklonov, grown both in the inculcated, and kornesobstvennoy culture. To the retention of quality special features and merits of the local types of grapes contribute the innovation technologies of the production of faults, including with the use of contemporary achievements of biotechnology.
Authors: Egorov Evgeniy Alekseevich, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of RAS;
Ageeva Natalya Mihaylovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Guguchkina Tatyana Ivanovna,Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Pankin Mihail Ivanovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Assistant professor
Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of Viticulture and Winemaking
36, Pionerskiy Pr., Anapa, Russia, 353456, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



M.N. Fisun, E.M. Egorova, O.S. Yakushenko, A.Kh. Pazov, A.T. Erkenov.Red Wine Grapes on the Alluvial-Meadow Soils of Central Caucasus

P. 32-35 Keyword: vineyards; quality of juice; red technical grades; productivity.
Abstract: In developing conditions of land tenure of the Central Ciscaucasia for expansion of the areas under vineyards the major ground resource are flat territories in a zone between actually foothills and steppe, with alljuvialno-meadow type of a soil cover. In Concern "ZET-ALKO" plantings on the area of 931 hectares 56 grades, mainly European selection from which number represent special interest малоизученные in region red technical grades are grown up: Antshelota, Blaufrankish, Gurzufsky, Danko and Zweigelt. Proceeding from indicators of force of growth, potential efficiency on years of supervision it is possible to conclude, that studied grades of red grades of grapes new to region possess high adaptability to the conditions developing in region. As a result of long term of supervision over the named grades which cultivation is conducted on alljuvialno-meadow soils, in comparison with a widespread grade of Cabernet Sovinion cultivated in region from above 70 years and Мerlot (it is grown up with 60-h years of the last century) it is established, that on productivity and technological properties earlier grades not cultivated in region Gurzufsky, Danko and Zweigelt essentially surpass traditionally cultivated. It is noticed, that the grade Gurzufsky will bark high degree of uniformity of productivity of bushes: the factor of a variation at it almost twice is less, than at a standard grade of Cabernet Sovinion. The Same grade, and also Zweigelt are allocated with high technological quality of juice: its sugar content and the maintenance of phenolic connections. On quality of a crop grades Аntshelota andBlaufrankish are allocated also. The crop of all new grades, except for grade Danko, can be used for development of original branded red wines.
Authors: Fisun Mihail Nikolaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Egorova Elena Mihajlovna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Jakushenko Ol'ga Semenovna, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor
Kabardino-Balkarian state Agrarian University of V.M. Kokova,
1v, Lenina St., Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia, 360030, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Pazov Arsen Hamidbievich,
Jerkenov Astemir Tembulatovich Concern "ZET-Alko"
1, Chernaya Rechka, Urvanskij region, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia, 361035, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



R.E. Kazakhmedov, A.Kh. Agakhanov, A.T. Shikhsefiev. New Table Varieties of Dagestani Experimental Station of Russia

P. 36-38 Keyword: hybrid forms; winter hardiness; new varieties; breeding; transportability; disease resistance and root phylloxera.
Abstract: In the structure of the modern grape plantations in the Republic of Dagestan presented the assortment of varieties for table, technical and universal directions of use. Weighting of grades is established by years of practice and is 70 % technical, 20 % off dining and 10 % universal varieties. Provides Botanical, agrobiological and economic-technological characteristics of new table grape varieties Eldar and Leckie in the environmental conditions of Dagestan. Varieties Eldar (application number 69327/8354646) and Leckie (application number 69328/8354647) table direction. Served on Hearthospital of the Russian Federation in 2015. The main advantages new varieties: Eldar is a large cylindrical or cylindro-conical loose bunch, oblong - oval large berry with a purple hue, high portability; resistance to major diseases, tolerance to the root phylloxera; Leckie is a large cylinder-conical bunch of loose, large yellowish-green, barrel-fleshy berry; very high portability; resistance to major diseases, tolerance to the root form of the phylloxera.
Authors: Kazahmedov Ramidin Jefendievich, Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Agahanov Albert Halidovich, Сandidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Shihsefiev Artur Tazhutdinovich
Dagestan breeding research station of viticulture and horticulture
9, Vavilova Str., Derbent, Republic Dagestan, 368601, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



A.M. Alekperov, Kh.K. Fataliev. Characteristics of Introduced Grape Varieties in Azerbaijan

P. 40-42 Keyword: grapes; output of wort; combs; clusters; introduction; crop yields; phenolics; berries
Abstract: The article noted the impact of the introduction and improvement of varietal qualities of local varieties of grapes to improve regionalized assortment of grapes. It was also noted that among the imported varieties is dominated by its specific weight French varieties, which made almost all new plantings in the last ten years period (some of these varieties are not cultivated or studied). It is also noted that, at the present time there is insufficient data on their uvologic and technological features in the local context, and it is very important for the wine industry of Azerbaijan. Referring to the above stated objective of the study posed a comparative evaluation uvologic and technological features introduced French varieties grown in local conditions. Also studied the texture of the grapes, the chemical composition of the wort and ridges introduced grape varieties Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Semillon. Conducted research to determine the average weight of the bunch, plenty of berries, crests, peel, seed, solid, pulp and juice, the number of fruits and seeds in clusters. On the basis of these data, comparing the structure, composition and structure of the studied varieties of grapes. The results of the study of the texture of grapes introduced in Azerbaijan French Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Semillon. Also studied the chemical composition of the wort and the crests of the above varieties. The study used a crop grown in Ganja-Kazakh region. The study used a crop grown in Ganja Caucasus region. It was found that the yield in the first place is the variety Merlot (11.2 m/m), slightly below that of Cabernet Sauvignon (8.0 m/ha) and the lowest in Chardonnay (7.1 m/ha). The relatively high yield of wort observed in Cabernet Sauvignon (75.2 %), the average appeared Merlot (74.5 %) and low Chardonnay (71.0 %). The sugar content of the ridges was not more than 10 g/kg and ash 5-6 % of its total dry weight. They did not raise rich in phenolic substances and additives for oil and pulp, but instead reduced the acidity of wine.
Authors: Alekperov Alekper Malikovich;
Fataliev Khasil Kamaleddinovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Azerbaijan State Agrarian University
262, Atatyurka Pr., Ganja, Azerbaijan, AZ 2000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



A.A. Gribkova. Productivity Grape Bushes Variety Bianca in Ecological Conditions of Republic Moldova

P. 43-46 Keyword: grape; Bianka; steepness; fruiting; soil; harvest; exposition.
Abstract: In the Republic of Moldova (RM) adopted the State Program of reconstruction and development of vine and wine-making, according to which area should be equal to 100 thousand ha, but grape production 1 mln t. The solution to this problem is possible by the introduction of new high-yield varieties of grapes, more efficient use of the natural potential of the territory, the development of new high-quality brands of wines, including wines with denomination of origin. Bianka - a new high-tech wine grape variety. Environmental characteristics of the territory of the regions and their impact on productivity Bianca was studied in: relief, soil, climate. Relief has following parameters: 1-8° steepness, exposure NE, SW and W, the height above sea level 295-335 m. Soil gray forest loam and heavy loam with lightly. Rootstock R-R 101-14. planting schemes 2.75-1.35 and 2.75-1.50 m. The shape of the bushes - bilateral horizontal cordon with a vertical gain of conduct, tapestry - with 3 tiers of wires. Lots are located in the JV "Calarasi-Divin" SC, Calarasi district, the central region of viticulture of RM. Between loading of bush with sprigs and productivity was observed a direct correlation. In 2014, on the slope SW exposure yield was 6.74 - the upper part of the slope (H), 5.85 - the middle part of the slope (M) and 6.56 - the lower part of the slope (L) kg/bush, the mass concentration of sugars 213-199 and titratable acids - 10.2-10.8 g/dm3. In 2015, the yield was 9.75 (H), 8.91 (M) and 8.19 (L) kg?/?bush, the mass concentration of sugars 222-249 g/dm3 and titratable acids 9.2-12.6 g/dm3. Bianka is a grape belongs to the group of high-tech varieties with using special agronomic techniques (green operation, chasing) which facilitate care for the vines and reduce material costs.
Authors: Gribkova Anna Anatolievna, Postgraduate student
Scientific practic institute of horticulture and food technologies
59, Vierul St., Codru, Moldova, MD2011, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.