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Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №1/2016

INDUSTRY PROBLEMS

Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L. The State of Grapes and Wine World Market in 2014–2015 (Materials OIV)

P. 4-6 Keyword: grapes; wine consumption and production; grape and wine market; dried grapes; exports and imports of wine.
Abstract: Given data on the state of the world market of grapes and wine. In 2014, the area under the vineyards was 7573 thousand Ha. At the same time Spain, China, France, Italy and Turkey have more than 50 % of the total area. The total grape production reached 736.7 million cwt. The largest volume of production recorded in China (111 million cwt), followed by the USA, France and Italy (at 69-70 million cwt). Fresh grapes for sale received 248 million cwt, including China - 84.7 million cwt, India - 22, Turkey - 19, Iran - 13.6 million cwt. Dried grapes produced 13 million cwt, including Turkey - 4.3 thousand cwt, USA - 3.2, Iran - 1.6 thousand cwt. In 2015, the wine was produced according to preliminary estimates of at least 275.7 million hectoliters, which is higher than 2014 by 2 %. Increased production of wine in Italy (48.9 million hl), France (47.4) and Spain (36.6 million hl). Outside the EU, the largest volume of wine production in 2015 was recorded in the United States (22.1 million hl), Argentina (13.4), Chile (12.9), Australia (12.0 million hl). With regard to the consumption of wine, then, according to preliminary data, this index in 2015 is within 235,7-248,8 million hl. The five largest exporters, which include Spain, Italy, France, Chile and Australia account for about 70 % of the total volume of exported wine. The main importers - Germany (15.2 million hl), the UK (13.4), the US (10.7), France (6.5), Russia (4.7) and China (4.6 million hl).
Authors: Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Academician of RAS, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Panasyuk Alexandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Nonalcoholic and Wine Industry,
7, Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINWEMAKING

Ismailov Kh. S., Iskenderov I.V., Yusifova G.Dj. Production Technology of White Dessert Semi-Sweet Wines in Azerbaijan

P. 8-11 Keyword: wine; wine material; pulp; treatment; alcohol; wort; enzyme preparation.
Abstract: One of the most promising ways of winemaking development in Azerbaijan - improving the production technology of sweet and semi-sweet wines. These wines are very popular and attractive because of their harmonious, soft, fresh aroma and pleasant taste, low alcohol content and sugar. Improving the quality of the manufactured products require an intensification of processing of raw materials on the basis of the modern equipment and the use of modern technological schemes of preparation of wines. The introduction of modern technology, in turn, highlights the need to study the biochemical processes that occur during the processing of grapes and wine processing. To this end, improved technology for producing white dessert semisweet wines of Rkatsiteli and Bayan-Shirey. To establish the optimal chemical composition of high-quality white dessert wines selected and analyzed production batches dessert sweet wines of Azerbaijan. Wine materials for white dessert wines prepared according to 3 schemes: blended and 2?intelligence expert (first scheme involves separating and short-term heating of pulp and 40… 60 ° C, its insistence for 24, 36 and 48 hours with simultaneous application of enzyme preparations, pressing the mash, mash, and fortification, the removal of a thick sediment; second scheme involves crushing the mash, the separation and fermentation of dry mash-drift, entering into fermented wine stock enzyme preparations and mixing it with dripped-off the pulp, and then the contact of wine materials and pulp for 48 h pressing and pre-fortification of wine materials. In experiments obtained fermented wine material injected into it the enzyme preparation, provided the subsequent contact with the wine material dripped-off the pulp, pressed pulp and up-fortified wine stock. The experimental samples were compared with the classical scheme of blending. It is found that a modified circuit provides a wine materials with a high content of the extract components and the kinematic viscosity at higher tasting evaluation on 0.1-0.16 control points. It shows promising use of this scheme along with the infusion of must on pulp. Other factors examined (pre-wort clarification after the infusion to the pulp before fermentation, processing variety-mix of grapes) did not have a positive impact on the quality of the wine.
Authors: Ismailov Khanlar Salekh Ogly;
Iskanderov Ibragim Veli Ogly;
Yusifova Gyulnara Djabrail Kyzy
Azerbaijan Technological University
103, Pr. Sh. I. Khatai, Ganja, AZ 2011, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Alekperov A.M., Geydarov E.E., Fataliev Kh.K.Advanced Setting for Obtaining Dining Wine Materials

P. 12-14 Keyword: wine; wine material; wine processing; setting.
Abstract: Viticulture and winemaking in Azerbaijan - the ancient branch of production, extensive development which began in the XX century. An important role in the development of wine and winemaking industry in the country played Prince Golitsyn and Gorchakov of Russia and Forer brothers and Hummel from Germany. The biggest development of the industry accounted for 80s of the last century. While in Azerbaijan collected more than 2 million tons of grapes, the bulk of which is directed to the production of wine and brandy. The main share of the produced while wine accounted for fortified wines. Currently an increase of production of table wines is the priority tasks. The analysis of the various systems for the production of wine, defined by their excellence and shortcomings. A new installation, eliminating the shortcomings analyzed devices. It sets out the nature and the principle of the unit. Fixed design cylindrical vessel produces both white and red wine materials. The cylindrical tank is equipped with valves and pipes for discharging wort for production of white wine materials. Inside the top of the tank for discharging pipe connected to spray wort (through a pump) for the production of red wine materials. Located at the bottom of the reservoir and the annular lip mounted on its end a conical filter configuration eliminates the need for turning the reservoir, thus simplifying the operation and increasing the productivity of the plant.
Authors: Alekperov Alekper Malikovich, Dissertator;
Geydarov Elnur Elmanovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Fataliev Khasil Kamaleddinovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Azerbaijan State Agrarian University
262, Pr. Atatyurka, Ganja, Azerbaijan, AZ 2000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Egorov E.A., Petrov V.S., Nenko N.I., Yurchenko E.G., Talash A.I., Pankin M.I.Laying of Vineyards by Own-Rooted Planting Material

P. 15-20 Keyword: grape; own-rooted culture; soil; varieties; technology; phylloxera.
Abstract: To date, the Russian demand for planting stock has increased by 2.7 times to 19 million. pcs. per year. Significantly increased costs of its imports. Current is increasing the volume of its own production of high quality planting material of grapes instead of imports. The challenge for the modern Russian nursery extremely difficult, but real. The most effective and realistic way to implement tasks on active expansion of the area of plantations in the domestic shortage of planting material and nursery limited infrastructure, is the formation of non-grafted vineyards planting. Non-grafted vines come into fruition earlier as compared to the grafted, berries accumulate more sugar, and bushes are damaged less bacterial and viral diseases, easier to recover from damage by frost. Growing non-grafted planting material is technologically simpler, cheaper and does not require the creation of new nursery capacities. Extensive experimental studies and extensive practical experience strongly suggest the possibility of successfully growing vines in the own-rooted culture in a mass infection of phylloxera. The positive results achieved by the system and timely application of the complex organizational and management activities, breeding and genetic advances and science-based agricultural practices, including: differentiated use of different types of soils, mostly sandy and sandy, heavy; Certified quality seedlings; varieties resistant to pathogens; compliance with spatial and temporal isolation of plantations; ensuring a balanced growth processes of plant nutrients and moisture; use of biologically active substances activated the immune system. Plant resistance to pathogens and phylloxera increase, the productive life of the plantations increase, the growth processes are improved, fruiting and quality of grapes increase subject to technical regulations.
Authors: Egorov Evgeniy Alekseevich, corresponding member of RAS, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor;
Petrov Valeriy Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor;
Nenko Nataliya Ivanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Yurchenko Evgeniya Georgievna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor;
Talash Anna Ivanovna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Pankin Mihail Ivanovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor
Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of Viticulture and Winemaking
36, Pionerskiy Pr., Anapa, Russia, 353456, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Malykh G.P., Magomadov A.S., Kudryashova A.G., Yakovteva O.L.Increasing the Efficiency of NPK Soils in the Vineyard when Introducing Boron Fertilizer

P. 21-25 Keyword: sandy soils; root fertilizing; fertilizer; yield; net income.
Abstract: We found out the effect fromdifierent doses and timing of application of boron fertilizer on the growth and development of plants on the soils of the Terek-Kuma Sands. Studies have shown that the sandy soil of the experimental plot has a small content of major nutrients except of potassium. The content of boron in sandy soils in the soil profile of the experimental plot varies in large limits and describes this soil as not enough provided by this element especially by water-soluble boron. The first time we developed method of root feeding grapes, allowing to control the chemical processes of plant uptake of NPK by providing optimum amount of boron in the soil in available form for plants, made in a certain phase of development of plants, that increase the efficiency of use of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers. It was established that boron improves the movement of growth substances and ascorbic acid from the leaves to the fruiting bodies. It cannot be replaced by other nutrients. It was found out that plants need boron during the whole vegetation period. Boron plays an important role in cell division and protein synthesis, it is a necessary component of cell membranes. The use of boric acid as a fertilizer has increased the number of bud on grape plants, stimulated the formation of new growing points of stems and roots, increased the number of shoots, improved growth, increased the sugar content of grapes and the taste of the berries, which was the result of a more active assimilation of boron. We determined the optimal dose of boron on sandy soils and the comparative agro-ecological and economic evaluation of its application. The use of boric fertilizers has allowed to increase the sugar content, acidity, tasting score of grapes. The greatest effect from application of boric fertilizers is achieved by adding them in the early phase of the growing season at a dose of 3 kg/ha with N90P90K90. Net income obtained by introducing boric acid in a dose of 3 kg/ha with N90P90K90 in the early phase of SAP flow was 24.850 rubles more than in the control variant.
Authors: Malyh Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Magomadov Andi Sultanovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Kudryashovà Anna Gennadievna, Postgraduate;
Yakovleva Olga Leonidovna, Postgraduate
All-Russian Research Institute for Viticulture and Winemaking named after Ya. I. Potapenko,
166, Pr. Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov region, Russia, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kazakhmedov R.E., Agakhanov A.Kh., Shikhsefiev A.T.Promising Varieties of Grapes for Own-Rooted Culture in Dagestan

P. 26-29 Keyword: grapes; introduced varieties; quality of the crop; root-own culture; productivity; resistance to phylloxera root.
Abstract: The article presents the results of a multi-year study of agrobiological features introduced varieties of grapes in the conditions of Southern Dagestan. Obtained promising varieties for cultivation in own-rooted culture. Much work on the study of introduced, conducted in Dagestan varieties breeding experimental station of vegetable growing and viticulture. Study for 1992-2012 years, more than 150 varieties of Moldovan, Hungarian, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine "Magarach" selection allowed to allocate more than 20 promising to neukryvnoy zone of Dagestan varieties with high yield and quality of the products and that is very important to have stability winter conditions and the root form of phylloxera, as well as to major diseases of grapes. Dagestan Breeding Experimental Station of Viticulture and Horticulture conducts fruitful work for the removal of highly adaptive grapes of different areas of use and ripening. In recent years Gossortoispytanie transferred to high-yield varieties of grapes: Seedless - Sultana Derbent (2004), early ripening with muscat aroma - Amber Dagestan (2009), Universal - Bulatovsky (2013), table appointments - Dawn of Derbent (2015) Let us note also, that the station is working on the problem of preservation of own-rooted culture of classical grape varieties, and, in this context, the development of ways to improve the physiological resistance to the grape phylloxera and allocation adapted to the conditions of the region tolerant to the root form of phylloxera varieties for cultivation in their own-rooted culture. This is particularly important at the present time. With a large variety and offer new varieties and in terms of increasing the number of limiting factors of cultivation of grapes (a common frequency of extreme winter temperatures, continuous phylloxera infestation, inadequate water supply, a sharp change of climatic conditions during the growing season, etc.), the importance of the question of the choice assortment at establishment of new vineyards increased even more.
Authors: Kazahmedov Ramidin Jefendievich, Doctor of Biological Sciences;
Agahanov Albert Halidovich, Ñandidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Shihsefiev Artur Tazhutdinovich
Dagestan breeding research station of viticulture and horticulture
9, Vavilova Str., Derbent, Republic Dagestan, 368601, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sundyreva M.A., Nenko N.I., Yakuba Yu. F., Petrov V.S., Ushakova Ya.V.Laws of Indicators Change of Resistant Varieties of Grape Rootstock Combinations to Summer Period Stress Factors

P. 30-36 Keyword: abiotic stress; adaptation; grapes; variety-rootstock combinations; physiological and biochemical changes.
Abstract: Most modern vineyards due to phylloxera ubiquitous in the wine-growing regions of the world are grown in the graft culture. The wine-growing regions of the Russian Federation regularly repeated extremely cold winters and hot, dry summers. It determines the need to identify the physiological and biochemical patterns of adaptive responses to abiotic stress of different grape species Vitis L., united in a single variety-rootstock complex. Field observations and sampling for laboratory tests carried out in the vineyards of "Kuban-Vino" Starotitarovskaya village of Krasnodar Territory. Vines grafted onto rootstocks Paulsen and Ruggeri showed the greatest resistance to the loss of water and heat. Own-rooted plants showed the lowest resistance. Regulation of plant resistance to water loss caused by varying environmental conditions throughout the growing season, and to a lesser extent related to the change in environmental conditions in the individual phenological stages. In less-resistant variety-rootstock combinations such dependence is manifested with the content of proline and ascorbic acid, which may indicate the development of state of stress plants. More-resistant variety-rootstock combinations are characterized by involving of sucrose content in the regulation of bound water. Stability of membranes at exposure to high temperature is dependent on the accumulation of metabolites with antioxidant activity. The increase in proline content in the leaves in the second half of vegetation describes its participation in the process of stabilizing the membrane at higher stress conditions.
Authors: Sundyreva Marija Andreevna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences;
Nenko Natalija Ivanovna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Jakuba Jurij Fedorovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent;
Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
Ushakova Jana Vladimirovna
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Salimov V.S., Shukyurov A.S., Asadullaev R.A.Biotypes and Clones Study of Some Sultanas Varieties of Seedless Grapes of Azerbaijan

P. 37-43 Keyword: ampelographic collection; bunch; the initial variety; local variety; selection; seedless variety; grape sort; ecological and geographical origin; berry.
Abstract: In the course of research on clonal selection was determined by the basic criteria of quantity and quality, to realize the potential of plants in populations of seedless grapes in their economically valuable and important breeding grounds. Determines the degree of correlation between these plants. We set the parameters directly influencing the formation of yield and quality of grapes. Based on the results of the 5 populations were identified 10 high-yielding, high-quality, relatively resistant to diseases and pests clones. The article is devoted to biological, morphological, economic and technological features of seedless grape varieties and clones 27 / 11 and 30 / 03 (Ar oval sultanas) number 3-22 / 14 and number 4-5 / 28 (Chahrayi sultanas), number 4-18 / 17 and number 3-2 / 12 (Ag sultanas), 5 / 2-14 and 9 / 2-14 (Kara sultanas), 6 / 1-02 and 18 / 1-02 (Sultani sultanas) obtained by clonal selection and autonomic variability of individuals. The article contains data of statistical and mathematical studies (U criteria, t and x2), conducted in order to establish the degree of difference between varieties and clones for certain indicators. When evaluating new forms of clonal found that the number, weight, size bunches yield per vine and per hectare they are largely superior to conventional control varieties of bushes. So, if derived clones bush yields varied from 5.8-10.7 kg, the conventional bushes of the same grape varieties, this figure amounted to 2.4-7.0 kg. In clonal plants, as compared to their parent forms observed yield increase 82.3-189.0 % and the difference between them on the indicator has been identified as a significant (p<0,001 for U-criterion). The studies carried out the quality of the analysis (in x2?criteria) in the number of developing the varieties and clones yielding (1.2 and 3 clusters) and lean shoots and found that the difference between them on this indicator is on a different level of reliability (p>0.05; p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001).
Authors: Salimov Vugar Suleyman Ogly, Candidate of Agricultural Science, Docent;
Shukyurov Azer Salman Ogly;
Asadullaev Rauf Aydyn Ogly, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Azerbaijan Scientific-Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking
Mehdiabad, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ 0118, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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