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Food processing Industry №8/2022

The results of the work of Food and Processing industry Enterprises of Russia


Bykova S. T., Kalinina T. G.Inulin and oligofructose - promising ingredients for enriching functional baby foods

P. 8-11 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.001

Key words
inulin, oligofructose, diet therapy, functional ingredients, dietary fiber, phenylketonuria

Prebiotics, inulin and oligofructose (fructooligosaccharides - FOS), are a valuable source of dietary fiber that stimulate the growth of active beneficial bacteria in the human intestinal tract. The main raw materials for producing inulin are chicory (countries of western Europe; Beneo Orafti, Cosucra (Belgium), Sensun (Holland) and girasol (China). The total production of inulin currently amounts to more than one hundred thousand tons per year. The mass fraction of inulin in chicory and girasol is, on average, 12-18%. Inulin and oligofructose are added to food products to improve nutritional and functional properties. Nutritional properties are reduced calorie content of the product, prebiotic effect, fortification of the product with dietary fibers, reduced sugar content, improved digestibility of calcium. Functional properties are solubility, restriction of sweetness, texture effect, replacement of glucose syrup. Currently, girasol and chicory are also grown in Russia. At the same time, girasol is considered a more promising raw material than chicory due to the simplicity of agricultural equipment and the possibility of processing in spring, after wintering in the ground. In Russia, there is practically no industrial production of inulin and oligofructose, but active work is underway to create technologies for their production. Imported inulin and oligofructose are used in the production of dairy products, juice, chocolate, pasta, extrusion cereals and baby food. In the All-Russian Research Institute of Starch and the Processing of Starch-containing Raw Materials, research is carried out on the creation of technologies for the production of inulin, oligofructose, fructose syrups and fructose from girasol and chicory, using ultrafiltration, chromatography, co-precipitation, crystallization methods. The studies made it possible to develop a universal technology for processing inulin-containing raw materials (chicory and girasol) into inulin in the form of concentrate (85%) or powder (95%), as well as oligofructose and fructose syrup. The article presents the main directions of research of foreign and domestic scientists on the use of FOS for the preparation of functional products used in nutrition, for the treatment of various diseases, including genetic ones, such as phenylketonuria.

1. Rahim M. A., Said F., Khalid V., Hussein M., Anjum F. M. Functional and nutraceutical properties of fructooligosaccharide derivatives: a review. International Journal of Nutritional Properties. 2021;24(1):1588-1602. DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2021.1986520
2. Danilov K. P. Jerusalem artichoke. Monograph. Cheboksary: Novoe vremya, 2013. 202 p. (In Russ.)
3. Shaafsma G., Slavin Yu. L. The value of inulinfructans in the human diet. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. 2015;14(1):37-47. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12119
4. Filatov S. L., Mihajlichenko M. S. Natural Jerusalem artichoke syrups with prebiotic properties. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2021;(11):15-21 (In Russ.).
5. Gulyuk N. G., Lukin N. D., Puchkova T. S., Pihalo D. M. Processing of inulin-containing raw materials for inulin and its derivatives. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK = Achievements of science and technology of the agro-industrial complex. 2017;31(8):76-79 (In Russ.).
6. Bud'ko D. Inulin market: Europe leads the world in production. Russia counts lost opportunities. Biznes pischevyh ingredientov = Food ingredients business. 2019;(2):46-47 (In Russ.).
7. Kajshev V. G., Lukin N. D., Seregin S. N. Organization of inulin production in Russia: necessary resources and organizational and economic mechanism for the implementation of the priority project. Ekonomika sel'skohozyajstvennyh i pererabatyvayuschih predpriyatij = Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises. 2018;(6):2-8 (In Russ.).
8. Puchkova T. S., Pihalo D. M., Karaseva O. M. On the universal technology for processing Jerusalem artichoke and chicory for inulin. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2019;2(2):30-43 (In Russ.).
9. Fornelli A. R., Bandiera N. S., Costa M. R., de Souza C. HB., Sivieri K., Aragon-Alegro L. C. The effect of inulin and oligofructosan physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of symbiotic milk drinks. Ciencias agrarias. 2015;35(6):3099-3111. DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359.2014b35n6p3099
10. Chand P., Komar D., Singh K., Deshwal G. K., Rao S. R., Toma S. K., Sharma S. H. Low-calorie synthetic yogurt from an indigenous probiotic culture and a combination of insulin and oligofructose: Improved organoleptic, rheological and textural characteristics. Journal of Food Industry and Conservation. 2021;45(4):e15322. DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.15322
11. Juan B., Zamora A., Quintana F., Gumis B., Trujillo A. H. The effect of inulin supplement to the sensory properties of fresh cheese with a reduced fat content. International journal technology of milk and dairy products. 2013;66(4):478-483. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0307.12057
12. Zelinskaya D., Marcinyak-Lukosiak K., Lukosiak Pkarbovya M. Effects of fructose and oligofructose in addition to milk fermentation using new Lactobacillus cultures to produce high-quality yogurt-like products. Molecules. 2021;26(19):5730. DOI:10.3390/molecules26195730
13. Berks A. V., Harthorn L. F., Van Amping M. T. J., Neihuis M. M. O., Lankford J. E., Vopereis H., et al. A mixture based on amino acids with the addition of synbiotics supports adequate growth in infants with an allergy to cow's milk. Pediatric allergy and immunology. 2015;26(4):316-322. DOI: 10.1111/pai.12390
14. Kellow N. D., Coughlan M. T., Reed S. G. S. The effect of dietary supplements with prebiotics on glycation, insulin resistance and biomarkers of inflammation in adults with prediabetes: protocol of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-clinical trial. Bmc endocrine disorders. 2014;14:55. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-14-55.
15. Bechanu K. A., Tinku I. F., Smadyanu R. E., Koman O. A., Koman L., Tinku R. C., Pakurar D. Advantages of oligofructose and inulin in the treatment of functional diarrhea in children - interventional study. Pharmacy. 2019;67(3):511-516. DOI: 10.31925/Pharmacy.2019.3.20
16. Kloza-Monasterolo R., Gispert-Eldorado M., Luque V., Fere N., Rubio-Torrens K., Zaragoza-Jordana M., et al. Safety and efficacy of insulin, oligofructose and additives in infant formula: results of a randomized clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32(6):918-927. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.009
17. Mazzola G., Aloisio I., Di Gioia D. B. Development of a synbiotic product for newborns and young children. Lwt-food science and technology. 2015;64(2):727-734. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.06.033
18. de Souza-Borges P. K., Sokey F. R., Sokey F. R., et al. Chemical, physical and organoleptic properties of orange cupcakes and bread with the addition of minulin and oligofructose. Semina-ciencias agrarias. 2013;34(6):2837-2846.
19. Rashid S., Rakha A., Asker M. Physico-chemical and technical-functional characteristics inulin is extracted from chicory roots and jerusalem artichoke tubers and their ability to replace fat in cakes is investigated. Progress in nutrition. 2018;20:191-202. DOI: 10.23751/Mon.in 20 and 2-p.6527
20. Luo D. L., Liang X. P., Xu B., et al. The effect of inulin with different degrees of polymerization by water conversion of steamed bread. Journal of cereal science. 2017;76:289-295. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.07.003
21. Belobraidich D. P., Jenkins C. L. D., Kristoffersen K. T. Extracts of cereal fruits alter intestinal fermentation, reducing obesity and increasing mineral retention compared to oligofructose. European journal of nutrition. 2019;58(7):2811-2821. DOI: 10.1007/c00394-018-1830-u
22. Salinas M. V., Navel M. C. Optimization of the formulation of nutritious bread based on calcium carbonate and inulin. Lwt-food science and technology. 2015;60(1):95-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.08.019
23. Lukin N. D., Bykova S. T. Low-protein starch-based products for dietary medical nutrition. Sovremennye tekhnologii funkcional'nyh pishchevyh produktov = Modern technologies of functional food products. Textbook of DeLi plyus. 2018;8:220-250 (In Russ.).
24. Bykova S. T., Bakulina L. F., Buravleva L. F. Patent RF ¹2375376. RF patent No. 2375376. Method for the production of sago from corn starch. Published 10.12.2009 (In Russ.).
25. Bykova S. T., Buravleva T. N., Kalinina T. G., Borovik T. B., Bushueva T. V., Lododo K. S. The use of inulin in dietary baby foods. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2014;(2):32-33 (In Russ.).
Bykova Svetlana T., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kalinina Tamara G., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch and Processing of Starch-containing Raw Materials - Branch of A. G. Lorch Federal Research Center for Potato,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo village, Lyubertsy, Moscow Region, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abakirova E. M., Kydyraliev N. A.Possibilities of using meat as a promising preventive product for iodine and iron deficiency

P. 12-15 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.002

Key words
iodine deficiency, iron, anemia, yak meat, carcass parts, prevention

Iodine is the most important essential micronutrient. Almost the entire territory of Kyrgyzstan belongs to areas with a natural deficiency of iodine in water and soil. Iodine deficiency manifests itself in a wide range of different pathological conditions. The most adverse effects of iodine deficiency occur in the early stages of development of the body. Due to a decrease in metabolic activity, iodine deficiency is often accompanied by iron deficiency anemia, a disease associated with iron deficiency in the blood. In this case, anemia is usually unexpressed and, as a rule, manifests itself already in the mature stage of hypothyroidism. One of the ways to solve the problem of iodine and iron deficiency in the body is to eat yak meat and yak meat products. Yak meat is a quality and regional raw. In the Kyrgyz Republic, yak is engaged in almost all regions. The largest part of the yak population is localized in the Naryn and Issyk-Kul regions. Yak feed does not contain harmful chemicals and the use of pastures located in hard-to-reach high mountains for their fattening can create unique conditions for obtaining eco-products of yak breeding in the Kyrgyz Republic. The main advantage of yak meat is its high content of easily digestible iron (4.0-5.5 mg/100 g), which is 2 times higher than in beef. Experimental data showed that the iodine content in different parts of the yak carcass is not the same and the largest amount was in the scapula 3.82 mcg/g, and the analysis of scientific literature revealed that heme iron also contains a sufficient amount of 5.0 mg/g, in this regard, it was decided to use the scapula to develop a meat regional functional product for people with diseases associated with iodine and iron deficiency. The average iodine content in yak meat was also determined to be 2.62 micrograms per 100 g, since there was no such information in the literature.

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4. Cimmermann M. B., Kyorle J. The effect of iron and selenium deficiency on iodine and thyroid metabolism: biochemistry and relevance for public health. 2002;12(10):867-878 (In Russ.).
5. Hess S. Yu. The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies. Best Practice & Research Clininical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;24(1):117-132.
6. Alymbekov K. A. Issues of processing yaks and the quality of their meat in Kyrgyzstan. Vsyo o myase = All about meat. 2007;(1):43-44 (In Russ.).
7. Koshoeva T. R. Development of technology for yak meat products. Dissertation Abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Bishkek: Kyrgyz State Technical University, 2008. 28 ð. (In Russ.)
8. Bazhenova B. A. Scientific substantiation and development of innovative technologies of yak and horse meat products of the Buryat ecotype. Dissertation Abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Ulan-Ude: East Siberian State Technological University, 2014. 13 ð. (In Russ.)
9. Kasmaliev M. K., Kerimaliev Zh. K., Halmurzaev A. N. Economic and biological features of the new Aikol Yak breed of Kyrgyzstan. Vestnik myasnogo skotovodstva = Bulletin of beef cattle breeding. 2016;1(93):54-59 (In Russ.).
Abakirova Eliza M.
Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov,
66, Ch. Aytmatov avenue, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 720044, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kydyraliev Nurudin A., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kyrgyz-Turkish University "Manas",
campus KTMU, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zverev S. V., Politukha O. V. Gluten-free cereals in an adequate diet

P. 16-20 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.003

Key words
legumes, gluten-free cereals, multicomponent cereals, reference protein

Increased attention to gluten is caused by its intolerance by the body in almost 1% of people. For Russia, this is more than a million people. The sources of allergenic gluten are real bread. At the same time, such traditional cereals as rice, millet, corn do not contain gluten. However, they contain an incomplete protein that has a lysine deficiency. Legumes (peas, chickpeas, lentils, beans, etc.) have an excess of lysine in protein, i.e. the proteins of traditional cereals and legumes are complementary and can complement each other. The analysis of the averaged amino acid protein pressure (according to a number of databases on the nutritional value of grains and cereals) allowed us to estimate the proportions of a mixture of traditional cereals and legumes, at which their protein will be complete. Moreover, using additives such as sesame, hemp and sago, the ratio of "protein-carbohydrates" 1:(4.7-5.1), recommended by nutritionists, was also balanced. The proportions obtained are approximate and their refinement is possible based on the results of chemical analysis of specific batches of cereals and grains for protein, lysine and carbohydrates. Moreover, the use of legume components as the main additive increases not only the quality of protein, but also improves the vitamin and mineral profile of the combined grain product in almost all indicators. As a result, two-component gluten-free cereals of increased nutritional value were obtained on the basis of crushed rice, millet, corn and sorghum cereals with an additional component in the form of pea, chickpea, bean, lentil and three-component cereals with additives of collapsed hemp, sesame and sago.

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3. Zverev S. V., Karpov V. I., Nikitina M. A. Harmonization of food compositions according to the ideal protein profile. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2021;4(1):4-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10/21323/2618-9771-2021-4-1-4-11.
4. Zverev S. V., Nikitina M. A. The balance of protein supplements according to the criterion of convertible protein. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2019;(1):16-19. DOI: 10.21323/2618-9771-2019-2-1-16-19.
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Zverev Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Politukha Olga Vladimirovna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Shterman S. V., Sidorenko M. Yu., Shterman V. S., Sidorenko Yu. I.Betaine in sports nutrition

P. 21-24 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.004

Key words
betaine, methyl group donor, osmolite, homocysteine, methionine, sports nutrition, thermoregulation, sports endurance, psychological stability

The principal biochemical role of betaine in living organisms is that it acts as a donor of methyl groups (-CH3). The betaine molecule contains three such groups that are participate in transmethylation reactions which are associating with the synthesis of many protein structures and energy producing in the human liver and muscle tissues. In addition, betaine in cells also has an important function of osmolyte - a neutral organic substance that regulates the amount of fluid and affects its properties. In this role betaine acts as a protector of many wildlife objects from undesirable changes and death under the negative environmental factors influence. Such factors include low air humidity, loss of water by living beings under the high ambient temperature, a sharp increase in salinity, which occurs, for example, during intensive evaporation of water from the soil or during the migration of fish from fresh water to salt water, etc. In recent years, there has been great interest in the possibility of using betaine as an ergogenic agent, i.e. such a component of nutrition, which allows to improve the level of athletic performance. Based on the data of experimental studies conducted in this area, the authors showed that the consuming of betaine during intense training and competition can improve endurance, as well as increase the strength potential of athletes. The reasons for this may be a change in the hormonal background of athletes, which occurs as a result of betaine consumption. This conclusion, in particular, confirms by the increase in blood of such an important hormone for athletes as testosterone. A useful property of betaine is that it allows athletes to maintain their athletic form during competitions that taking place in hot weather. Consumption of betaine may also have some psychological impact on athletes by reducing their feelings of fatigue. In this regard, authors concluded that the use of betaine may be recommended as a promising component in the creation of various compositions for sports nutrition.

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3. Arumugan M. K., Paal M. C., Donohue T. M. Jr., et al. Beneficial effects of betaine: a comprehensive review. Biology. 2021;10(6):456.
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7. Olthof M. R., van Vliet T., Boelsma E., et al. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocystein in healthy men and women. Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133:4135-4138.
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9. Mar M. N., Zeisel S. H. Betaine in wine: answer to the French paradox? Medical Hipotheses. 1999;56(5):383-385.
10. Hoffman J. R., Ratamess N. A., Kang J., et al Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009;6(7):7-10.
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12. Choleva J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, Glowacki R., et al. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocycteine thiolactone. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10:39.
13. Ismaeel A. Effects of betaine supplementation on muscle strength and power: a systematic review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2017;31(8):2338.
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21. Willingham B. D., Ragland T. J., Ormsbee M. J. Betaine supplementation may improve heat tolerance: potential mechanisms in humans. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):2939.
Shterman Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Sidorenko Mikhail Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shterman Valeriy S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Sidorenko Yuriy I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
1, Obolenskoe highway, vil. Obolensk, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142279, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Seregin S. N., Lukin N. D., Byzov V. A.Development of the market of sugary products: restrictions and incentives for growth

P. 25-31 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.005

Key words
the market of sugar and starch products, the direction of development transformation

The sugar food market occupies a significant niche of the Russian food market, the pace of its development is determined by the scale of raw materials, the ability of business to attract capital to innovative projects to diversify the economy and expand the range of products, and the availability of sales markets of finished products. Providing the food market with sugar substances can be solved by various ways, depending on the natural-climatic factors located in each particular country that allow you to grow certain agricultural crops from which natural sugar products can be generated. Today, the dominant position in the sugar market is occupied by sugar produced from sugar beets and cheesecake sugar, which is produced in the processing of sugarcane. The growth of the market for sugar starch products is due to a wider spectrum of its technological and consumer properties compared to sugar. Sugar starch products can be produced with specified functional properties that meet the requirements of various consumers, both industrial purposes and households. The balance of equilibrium in the sugar -free market will be determined by the availability of the necessary resources, taking into account the nomenclature of products to satisfy demand, the price conditions of the domestic and external market, and expand products for healthy nutrition. The boundaries of the growth of sugar -free products will be determined by the dynamics of internal demand and the development of exports, attracting investment in these sectors of the economy to introduce innovation and resource -saving technologies.


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5. Borodina Z. M., Lukin N. D., Papahin A. A., Gulakova V. A. On the enzymatic attack of various types of starch. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2019;(5):27-32 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235-2486-2019-10067
6. Ananskih V. V., Shleina L. D., Ananskih L. A. Optimization of parameters for obtaining maltodextrin and feed product from corn flour. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK = Achievements of science and technology of agriculture. 2017;31(11):91-93 (In Russ.).
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Seregin Sergey N., Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Science Center for food systems of RAS,
26, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Lukin Nikolay D., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Byzov Vasiliy A., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch and Starch-Containing Raw Materials Processing -Branch of the A. G. Lorch Federal Research Center for potato,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo, Lyubertsy, Moscow region, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Golovacheva N. E., Gallyamova L. P., Morozova S. S., Abramova I. M., Titova O. T., Shubina N. A.On the prospects of using chitosan for processing fruit and berry semi-finished products in order to improve the quality and stability of alcoholic beverages

P. 32-36 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.006

Key words
chitosan, alcoholic beverages, alcoholic blackcurrant morse, stability, semi-finished products

The recipes of alcoholic drinks, including traditional Russian drinks, provide for the use of semi-finished products from natural fresh and dried fruit and berry raw materials, the use of which ensures high organoleptic indicators of products. The high content of polyphenolic substances in fruits and berries adversely affects the stability of semi-finished products and finished products, in this regard, the use of chitosan to stabilize alcoholic beverages during storage is a promising direction. The research results showed that chitosan treatment had no significant effect on the physicochemical parameters of alcoholic blackcurrant morse: mass concentration of the total extract, pH value, color intensity, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content before and after chitosan treatment. After treatment of alcoholic blackcurrant morse with chitosan, an almost 2-fold decrease in iron content, turbidity, and the content of total phenolic substances was noted due to the removal of easily oxidized monomeric fractions of phenolic substances - hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids (the content of which decreased by 25%). The study of the dynamics of changes in the physicochemical and organoleptic parameters of alcoholic beverages prepared on the basis of alcoholic blackcurrant morses showed that significant changes occur during storage: a decrease in the color of the product by 3 times, color intensity by 2 times was noted during the first 3 months of storage, which corresponds to a 2-fold decrease in the content of anthocyanins. The indicator of antioxidant activity of finished products also decreased during storage more intensively in control samples. A sharp increase in turbidity in the control samples was observed after storage for 9 months, while in the experimental samples this indicator did not change during 12 months of storage. This is confirmed by the results of the tasting assessment: the total tasting assessment of the control samples during storage for 9 months decreased by 2.5 points, and in the experimental ones - by 1.5 points (on a 25-point scale). Based on the studies carried out, it was concluded that oxidative processes during storage in alcoholic beverages proceed more intensively in control samples (without chitosan treatment).

1. Vorob'eva E. V., Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Gallyamova L. P., Shubina N. A. The influence of enzymatic treatment on the process of production of alcoholized fruit drinks from dried raw materials. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya = Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials. 2018;(2):28-33 (In Russ.).
2. Abramova I. M., Golovacheva N. E., Morozova S. S., Vorob'eva E. V., Gallyamova L. P., Shubina N. A. Study of the effect of enzymatic treatment on the quality indicators of alcoholized fruit drinks from fruit and berry raw materials. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2018;(10):77-81 (In Russ.).
3. Novinyuk L. V., Kulyov D. H., Negruca I. V., Velinzon P. Z. Chitin- and chitosan biosorbents from mycelial waste of citric acid production. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2018;1(2):55-62 (In Russ.).
4. Sergeeva I. Yu. The use of chitosan to stabilize the colloidal system of drinks. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2014;(1): 84-88 (In Russ.).
5. Varlamov V. P., Il'ina A. V., Shagdarova B. C., Lun'kov A. P., Mysyakina I. S. Chitin and chitosan. Getting, properties and application. Moscow: Nauka, 2002. 368 p. (In Russ.)
6. Varlamov V. P., Il'ina A. V., Shagdarova B. C., Lun'kov A. P., Mysyakina I. S. Chitin/chitosan and its derivatives: fundamental and applied aspects. Uspekhi biologicheskoj himii = Advances in biological chemistry. 2020;(60):317-368 (In Russ.).
7. Younes I., Sellimi S., Rinaudo M., Jellouli K., Nasri M. Influence of acetylation degree and molecular weight of homogeneous chitosans on antibacterial and antifungal activities. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2014;185:57-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.04.029
8. State Standard 32080-2013. Liqueur-vodka products. Acceptance rules and test methods.
9. Gerzhikova V. G. Methods of technochemical control in winemaking. Simferopol': Tavrida, 2009. 304 p. (In Russ.)
10. Yashin A. Ya., Yashin Ya. I., Chernousova N. I., Pahomova V. P. Express electrochemical method for determining the antioxidant activity of food products. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2004;(6):32-34 (In Russ.).
11. State Standard 13195-73. Wines, wine materials, cognacs and cognac spirits. Method for determination of iron.
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Golovacheva Natal'ya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Gallyamova Lyubov' P.,
Morozova Svetlana S., Candidate of Ñhemical Sciences,
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Titova Ol'ga T.,
Shubina Natal'ya A.
Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of Federal Research Center of Food and Biotechnology,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zobo Zh. R., Suvorov O. A., Labutina N. V., Kandrokov R. Kh., Kukina A. A., Bykov A. V. Development of a recipe for corn chowder in a bread bowl

P. 37-41 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.007

Key words
corn chowder, catering, recipe, flour, soup

The article presents the development of a recipe for corn chowder in a bread thicket, describes the method of its preparation in production. Corn chowder in a bread bowl is a dressing soup made with chicken broth. The main ingredients are corn and cheese, which gave the dish its name. The bread bowl not only allows the original serving of the dish, but also adds energy value to it. In addition, adding corn to the recipe of the dish being developed will not only draw attention to the product, but also reveal the unusual taste of the soup in the bread bowl and enrich it with useful vitamins, macro and microelements, and minerals. It has been established that from the initial sample of crushed white-grain corn, the yield of corn flour suitable for use in cooking was 61.5%, and 38.5% is corn grits ranging in size from 220 to 670 microns, which requires additional grinding into flour. Table 2 shows that from the original sample of crushed yellow corn, the yield of corn flour suitable for use in cooking was only 36.4%, and most of the 63.6% was corn grits ranging in size from 220 to 670 microns, which requires additional grinding into flour It was revealed that the yield of laboratory milled corn flour from the white-grain variety "Obatampa" of the Republic of the Congo, suitable for use in cooking, was 69.6%. The yield of laboratory milled corn flour from the yellow-grain Samaria variety of the Republic of the Congo, suitable for cooking in culinary products, was 56.9%, which is 12.7% less than from white-grain corn of the "Obatampa" variety. Based on the results of laboratory grinding, it can be established that white-grain corn has better flour-grinding properties and can be recommended for use in the production of culinary products. The results of organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators are given. A recipe and technology for the production of corn chowder in a bread bowl based on ingredients presented on the domestic and African markets has been developed. Calculated the nutritional value of corn chowder in a bread bowl for 1 serving of a dish weighing 290 grams. The content of proteins was found to be 21.6 grams, fats 25 grams and carbohydrates 29.5 grams. The final energy value was 430 kcal. The prospect for the development of research is to determine the possibility of freezing raw materials, semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness and culinary products using corn in order to expand the range and food supply for the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo.


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20. Ma Ch., Liu P., Tao N., Wang X., Deng Sh. Colloidal particles in tuna head soup: chemical localization, structural change, and antioxidant property. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021;8:21-30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.638390
Zobo George R., graduate student,
Suvorov Oleg A., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Labutina Natal'ya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kandrokov Roman Kh., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kukina Alena A.,
Bykov Alexander V., graduate student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Muslimov N. Zh., Kabylda A. I., Dalabaev A. B.Study of the microflora of cereals, legumes and oilseeds during their germination for food purposes

P. 42-45 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.008

Key words
cereals, leguminous crops, oilseeds, pathogenic microflora, germination dates, nutrient media, colonies of microorganisms

The growth of the world's population leads to an increase in demand for functional products that enrich the daily diet. Providing the population with environmentally friendly quality products promotes a healthy lifestyle. In this regard, the study of food safety indicators, including the determination of microbiological contamination and the identification of pathogenic bacteria at the stage of processing grain raw materials is of scientific and practical importance. The main indicator of food safety is the pathogenic microflora of cereals, legumes and oilseeds. In this regard, the assessment of the number and structure of microorganisms is an important and preventive measure at the stage of choosing raw materials for food purposes. In the course of the study, the microflora of grain samples of cereals, legumes and oilseeds was studied, which were identified as the object of research when developing the technology of drinks from sprouted grain. The development of microorganisms on grain and seeds largely depends on the temperature and structure of the surface (porous, smooth, rough, etc.). With high grain humidity, microorganisms multiply the faster the higher the temperature. This dependence is observed only for moistened material, since microorganisms do not develop on dry grain regardless of temperature. The presented scientific results were obtained as part of the implementation of program-targeted financing BR10764970 "Development of high-tech technologies for deep processing of agricultural raw materials in order to expand the range and output of finished products from a unit of raw materials, as well as reduce the share of waste in the production of products" according to the scientific task: "Development of technology for the production of functional beverages based on sprouted grain".

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5. Sidorenko O. D. Microbiology. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2005. 286 p. (In Russ.)
Muslimov Nurzhan Zh., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of AAS,
Kabylda Anar I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Dalabaev Askhat B.
Kazakh Research Institute of processing and food industry,
47, Al' Farabi str., Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, 010000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Terent'ev S. E., Romanova I. N., Glushakov S. N., Martynova K. V., Tryabas Yu. A.Winter triticale - a culture of versatile use

P. 46-49 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.009

Key words
winter triticale, variety, fertilizers, seeding rate, sowing time, quality, yield

In the conditions of the Western part of the Central region of Russia, crops of grain crops currently account for 30-35% of winter crops, which leads to a delay in spring sowing, a decrease in the introduction of new promising and competitive crops. As a result of studies conducted in 2016-2020. on the experimental field of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Smolensk State Agricultural Academy in a six-field crop rotation: occupied fallow, winter cereals, spring cereals, lupins, potatoes, spring cereals on soddy-podzolic medium loamy medium cultivated slightly acidic soil (ðÍKCl 5.8 units). The content of mineral nutrients: humus - 2.01%, mobile phosphorus - 148 mg/kg, exchangeable potassium - 165 mg per 1 kg of absolutely dry soil, it was found that the winter triticale variety Consul has high ecological plasticity and adaptability with a yield level of more 6.5 t/ha. In studies, the highest yield on average over three years was obtained at early sowing dates at a seeding rate of 5.0-5.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha and amounted to 6.29-6.32 t/ha; at late sowing, the optimal seeding rate was 5.5 million germinating seeds per 1 ha with a yield level of 3.20 t/ha. Of the studied agricultural practices, the technological indicators of grain were influenced to a greater extent by mineral fertilizers than by sowing dates and seeding rates. With thickened and sparse crops, there was a tendency to reduce the physical, chemical and technological properties of the grain, which is associated with a greater heterogeneity of the grain in the ear. According to physical, chemical and technological indicators, winter triticale grain Consul is suitable for use for food and technical purposes (alcohol production, brewing). Only grain with early sowing dates is suitable for baking purposes with fractional application of nitrogen fertilizers according to the schemes N30 + 60 + 30P120K90 and N0 + 60 + 60P120K90 kg / ha and seeding rates of 4.5-5.5 million units / ha. In the conditions of the Smolensk region on soddy-podzolic medium loamy soils, the winter triticale variety Consul has high ecological plasticity and adaptability with a yield level of more than 6.5 t/ha and grain quality suitable for food and technological purposes.


1. Glushakov S. N., Romanova I. N., Stepurov R. V. The role of nitrogen fertilizers in the cultivation of intensive varieties of winter triticale. Prodovol'stvennaya bezopasnost': ot zavisimosti k samostoyatel'nosti. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii = Food security: from dependence to independence. Materials of the international scientific and practical conference. Smolensk: Smolenskaya State Agricultural Academy, 2017. P. 24-27 (In Russ.).
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3. Romanova I. N. Formation of productivity of grain crops depending on growing conditions. Innovacionnyj put' razvitiya APK. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov po materialam 39-j Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii professorsko-prepodavatel'skogo sostava = Innovative way of agro-industrial complex development. Collection of scientific papers based on the materials of the 39th International Scientific and Practical Conference of the teaching staff. Yaroslavl: Yaroslavl State Agricultural Academy, 2016. P. 94-99 (In Russ.).
4. Semenenko N. N., Vaga I. I. The influence of hydrothermal growth and development conditions on the yield of winter triticale. Melioraciya = Land reclamation. 2011;2 (66):137-144 (In Russ.).
5. Tihonova O. S., Fatyhov I. Sh. The influence of the seeding rate on the grain quality of winter cereals in the Middle Urals. Vestnik Bashkirskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Bashkir State Agrarian University. 2012;4(24):14-16 (In Russ.).
6. Guchanov S. A., Mel'nikova O. V., Torikov V. E. Yield and quality of winter triticale grain depending on the elements of cultivation technology. Vestnik Kurskoj gosudarstvennoj sel'skohozyajstvennoj akademii = Bulletin of the Kursk State Agricultural Academy. 2018;(4):90-95 (In Russ.).
Terent'ev Sergey E., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Romanova Iraida N., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor,
Glushakov Sergey N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Martynova Kseniya V., graduate student,
Tryabas Yuliya A., graduate student
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy,
10/2, Bolshaya Sovetskaya str., Smolensk, 214000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Gulin A. V., Machulkina V. A. Functional product - eggplant jam

P. 50-53 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.010

Key words
variety, jam, functional product, basic chemical composition, fruit size

The aim of the work was to study the content of basic chemicals in eggplant fruits of technical maturity, depending on the variety and size in fresh and finished products. Studies have been conducted to study the effect of lemon juice on the quality of jam from unclaimed eggplant fruits, taking into account the possibility of using it in the technology of preparing a functional original product, studying biochemical changes in the quality of the resulting product and conducting its organoleptic evaluation. Lemon juice was added at a dosage of 40 ml per 1.0 kg of prepared raw materials with the addition of 0.6 kg of sugar. For the preparation of jam, the fruits of the Panther and Diamond varieties were used, created by breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable Growing and Melon Growing - a branch of the FSUE PAFSC RAS. The article reflects the change in the content of dry substances, the amount of sugars and ascorbic acid in jam compared to the initial indicators. According to the results obtained, it can be seen that ascorbic acid in the finished product of the Panther variety contained 25.31-28.43 mg%, which is 5.8-7.3 times higher, and in the Diamond variety, respectively, up to 23.13-27.63 mg%, which is 6.6-6.9 times higher than the initial data. The amount of sugar in the jam, depending on the variety, ranged from 12.8% to 15.89%. The tasting evaluation of the finished product was 4.8-4.9 points for the Panther fruit jam, 4.7-4.9 points for the Diamond variety, depending on the size of the fruit. Losses during the preparation of fruits for processing did not exceed 20%, and were not higher than the established technological standards. The preparation of jam from eggplant fruits unclaimed on time, as well as fruits of the technical maturity of the stripping collection, will make the cultivation technology low-waste and cost-effective. In addition, this product can be used as a highly vitamin therapeutic agent, including for residents of the North, as an anti-scurvy.

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Gulin Alexander V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Machulkina Vera A., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable Growing and Melon Growing - Branch of the Caspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of RAS,
16, Lyubich str., Kamyzyak, 416341, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kirillov E. A., Turshatov M. V., Kononenko V. V., Solov'ev A. O., Alekseev V. V.Modern research in the organization of the process of bragorectification in the production of alcohol from food raw material

P. 54-56 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.011

Key words
distillation unit, rectified ethyl alcohol, alcohol production, distillation department

Alcohol production enterprises have come a long way since the formation of the industry. Today, each production of alcohol is a complex technological process that is highly automated and where it is necessary to control a huge number of parameters, from the stage of acceptance of raw materials to the receipt of finished commercial products. Perhaps one of the most difficult, in terms of automation, is the process of bragorectification. In addition, this process is also the most critical stage in the production of alcohol. The quality of the resulting alcohol depends on it, and any mistake at this stage can cost the company enormous economic losses. Actualization and modernization of brew rectification processes in accordance with modern technological solutions is one of the most important steps to obtain high-quality competitive products. The paper briefly considers the main directions in the development of alcohol enterprises of the Russian Federation and, first of all, the departments of distillation distilleries. A brief description of indirect atmospheric distillation plants, their advantages and disadvantages is given. The main approaches that contribute to increasing the productivity of existing distillation plants are described. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of indirect atmospheric distillation distillation plants, as well as distillation distillation plants built using energy-saving technologies, implying high efficiency of resource use is given. A simplified block diagram of the distillation plant using energy-saving technologies and a brief description of its operation are presented. The fundamental differences in the use of boiler steam in atmospheric distillation plants of indirect action and distillation plants built according to schemes of energy-saving technologies are described. The obligatory use of modern automated process control systems for managing the technological process of the distillation departments is justified. The functions of automated process control systems are briefly described which make it possible to exclude the influence of the human factor on the quality of products. The most effective modern solutions are described, which it is advisable to include in design solutions for the construction of new and modernization of existing distilleries.

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5. Ledenev V. P., Kononenko V. V., Kirillov E. A., Kiba S. B. Urzhum distillery - Russian center of advanced technology for distillery stillage processing. Likerovodochnoe proizvodstvo i vinodelie = Distillery production and winemaking. 2005;(5):1-3 (In Russ.).
6. Kirillov E. A., Kononenko V. V., Grunin E. A., Solov'ev A. O., Alekseev A. N. Production of grain distillate at distillation plants from starch-containing raw materials. Pivo i napitki = Beer and drinks. 2016;(3):22-24 (In Russ.).
Kirillov Evgeniy A.,
Turshatov Mikhail V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kononenko Valentin V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Solov'ev Alexander O.,
Alexeev Vladimir V.
Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center of food, biotechnology and food security,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kaldanov Zh. B., Dzhingilbaev S. S., Shambulov E. D., Askarov A. D. Kinetics of safflower seed drying

P. 57-61 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.012

Key words
mathematical modeling, post-harvest processing, effective diffusion capacity, activation energy, drying kinetics

Safflower is one of the oldest oilseeds and dye crops, whose valuable food, feed, technical, therapeutic, cosmetic and dietary qualities have been used by mankind for more than 4,000 years. Over the past three decades, safflower has been used in Kazakhstan and is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food, agricultural industries. Drying is a mandatory post-harvest processing process, the most rigorous technological operation that requires careful work. The task of drying is to remove excess moisture and bring the grain to a certain dry state humidity. Therefore, the purpose of this present study was to select various mathematical models for experimental data on the kinetics of drying safflower seeds, to determine the effective diffusion coefficient and to obtain the activation energy of the process during drying under various conditions of air temperature. The study was conducted in the laboratory "Processes of harvesting and preparation of feed" in the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty city. The experiment used safflower seeds "Nurlan" variety with an initial humidity of 0.46 (decimal fraction) and dehydrated to equilibrium humidity. Drying was carried out under various controlled conditions of temperature 40; 50; 60; 70 and 80 °C and relative humidity 24.4; 16.0; 9.9; 5.7 and 3.3%, respectively. Eleven mathematical models were selected for the experimental data. The parameters for evaluating the fit of mathematical models were the average relative error (P), the average estimated error (SE), the coefficient of determination (R2), the Chi-square criterion (X2), the Akike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Schwartz information criterion (BIC). Taking into account the fitting criteria, the "Two Terms" model was chosen to describe the kinetics of drying safflower seeds. The effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 8.70 to 23.71x10-10 m2 s-1, and its dependence on the drying temperature can be described by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy of safflower seed drying for the studied temperature range was 24.20 kJ mol-1.

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Kaldanov Zhasulan B., Master's student
Dzhingilbayev Seit S., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Shambulov Ermek D., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Askarov Ardak Dakharbekovich, Master of Technical Sciences
Almaty Technological University,
44, Baytursinova str., Almaty, Republic of Kazachstan, 050000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Semipyatniy V. K., Ageykina I. I. Development of a method for determining the relative share of malted and unmalted raw rarley in crushed grain products by RT-PCR. Part 1

P. 62-65 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.013

Key words
barley, malt, grain products, nucleic acid, RT-PCR, electrophoresis, analysis

Barley malt, obtained from brewing barley varieties, is a traditional raw material for the production of beer. Along with the innovative method of infrared spectroscopy and classical physicochemical methods for determining the quality indicators of malt, it seems appropriate to use DNA technologies that have a diagnostic potential for assessing the degree of grain germination in the process of malting and establishing the proportion of malt in crushed grain products. The aim of this work was to develop a molecular genetic method for determining the relative proportion of malted and unmalted barley raw materials in crushed grain products by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The objects of the study were whole grain of barley and dry barley malt prepared from it, subjected to a grinding procedure to obtain crushed grain products with different relative proportions of malted and unmalted raw materials. The extraction of nucleic acids from the sample prepared material was carried out using the commercial kit innuPREP Plant DNA Kit, and the commercial kit OneTube RT-PCRmix was used for RT-PCR. Software analysis of amplified nucleic acids was performed using CLIQS and Adobe Photoshop applications. As a result of the study, the dynamics of increasing the brightness of the luminescence of amplified RT-PCR products was visually and programmatically traced as the proportion of malted barley (malt) in the studied samples of crushed grain products increased, which formed the theoretical basis for the development of the method. At the same time, the Sum Band 1/Sum Band 2 indicator of the maximum gray value in Adobe Photoshop was smoother and closest to the visual perception of the electrophoretic pattern in comparison with the CLIQS measurement tools. The developed method provides for gel electrophoresis detection of RT-PCR products amplified from samples of extracted barley nucleic acids, as well as software relative quantitative analysis with subsequent alignment of the percentage scale of the relative proportion of malt in crushed grain products. The revealed measurement error is, to a certain extent, characteristic of the electrophoretic method of detection in agarose gel, which is adapted for the relative quantitative assessment of the analyzed DNA samples.

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Vafin Ramil R., Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Mikhaylova Irina Yu.,
Ageykina Irina I.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Semipyatniy Vladislav K., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093

Nikitina S. Yu., Shornikov A. N. Modern trends in ethanol purification technology

P. 66-70 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.014

Key words
rectified alcohol, food-grade ethanol, distillation columns, impurities, purification, rectifying tower, rectification installations, ethanol purification techniging, including multiple use of heating steam

This article provides an analysis of the latest achievements in the field of distillation and rectification of ethyl alcohol, as well as the requirements for the quality and safety of food-grade ethanol. It is shown that State standart GOST 5962-2013 imposes more stringent restrictions on the content of most congeners than European and Eurasian regulatory documents (except for nitrogenous volatile bases that are not regulated by GOST), and it is noted that modern requirements for quality of rectified alcohol which are imposed by manufacturers of liquor and vodka products from the Russian Federation and some post-Soviet countries significantly exceed the indicators of alcohols of the Extra, Lux, Alpha brands (the concentration of impurity compounds in competitive product should not be higher than the sensitivity of the gas chromatograph (0.2 mg/dm3), with the exception of methanol and isopropanol, which are difficult to remove by distillation). The authors present a comparative characteristic of rectifying towers, their technical and economic indicators and approaches to their improvement. It is shown that along with bubble cap plate column apparatus, which are most widely used in the distilleries of the Russian Federation, in recent years valve and sieve-plate columns have also been used. The article gives comparative characteristics for various types of contact devices. The analysis of standard purification methods, as well as modern developments for improving of food-grade ethanol quality, shows that in order to improve the energy efficiency of distillation columns, it is necessary to introduce heating steam recycling, maximize the use of secondary energy resources, as well as apply thermal compression. The operation of energy-saving distillation columns is also described. In addition, the development of the ethanol purification industry involves the improvement of automatic process control systems (APCS), the need to expand the scope of controlled parameters, as well as the need to switch from local regulating systems for separate components to systems for the general control of distillation columns. The article discusses three interrelated trends in purification treatment: 1) improvement of equipment design for higher performance and output of the target product; 2) development of new methods for improving the qualitative characteristics of ethanol; 3) development and implementation of resource-saving technologies.

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Nikitina Svetlana Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Shornikov Alexander N.
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19, Revolution avenue, Voronezh, Russian Federation, 394036, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Landikhovskaya A. V., Tvorogova A. A.Quality Indicators of Ice Cream and Plombir with Fructose and Tregalose

P. 72-75 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.015

Key words
plombir, ice cream, sugars, cryoscopic temperature of mixture, quality indicators of ice cream

The relevance of the study is because of the demand for ice cream with a low glycemic index. The purpose of the work presented in the article was to study the quality indicators of ice cream and plombir with the replacement of sucrose in terms of sweetness and dry substance by the composition of sugars of fructose and trehalose. The structure-mechanical, microstructural, thermostatic, cryoscopic, computational research methods were used. It was established that the replacement of sucrose with fructose and tregalose leads to 45% decrease of glycemic index of ice cream and the product gets a low-calorie status. The replacement of sucrose with fructose and tregalose has not significantly affected the dynamic viscosity of the mixture. With the shear gradient of 0,17 ñ-1 the dynamic viscosity of the mixtures increased only by 7% as compared to the control for ice cream, and decreased by 11% for plombir. The cryoscopic temperature of mixtures for the ice cream and plombir with fructose and tregalose decreased as compared to the control by 0,46 °Ñ and 0,86 °Ñ, respectfully. The positive affect of fructose and tregalose on the dispersion of ice crystals in plombir in the process of storage and on the indications of the shape- and thermostability of the ice cream have been established. After 6 months of storage the dispersion of ice crystals in the samples of plombir with fructose and tregalose was preserved much better than compared to the control sample. The changes in the dispersion of ice crystals in the samples of the ice cream were not so important. The share of ice crystals in size up to 50 µm was not less than 92%. It has been established that the ice cream with fructose and tregalose is more stable while melting than that with sucrose. In the ice cream the share of melt after 60 min thermostating formed by 3,5 times less than in the control sample. The results obtained in the study are of practical significance as they can be used in the development of industrial technologies for the ice cream and plombir with the low glycemic index.

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4. Landihovskaya A. V., Tvorogova A. A., Kazakova N. V. The use of glucose-fructose syrups in ice cream without sucrose with the low contents of fat. Pischevaja promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2021;(5):71-74 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2021.5.5.017
5. Landihovskaya A. V., Tvorogova A. A. Ice cream and frozen desserts nutrient compositions: current trends of researches. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2021;4(2):74-81 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.21323/2618-9771-2021-4-2-74-81
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8. Shobanova T. V., Tvorogova A. A. The effect of replacing sucrose with glucose-fruit syrup on the quality indicators of plombi?res ice-cream. Tehnika i tehnologija pischevyh proizvodstv = Technique and technology of food production. 2021;51(3):604-614 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.21603/2074-9414-2021-3-604-614
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10. Liu Z., Vermillion K., Jin C., Wang X., Zhao W. NMR study on the oxidation of vegetable oils for assessing the antioxidant function of trehalose. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2021;(36):102134. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2021.102134
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12. Frost G., Dornhorst A. Glycemic Index. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. 2013:393-398. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-375083-9.00136-7
Landikhovskaya Anna V.,
Tvorogova Antonina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Refrigeration Industry - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food System,
12, Kostyakova str., Moscow, 127422, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Meleshkina E. P., Kolomiets S. N., Bundina O. I., Kirillova E. V., Gerasina A. Yu. Development of a test laboratory cracker baking method for assessing the quality of wheat flour

P. 76-79 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.016

Key words
wheat flour, method of test laboratory baking, cracker quality indicators

The article presents the method of test laboratory cracker baking developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Grain and Its Processing Products, which allows evaluating the technological properties of wheat flour as a raw material for the production of flour confectionery products of the cracker type, as well as a method for assessing the organoleptic and physical characteristics of the cracker. Along with the existing indicators for assessing the quality of a cracker, for the most complete assessment of the quality of the finished product, new physical indicators of its quality have been developed - thickness, rigidity, difference in length and width, shape stability. For research, samples of flour were taken from soft wheat grown in different soil and climatic conditions of Russia, and with a wide range of quality indicators, which were divided into groups with high, medium and low gluten content. To evaluate flour as a raw material for the production of crackers, an optimal recipe was developed that excludes the influence of additional components on the quality of the cracker. In order to determine the effect of flour properties on cracker quality indicators and the significance of the relationship between them, a correlation analysis was carried out, pair correlation coefficients were determined, the significance of each coefficient was assessed, as a result of correlation analysis, straight-line relationships between wheat flour and cracker quality indicators were revealed. Based on the results of experimental data, indicators of flour quality, rheological properties of the dough by alveograph and valorigraph (farinograph), finished cracker products and their norms were developed to assess the suitability of wheat flour for cracker production. As a result of the research, it becomes possible to determine the suitability of wheat flour for obtaining a standard quality cracker and predict the quality of a cracker baked from flour in terms of flour quality.

1. Meleshkina E. P., Kolomiets S. N., Shelenkova L. V., Koval' A. I. Different flour - different goals. Proceedings of the international scientific and practical conference "Modern aspects of scientific and technological support for the processing of agricultural raw materials and waste". Astana, 2014. P. 37-41 (In Russ.).
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Meleshkina Elena P., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kolomiets Svetlana N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Bundina Ol'ga I., Candidate of Economic Sciences,
Kirillova Elena V.,
Gerasina Anna Yu.
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
11, Dmitrovskoye highway, Moscow, 127434, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Krysanova Yu. I. Accessible methods of lactose content assessment in low lactose and lactose-free dairy products: a review

P. 80-83 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.8.8.017

Key words
lactose intolerance, iodometry for lactose, milk cryoscopy, colorimetry of lactose, milk biosensors, enzymatic determination of lactose, lactose-free produce assessment

Lactose intolerance is a fairly widespread disease in the world caused by the inability of the body to break down milk sugar - lactose, found in most dairy products. Lactose'free products are employed to solve this problem. The most popular way to obtain such products today is enzymatic hydrolysis pf lactose by b-galactosidase. This method is the most efficient and cheapest, however, it can cause problems during residual lactose assessment in finished products. This is due to the fact that the products obtained by this method contain large quantities of monosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides. Although there are many ways to determine lactose in foods today, developing a fast and highly accurate method for detecting lactose residues in low-lactose foods is challenging. The highly accurate methods used to evaluate lactose residues, such as chromatography, are labor intensive and expensive and are not suitable for routine monitoring. This review focuses on cheaper and faster methods - iodometry, colorimetry, cryoscopy, enzymatic methods and biosensors. These methods are well suited for routine monitoring, but their use for assessing the lactose content of low-lactose products is difficult because they are less specific and accurate. In this paper, the specificity, limits of evaluation, and applicability of these methods for the control of lactose in dairy products obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis method are considered. Their disadvantages and advantages are also identified, as well as the possibility of further modification of these methods to increase their specificity and accuracy. As a result of this review, it was found that the most promising methods are biosensor and enzymatic methods, while cryoscopy, iodometry and colorimetry do not have sufficient specificity and accuracy to be routinely used to assess residual concentrations in low-lactose products and require further development.

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Krysanova Yuliya I.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7 Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




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