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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №3/2022

The results of the work of Food and Processing industry Enterprises of Russia


Khurshudyan S. A., Pryanichnikova N. S., Ryabova A. E.Food quality and safety. Transformation of concepts

P. 8-10 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.001

Key words
quality, safety, food products, terms and definitions, transformation of concepts

Food products undoubtedly contributed to the development and maintenance of mankind. Today we are facing serious problems in this area - many people are consuming poor quality products. The quality and safety of a food product is one of the fundamental concepts used in state programs, regulatory and other documents at various levels that affect the provision of food to the population. At the same time, the perception of terms by consumers and manufacturers is different. Thus, the article analyzes the existing definitions of food quality and safety, the factors that shape their perception by the consumer, as well as the transformation of their content over time under the influence of various factors or their combinations. The expansion of the boundaries of consumer perception of quality and safety in foreign technical literature is also recognized as a significant factor for which a special name is used - the "ladder method". An example of the subjective perception of quality is the a priori attitude of the consumer to food products of well-known trade brands. Security boundaries change much more slowly than qualitative indicators. In reality, safety indicators, first of all, become known to specialists, and only some, the most aggressive ones, to consumers.

1. Strategy for improving the quality of food products in the Russian Federation until 2030. Approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1364-r dated June 29, 2016 (In Russ.).
2. Federal Law No. 29-FZ of 02.01.2000 On the quality and safety of food products (as amended on July 13, 2020) (In Russ.).
3. Federal Law No. 416-FZ dated 07.12.2011 On Water supply and sanitation (ed. dated 19.12.2016) (In Russ.).
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5. Food safety program for processors and distributors? Fact sheet. 2018;(19):2. URL: www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/food-safety/at-the-food-processor//food-safety-program/pubs/ fs_19/pdf 6. Figaro A. L., Eremeishvili A. V. Assessment of the content of heavy metals in food products used in children's nutrition. Yaroslavskiy pedagogicheskiy vestnik = Yaroslavl Pedagogical Bulletin. 2011;(3):55-59 (In Russ.).
7. Khurshudyan S. A., Galstyan A. G. Food quality. Terms, definitions and contradictions. Kontrol' kachestva produktsii = Product quality control. 2018;(1):48-49 (In Russ.).
8. Klaus G. Grunert. Food quality and safety: consumer perception and demand. European Review of Agricultural Economics. 2005;32(3):369-391.
9. Hu W. et al. Trading off health, environmental and genetic modification attributes in food. European Review of Agricultural Economics. 2004;(3):389-408.
10. Hurshudyan S. A., Ryabova A. E. Product quality: the problem of a generalized model. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii = Product quality control. 2021;(5):50-53 (In Russ.).
11. Doronin A. F. et al. Functional food products. Introduction to technology. Moscow, 2008 (In Russ.).
Khurshudyan Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Pryanichnikova Nataliya S., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ryabova Anastasiya E., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Dairy Industry,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Manevich, B. V., Kuzina Zh. I.Risks of potential contamination of dairy products by sanitizing agents

P. 11-14 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.003

Key words
milk, dairy products, inhibiting substances, detergents, disinfectants, quality, safety

Improvement of measures to ensure the safety of production, compliance with sanitary legislation and the release of quality food products, excluding harm to the consumer, is one of the most important tasks of dairy producers. The use of effective and safe hygienic solutions in the dairy industry reduces the risks of all kinds of contamination of its products, in particular, getting into it all kinds of chemical substances that can inhibit the starter cultures of microorganisms, affect the quality and safety of products, harm human health up to the development of food poisoning. The article presents some active substances of disinfectants approved for use in dairy plants and a detailed analysis of their effective bactericidal concentrations. The results of the analysis are compared with the values given in the main current document on the definition of inhibitory substances in milk - GOST 23454-2016. The concentrations of the components used in the compositions of sanitizing agents given in the article are comparable with the values of sensitivity of diagnostic methods for determining inhibitory substances, and in some cases exceed them by more than 10 times. The use of biocides and active ingredients in detergents and disinfectants such as iodine-containing halogens and chlorhexidine, nonionic and cationic surfactants, polymeric guanidine derivatives, tertiary alkylamines and various organic and inorganic acids dictates the demand for methods of evaluating their inhibiting properties and removing residual amounts in sanitary treatment processes. Based on the results of the analysis, it is concluded that the existing document does not allow to fully adequately assess the effect of sanitizing agents on their inhibitory properties in milk. Further scientific and practical researches are required, devoted to determination of residual quantities of detergents and disinfectants in milk and dairy products, establishment of possible critical values and methods of control at the enterprises of the dairy industry for taking preventive measures.

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3. Kuzina Zh. I., Manevich B. V. Science-intensive solutions in technologies for sanitary treatment of equipment in the production of functional products. Syrodeliye i maslodeliye = Cheese making and butter making. 2021;(5):43-45 (In Russ.). DOI: http://doi.org/10.31515/2073-4018-2021-5-43-45
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5. Yurova E. A., Filchakova S. A., Kozlovtseva D. V. Effective techniques to ensure the quality of raw milk. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2019;(9):44-47 (In Russ.).
6. Tutel'yan V. A. New risks and threats in the field of food safety. Pererabotka moloka = Milk processing. 2021;(8):22-28 (In Russ.).
7. Popov P. A., Butko M. P., Lavina S. A. et al. Methods for detecting residual concentrations of antibiotics in milk. Nauchniy zhurnal KubGAU = Science journal of Kuban State university. 2020;163(09):135-144 (In Russ.).
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9. Yurova E. A. Identification of raw milk. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2017;(1):16-18 (In Russ.).
10. Manevich B. V., Kuzina Zh. I., Kosyanenko T. V. Halogen-active disinfectants. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2017;(4):61-63 (In Russ.).
11. Yap M., et al. Seasonality and Geography Have a Greater Influence than the Use of Chlorine-Based Cleaning Agents on the Microbiota of Bulk Tank Raw Milk. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2021;87(22):e01081-21.
12. Manevich B. V., Kuzina Zh. I. Influence of oxygen-containing substances on the degree of removal of highly adhesive deposits from the surface of equipment. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2021;(1):57-59 (In Russ.). DOI: http://doi.org/10.31515/1019-8946-2021-01-57-59 (In Russian)
13. Zobkova Z. S. Defects in milk and dairy products. Causes of occurrence and prevention measures. Moscow, 2006. 100 p. (In Russ.)
14. Manevich B. V., Kuzina Zh. I., Sukiasyan A. N. Control of active ingredients of oxygen-active disinfectants. Nauka - proizvodstvu. Informatsionniy byulleten' FGBNU "VNIMI" = Science - production. Newsletter of FGBNU "VNIMI". Moscow, 2015. No. 4. P. 25-27 (In Russ.).
15. Satpute S. K., Zinjarde S. S., Banat I. M. Recent updates on biosurfactants in Food industry. In Microbial Cell Factories. Taylor & Francis, 2018. P. 1-20.
Manevich Boris V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kuzina Zhanna I., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Turovskaya S. N.The synthesis of galactooligosaccharides is a promising direction of the bioconversion of lactose-containing milk systems

P. 15-19 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.004

Key words
milk systems, bioconversion, crystallization, lactose, enzyme beta-galactosidase, galactooligosaccharides

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are derivatives of lactose, products of hydrolysis's side reaction - transglycosylation, which prevails over hydrolysis in milk systems with lactose concentration more than 10%. GOS is defined as a class of soluble non-digestible oligosaccharides, containing 2-7 or more galactose residues bonded to a glucose residue. According to the studies of the structures, properties and synthesis methods of GOS, new knowledge about their functional and technological properties has been obtained nowadays. GOS's prebiotic and immunostimulating activity, positive effect on the absorption of minerals, improving liver function, etc. were proved. Furthermore, it's known that GOS are heat-resistant, hygroscopic substances; they are less sweet than sucrose and influence the activity of water, freezing point and products' viscosity. Apart from the transglycosylation's direct synthesis of GOS in milk systems, they are industrially produced from secondary lactose-containing raw materials mainly through catalytic transgalactosylation with beta-galactosidases, which most studied producers are Aspergillus oryzae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Bacillus circulans. For canned milk products, the hydrolytic ability of beta-galactosidase has long been used to reduce the lactose content in milk (before or after evaporation). This step excludes the crystallization stage from the technological process and reduces the duration of heat treatment by intensifying the Maillard reaction in case of condensed sweetened cooked milk. However, it is worthy of note that works specifically focused on transgalactosylation reaction are few in number. The paper aims to analyze and systematize the results of studies on the increase of the natural GOS content in various milk systems using beta-galactosidase and to review the resulting bioconversion kinetics. Assessing the possibility of direct GOS synthesis in lactose-containing raw materials by bioconversion, not only the development of functional products, but also the levelling of various negative factors in the production and storage of preserved dairy products seems very promising.

1. Galstyan A. G., Aksenova L. M., Lisitsyn A. B., Oganesyants L. A., Petrov A. N. Modern approaches to storage and effective processing of agricultural products for obtaining high quality food products. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2019;89(2):211-213. DOI: 10.1134/S1019331619020059
2. Turovskaya S. N., Galstyan A. G., Petrov A. N., Radaeva I. A., Illarionova E. E., Semipyatniy V. K., Khurshudyan S. A. Safety of canned milk as an integrated criterion of their technology effectiveness. russian experience. Pischevye sistemy = Food systems. 2018;1(2):29-54 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.21323/2618-9771-2018-1-2-29-54
3. Kalinina E. D., Kovalenko A. V. Studying and setting process parameters of milk lactose hydrolysis. Vostochno-Evropeyskiy zhurnal peredovykh tekhnologiy = Eastern European Journal of Advanced Technologies. 2014;1(10):26-31 (In Russ.).
4. Sokolovskaya L. N. Condensed dairy products with lower content of disaccharide. Nauka i innovatsii = Science and Innovation. 2019;(10):18-21 (In Russ.).
5. Ryabova A. E., Khurshudyan S. A., Semipyatnió V. K. Improving the methodology for evaluating the consistency of products prone to spontaneous crystallization of sugars. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2018;(12):74-76 (In Russ.).
6. Sinel'nikov B. M., Khramtsov A. G., Evdokimov I. A., Ryabtseva S. A., Serov A. V. Lactose and its derivatives. Saint Petersburg, 2007. 768 ð. (In Russ.)
7. Rjabova A. E., Kirsanov V. V., Strizhko M. N., Bredikhin A. S., Semipyatniy V. K., Chervetsov V. V., Galstyan A. G. Lactose crystallization: current issues and promising engineering solutions. Foods and Raw Materials. 2013;1(1):66-73.
8. Strizhko M., Kuznetsova A., Galstyan A., Semipyatniy V., Petrov A., Prosekov A. Development of osmotically active compositions for milk-based products with intermediate humidity. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 2014:35-40.
9. Polyanskiy K. K. Crystallization of lactose in the production of condensed milk with sugar. Pererabotka moloka = Milk processing. 2018;(1):42-45 (In Russ.).
10. Chervetsov V. V., Gnezdilova A. I. Intensification of crystallization processes in the production of dairy products. Moscow, 2011. 196 ð. (In Russ.).
11. Karaseva A. V., Kulikova I. K., Anisimov G. S., Slyusarev G. V. Comparison of the properties of industrial galactosidases for hydrolysis of lactose in dairy raw materials. Vestnik Severo-Kavkazskogo federal'nogo universiteta = Bulletin of the North Caucasus Federal University. 2017;(3):17-23 (In Russ.).
12. Petrov A. N., Galstyan A. G., Stroo D. Application of lactase in the cooked concentrated sweet milk manufacturing. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2008;(5):62-65 (In Russ.).
13. Khramtsov A. G., Rodnaya A. B., Lodygin A. D., Ryabtseva S. A. Trends in the development of methods for producing galactooligosaccharides. Izvestiya vuzov. Pischevaya tekhnologiya = News of the universities. Food technology. 2011;(2-3):5-8 (In Russ.).
14. Fischer C., Kleinschmidt T. Synthesis of galactooligosaccharides in milk and whey: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2018;1(3):678-697. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12344
15. Zibrat N., Skrt M., Jamnik P. Potential applicaton of ?-galactosidase in food science and nutrition. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 2017;110(1):5-14.
16. Rodriguez-Colinas B., Fernandez-Arrojo L., de Abreu M., Urrutia P., Fernandez-Lobato M., Ballesteros A. O., Plou F. J. On the Enzyme Specificity for the Synthesis of Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides. Advances in Enzyme Biotechnology. 2013:23-39. DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1094-8_3
17. Ponomarev A. N., Melnikova E. I., Stanislavskaya E. B., Samoilova V. N. Milk as a raw material for the production of food ingredients. part 3. Lactose and its derivatives. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2021;(6):60-62 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.31515/1019-8946-2021-06-60-62
18. Sangwan V., Tomar S. K., Singh R. R. B., Singh A. K., Ali B. Galactooligosaccharides: Novel Components of Designer Foods. Journal of Food Science. 2011;76(4): 103-111. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02131.x
19. Zhang W., Poojary M. M., Rauh V. M., Olsen K., Lund M. N. Limitation of Maillard Reactions in Lactose-Reduced UHT Milk via Enzymatic Conversion of Lactose into Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) during Production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2020;(68):3568-3575. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b07824
20. Fialho T. L., Nascimento L. G. L., Moreau A., Delaplace G., Martins E., Tuler Perrone I., Carvalho A. F. D., Junior P. P. Sugar type matters in spray drying II: Glycation effects on physicochemical characteristics of aged lactose-hydrolyzed milk powder. Food Structure. 2021;30(100215). DOI: 10.1016/j.foostr.2021.100215
21. Lopes Fialho T., Nogueira M. H., Moreau A., Delaplace G., Schuck P., Tuler Perrone I., de Carvalhoa A. F., de Sa Peixoto Junior P. P. Sugar type matters in spray drying: Homogeneous distribution in milk powder favors repulsive interactions between proteins. Food Structure. 2019;(100132). DOI: 10.1016/j.foostr.2019.100132
22. Ruiz-Matute A. I., Corzo-Martinez M., Montilla A., Olano A., Copovi P., Corzo N. Presence of mono-, di- and galactooligosaccharides in commercial lactose-free UHT dairy products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2012;28(2):164-169. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2012.06.003
23. Venica C. I., Bergamini C. V., Rebech S. R., Perotti M. C. Galacto-oligosaccharides formation during manufacture of different varieties of yogurt. Stability through storage. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2015;63(1):198-205. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.02.032
24. Venica C. I., Wolf V. I., Bergamini C. V., Perotti M. C. Effect of the incorporation of b-galactosidase in the GOS production during manufacture of soft cheese. Food Research International. 2020;137(109654). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109654
25. Kaczynski L. K., Cais-Sokolinska D., Szwengiel A. Kinetics of lactose hydrolysis and galactooligosaccharides formation in beverages based on goat's milk and its permeate. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2019;28(5):1529-1534. DOI: 10.1007/s10068-019-00600-0
Turovskaya Svetlana N.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Luysinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Illarionova E. E.Bioconversion of lactose in model milk systems with intermediate moisture

P. 20-23 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.005

Key words
milk systems, products with intermediate moisture, lactose, crystallization, enzyme beta-galactosidase, bioconversion, degree of hydrolysis

The organoleptic characteristics and microstructure of polysaccharide complexes of systems with intermediate moisture content (in which a certain amount of milk processing products with a high lactose content) can be included as a milk base, mostly depend on the state of milk sugar that initiates the growth of large crystals (in the case of an uncontrolled crystallization process in a supersaturated solution ), which leads to defects in consistency and the production of substandard products for direct consumption or further industrial processing. The most perspective solution to this problem is a conduction of the targeted bioconversion with the use of beta-galactosidase, when lactose is cleaved into glucose and galactose and then its crystallized part is transferred into a dissolved state. Taking into account the assortment diversity of products with intermediate moisture, the raw material composition of which can include a significant amount of by-products of milk processing with a high content of lactose (whey, milk retentates and permeates) as a milk base, it remains relevant to obtain new data in the field of milk sugar bioconversion for improvement production technologies and prevention of defects in consistency. The article presents an algorithm and the experiment results to establish the optimal mode for carrying out the enzymatic bioconversion of milk sugar in model dairy systems, providing a degree of hydrolysis sufficient to maintain lactose in a dissolved state, followed by control of the microstructure of the objects of study. The data we obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed methodological approach, to achieve the required depth of bioconversion of milk sugar, taking into account the requirements for the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the product and the raw material characteristics of the formulations.

1. Galstyan A. G., Aksenova L. M., Lisitsyn A. B., Oganesyants L. A., Petrov A. N. Modern approaches to storage and effective processing of agricultural products for obtaining high quality food products. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2019;89(2):211-213. DOI: 10.1134/S1019331619020059.
2. Ryabova A. E., Khurshudyan S. A., Semipyatnió V. K. Improving the methodology for evaluating the consistency of products prone to spontaneous crystallization of sugars. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food industry. 2018;(12):74-76 (In Russ.).
3. Torres J. K. F., Stephani R., Tavaresa G. M., de Carvalhoa A. F., Costa R. G. B., de Almeid C. E. R., at al. Technological aspects of lactose-hydrolyzed milk powder. Food Research International. 2017;101(11):45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.08.043.
4. Argenta A. B., Nogueira A., Scheer A. P. Hydrolysis of whey lactose: Kluyveromyces lactis beta-galactosidase immobilisation and integrated process hydrolysis-ultrafiltration. International Dairy Journal. 2021;117/6(105007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2021.105007.
5. Troise A. D., Bandini E., De Donno R., Meijer G., Trezzi M., Fogliano V. The quality of low lactose milk is affected by the side proteolytic activity of the lactase used in the production process. Food Research International. 2016;89(1):514-525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.08.021.
6. Ostroumov L. A., Gavrilov V. G. Biotransformation of lactose enzyme preparations beta-galactosidase. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevyh proizvodstv = Food processing: techniques and technology. 2013;(1):66-73 (In Russ.).
7. Rjabova A. E., Kirsanov V. V., Strizhko M. N., Bredikhin A. S., Semipyatniy V. K., Chervetsov V. V., Galstyan A. G. Lactose crystallization: current issues and promising engineering solutions. Foods and Raw Materials. 2013;1(1):66-73.
Illarionova Elena E.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Agarkova E. Yu.Aerated product with whey protein derivatives

P. 24-27 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.006

Key words
whey proteins, whey protein hydrolysates, foaming properties, rheology

Whey proteins to a large extent exhibit different processing properties, in particular the ability to form foams, which can be regulated in various ways, for example, by hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of whey proteins leads to a change in the total charge of peptide molecules, which ultimately changes their properties, including foaming. At the same time, the initially high foaming ability of both concentrates and hydrolysates of whey proteins does not ultimately guarantee the production of foam with high stability. The aim of the study is to study the foaming properties (FP) of whey protein concentrate, as well as its hydrolysates and permeate, included in the formulation of a previously developed aerated product - mousse, with tracking the dynamics of structural and mechanical properties. According to the results of the experiment, it was found that in order to obtain stable foam masses, a large number of peptides with a molecular weight of less than 5 kDa or more than 10 kDa must be present in protein solutions. The highest values of FP were recorded in mousse samples using hydrolysates, but the permeability of the aerated gel also increased, which together led to a decrease in the stability of the system. While in mousses obtained on the basis of whey protein concentrates and fractionated permeate, a lower FP was noted, but the permeability of the gel was higher. According to the results of the assessment of rheological characteristics, it was found that the most stable during storage were samples based on whey protein concentrates and fractionated permeate. The values of their dynamic viscosity and thixotropy over time remained practically at the same level, which allows us to conclude that from the point of view of creating storage-stable aerated dairy products, it is preferable to use whey protein concentrates and permeate containing the maximum amount of low molecular weight peptides.

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3. Begunova A. V., Rozhkova I. V., Glazunova O. A., Moiseenko K. V., Savinova O. S. Fermentation profile and probiotic-related characteristics of Bifidobacterium longum MC-42. Fermentation. 2021;(7)3:101.
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8. Agarkova E. Yu., Chilikin A. Yu. The Role of Proteolysis in Aerated Texture Formation in Food Systems Using Whey Peptides. Pischevaya promyshlennost' = Food Industry. 2021;(8):44-46 (In Russ.).
Agarkova Evgeniya Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lyusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kuznetsov P. V., Gabrielova V. T.The influence of drying conditions on some functional properties of dry milk products

P. 28-31 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.007

Key words
spray drying process, dry milk products, cyclonic fraction, chamber fraction, free fat, reducing properties, flowability, tangent of repose

The issues of intensification of the spray drying process and the simultaneous improvement of the quality of the produced dry milk products by using a two-stage method are considered. The dependence of the moisture content of the cyclone fraction on the moisture content of the chamber fraction of the dried product was revealed, on the basis of which the possibility of conducting the drying process in two stages without the threat of clogging of the cyclone separators was shown. Carrying out the process in two stages leads to a decrease in free fat in the particles of the dried product. An expression is obtained for calculating this indicator (for the range of variation in the humidity of the chamber fraction of 3-8 %). A calculation formula has been proposed that makes it possible to assess the relative surface of the dry product particles covered with the fat phase, depending on the mass fraction of fat in it, obtained on the assumption that the distribution of the fat phase in the volume and on the surface of the particles obeys a probability law. The formula is correct for a freshly developed product. During storage, a redistribution of the fat fraction occurs both in the volume of particles and on their surface, which leads to a change in the proportion of free fat on the surface of the particles in the direction of its increase and, consequently, to a deterioration in the restorative properties of the product. In addition, it has been experimentally shown that an increase in the amount of the fat phase on the surface of the particles also leads to a deterioration in the flowability of the product, as evidenced by the change in the tangent of the angle of repose with an increase in the humidity of the chamber fraction to 6 %. A further increase in the humidity of the chamber fraction does not lead to a significant change in this indicator. The deterioration of the hydrophilic properties of the spray-dried dry product during storage is mainly due to the redistribution of the fat phase on the surface of the particles.

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Kuznetsov Pàvel V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Gabrielova Valentina T.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Kruchinin A. G.Study of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the polypeptide complex of concentrated dairy systems in the fermentation process

P. 32-35 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.008

Key words
milk, reverse osmosis, vacuum evaporation, enzymatically induced coagulation, rotational viscometry, pepsin, chymosin

The concentration of milk raw materials by means of various methods of baromembrane separation as an alternative to traditional vacuum evaporation (VV) is becoming more widespread due to gentle thickening modes in combination with the ability to control the composition of the produced concentrates due to the features of the selective permeability of membranes. Differences in micro- and macro-element ratios in retentates of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis (RO) have a significant impact on the structural and mechanical parameters of the resulting concentrated dairy systems. In the aspect of considering the specificity of the selectivity of OO-membranes, which ensures almost complete identity of the physicochemical parameters of milk retentates with traditional BB-concentrates, it becomes relevant to obtain new data in the field of comparative assessment of the biotechnological characteristics of polypeptide complexes of OO- and BB-concentrated milk systems under directed enzymatic action. The article presents the results of a study of a reverse osmosis retentate, a traditional explosive concentrate and the original skimmed raw milk in the process of enzymatically induced coagulation using instrumental control of dynamic rheology in conjunction with an assessment of the physicochemical parameters of model fermented clots (coagulates) obtained from experimental samples. The best structural and mechanical characteristics (duration of the induction period and phase of mass coagulation, dynamic viscosity in the gel point) in combination with optimal technological parameters (coagulate yield, mass fractions of protein and moisture of clots) showed samples of RO-retentate, naturally exceeding similar criterion values for skimmed milk. The lowest ability to gel formation was noted in the samples of the explosive concentrate, which was significantly inferior in all the studied parameters not only to the samples of the RO retentate, but also to the original skimmed raw milk. The obtained data confirmed that at the stage of pre-concentration of milk, the use of reverse osmosis separation is more promising than traditional vacuum evaporation. At the same time, the use of explosive concentrates may be a priority in the production of some groups of fermented dairy products, characterized by a soft (smearable) texture and high moisture content of coagulates.

1. Torkova A., Tsentalovich M., Fedorova T. V., Ryazantzeva K., Agarkova E. Y., Kruchinin A. Cheese whey catalytic conversion for obtaining a bioactive hydrolysate with reduced antigenicity. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(2):182-196. Special Issue. DOI: 10.12944/CRNFSJ.4.SPECIAL-ISSUE-OCTOBER.24.
2. Lauzin A., Pouliot Y., Britten M. Understanding the differences in cheese-making properties between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration concentrates. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(1):201-209. DOI:10.3168/jds.2019-16542.
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4. Semenikhina V. F., Rozhkova I. V., Begunova A. V., Raskoshnaya T. A., Shirshova T. I. Influence of microbiological and technological factors on the quality of cottage cheese. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii = Production quality control. 2018;(5):53-57 (In Russ.).
5. Mayorov A. A., Sidenko Yu. A., Musina O. N. New high-tech methods of rheological properties evaluation in cheesemaking: study of milk coagulation and formation of cheese curd structure. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pischevyh proizvodstv = Food processing: techniques and technology. 2017;45(2):55-61 (In Russ.). DOI:10.21179/2074-9414-2017-2-55-61.
6. Agarkova E. Yu., Ryazantseva K. A., Sherstneva N. E., Agarkov A. A. The perspective trends of the membrane technologies improvement. Aktual'nye voprosy molochnoj promyshlennosti, mezhotraslevye tekhnologii i sistemy upravleniya kachestvom = Actual issues of the dairy industry, cross-industry technologies and quality management systems. 2020;1(1/1): 21-28 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.37442/978-5-6043854-1-8-2020-1-21-28.
7. Lauzin A., Dussault-Chouinar I., Britten M., Pouliot Y. Impact of membrane selectivity on the compositional characteristics and model cheese-making properties of liquid pre-cheese concentrates. International Dairy Journal. 2018;(83):34-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.03.010.
Kruchinin Alexander G., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Krekker L. G., Donskaya G. A., Kolosova E. V., Drozhzhin V. M.Effect of aeration on the dynamics of antioxidant activity of symbiotic starter culture

P. 36-38 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.009

Key words
aeration, antioxidants, symbiotic starter culture

It is known that the processes of auto-oxidation are regulated by the antioxidant protection system of the cell. The synthesis of substances such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and other enzymes is the most pronounced phenomenon associated with the occurring antioxidant response. In addition, vitamins, metal-containing proteins are also involved in the system of antioxidant protection of microorganisms from auto-oxidation, and, not least, the ability of microorganisms to absorb and restore oxygen plays an important role. The antioxidant response of microorganisms that are part of multicomponent symbioses is poorly understood. It was previously found that oxidative stress in the nutrient medium of anaerobic cultures can cause their death due to the absence of antioxidant enzymes in their cells. In this regard, it is of interest to study the effect of additional mixing during the cultivation of a symbiotic starter culture, which can contribute to an increase in its antioxidant activity. The objective of this study is to obtain experimental data on the effect of aeration on the activity of the antioxidant system of a symbiotic starter culture consisting of thermophilic lactic acid rods, streptobacteria and yeast fermenting lactose, the choice of aeration modes that promote the growth of the antioxidant activity of the system and the maximum preservation of the diversity of the symbiosis of microorganisms implementing heterofermentative fermentation. The results of the conducted experimental studies showed that the introduction of additional stirring for 15 minutes after each hour of cultivation contributed to the improvement of the organoleptic parameters of the starter culture, an increase in the amount of yeast and, as a consequence, the accumulation of alcohol in the substrate. When stirring, there was no significant increase in the number of lactic acid sticks, but at the same time, in some cases, it did not inhibit their growth. A study of the antioxidant activity of the system showed that this process is most pronounced when mixing is introduced every hour of cultivation. In comparison with the control sample without mixing, the intensity of antioxidant protection was 50% higher. This is most often associated with the intensive release of exoenzymes, the composition of which requires further study.

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Krekker Lyudmila G., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Donskaya Galina A., Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Kolosova Elena V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Drozhzhin Viktor M.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Danilchuk T. N., Novosad Yu. G., Sidorova E. S.Antioxidant activity of milk whey

P. 39-42 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.010

Key words
milk serum, antioxidant activity

At present, the dairy industry is faced with the challenge of effectively processing serum to reduce production waste and increase profits. The milk serum is rich in vitamins, minerals and microelements, and contains organic acids, enzymes, probiotic bacteria, immune bodies. Serum is considered a natural product with a range of vital compounds, is rapidly absorbed by the body, and has high biological and nutritional value, which makes it possible to consider it as a raw material for producing enriched foods. The development of dairy production confirms the urgency of developing new serum products. The purpose of this work was to identify the antioxidant properties of serum as a cheese production secondary raw material and to study the changes in these properties during storage. The article provides a brief overview of the beneficial properties of serum, and provides experimental data on the study of its antioxidant activity. Methods for studying the serum properties are described. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the total amount of water-soluble antioxidants. To determine the content of water-soluble antioxidants, the coulometric titration method was used on an "Expert-006" instrument. It has been established that cheese serum has a high antioxidant activity, comparable to the activity of such well-known antioxidants as plant sprouts and preparations from plant sprouts. During storage, the serum antioxidant activity decreases. On the fifth day of storage, the serum antioxidant activity is 67% of its original value. The work was carried out at the Institute of Applied Biotechnology named after Academician I.A. Rogov in Moscow State University of Food Production. Serum for research was provided by the Experimental Production Center for Cheese Making of the Moscow State University of Food Production. The results reveal the milk serum as a biologically full product, which is useful for the development of multi-component complexes, in combination with various biologically active preparations, in order to create a new generation of functional products. In the future, such developments will make it possible to expand the range of dairy production as well as dairy and vegetable production for a healthy lifestyle.

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Danilchuk Tatyana N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Novosad Yulia G.,
Sidorova Elena S.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
33, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109029, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Manevich D. B.Influence of ultrasound impact on properties of milk proteins

P. 43-46 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.002

Key words
ultrasound treatment, milk proteins, cavitation

The paper presents a review of scientific research devoted to the influence of ultrasound treatment on the structural, physico-chemical and emulsifying properties of milk proteins using several parameters such as protein molecular size, protein structure and intrinsic viscosity. The characteristic features of the relationship between a certain processing duration and the level of exposure frequencies of ultrasonic waves are highlighted and described. Based on the above studies, a decrease in protein size related to destruction of untreated micelles by high tearing forces generated by ultrasonic cavitation has been observed. The behaviour of intramolecular particles of milk proteins during sonication was described by comparing different methods and conditions of raw material processing, in particular the effect of ultrasound through ultrasonic baths and probing. The ultrasonic treatment reduces the size and hydrodynamic volume of the proteins, while the molecular weight remains virtually unchanged. Despite this, emulsions obtained with ultrasound-treated proteins have droplet sizes similar to systems based on untreated proteins. Analysis of the experimental data considered allowed the hypothesis that ultrasound treatment had no significant effect on the rupture rate of protein particles because no significant changes in interfacial tension between untreated and ultrasound-treated protein emulsions were observed. Based on the material reviewed, it can be concluded that ultrasound in a wide pH range increases the average surface hydrophobicity and increases the level of free sulfhydryls. It has also been shown that milk proteins treated with ultrasound have the ability to increase the stability of emulsions through intramolecular interaction and cavitation pulses, which partially discredits the introduction of emulsifiers and enables manufacturers to move towards selling products with a 'clean label'. As a result of the analyzed material, we can conclude that the use of ultrasonic treatment of dairy raw materials, including in combination with traditional methods, is promising in terms of intensification of technological processes such as pasteurization, homogenization and drying.

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14. Kanina K. A., Krasulya O. N., Pastukh O. N., Semenova E. S. Study of the effect of acoustic cavitation on raw milk. Aktual'nye voprosy molochnoj promyshlennosti, mezhotraslevye tekhnologii i sistemy upravleniya kachestvom = Actual issues of the dairy industry, inter-branch technology and quality management systems. 2020;1(1):236-239 (In Russ.).
Manevich Denis B.
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lyusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sviridenko G. M., Kalabushkin V. V., Shishkina A. N., Uskova E. E.Storage stability of heat-treated cheeses for pizza

P. 47-51 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.011

Key words
heat-treated cheese, storage stability, functional properties, microbiological safety, quality

The article presents the results of a study of the patterns of change and indicators of safety, quality and functional properties of thermized cheeses made from Cagliatta cheese for later use in HoReCa for making pizza. Thermized cheeses were stored at temperatures of 4±2 °C, 10±2 °C and minus 14±2 °C for 150 days. To determine the storage capacity of thermized cheeses for pizza, standardized methods were used to determine the physicochemical parameters, as well as bacterial contamination, including the number of viable cells of mesophilic (QMAFAnM) and thermophilic (QTAFAnM) aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, coliform bacteria, yeast, mold fungi and spore anaerobic microorganisms. Studies of structural-mechanical (rheological) properties were carried out on a Weissenberg rheogoniometer, recording changes in the elastic modulus (G') and dynamic viscosity (?'). The processing of experimental data was carried out automatically using a system for collecting and processing data according to a specially developed program. For thermized cheeses, in addition to safety and quality indicators, the functional properties after baking, such as the length of the cheese thread, melting capacity, combustibleness, release of free fat and the number of blisters, are of decisive importance. The length of the cheese string, as one of the main functional properties of pizza cheese, was evaluated by fork test after baking. Functional properties such as blister count, combustibleness and free fat release were determined visually, and melting capacity was determined by the Schreiber method. The organoleptic evaluation of cheeses, including flavor, texture and appearance, as well as the assessment of functional properties, was carried out using conditional scales specially developed for each indicator. To generalize the results obtained in determining the storage capacity of thermized cheeses, a color scale of correspondence was developed. As a result of the research, it was found that the storage modes of thermized cheeses affect both the quality indicators and functional properties, as well as the storage capacity. The storage capacity of thermized cheese at temperatures of 4±2 °C and 10±2 °C is no more than 90 days. With negative temperature storage conditions, the storage capacity of cheeses can be extended up to 150 days.

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Sviridenko Galina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kalabushkin Vasiliy V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Shishkina Anastasiya N.,
Uskova Evgeniya E.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
19, Krasnoarmeysky boulevard, Uglich, Yaroslavl Region, 152613, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Filippova A. M., Glazkov S. V., Samoylov A. V.Development of a method for determining the food additive E960 (stevioside) by high performance liquid chromatography in samples of juice products

P. 52-55 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.012

Key words
steviol glycosides, stevioside, sweetener, food additive E960, juice products, chromatography, falsification

Currently, a number of sugar substitutes are added to the composition of many food products during their production in order to reduce the amount of sugar in the final product. The natural food additive E960 (stevioside) has found wide application due to its naturalness and the absence of negative effects on the consumer's body, but at present there is no regulated method for its detection in our country. The aim of this work was to develop and optimize an effective method for the preliminary isolation and extraction of the food additive E960 (stevioside) with subsequent analysis using high performance liquid chromatography in juice products. The work was carried out on the basis of VNIITek - a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems named after V.I. V.M. Gorbatov" RAS, laboratory of quality and food safety. As a result of the study, a method was developed for determining the food additive E960 by high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction conditions for the food additive E960 (stevioside) from juice products were selected in order to purify samples from mono- and disaccharides of natural origin and other organic compounds using solid-phase extraction on cartridges Agilent Bond Elut (USA), SAX, 500 mg, 3 ml and C18, 200 mg, 3 ml. Approbation of the developed method was carried out for the qualitative determination of the food additive E960 (stevioside) in various samples of juice products. Analysis of the juice production of the samples purchased in the commercial network showed the presence of peaks in the retention time range of 6.4-6.6 minutes, which indicates the presence of the food additive E960 in four samples. At the same time, this food additive was not indicated by the manufacturer in the labeling of these products. Thus, the studies carried out made it possible to develop methodological approaches to the qualitative detection of the food additive E960 - stevioside in juice drinks with preliminary purification using solid-phase extraction.

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Filippova Anastasiya M., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Glazkov Sergey V.,
Samoylov Artem V., Candidate of Biological Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow region, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Myalenko D. M., Fedotova O. B.Surface morphology of polyethylene film samples filled with titanium dioxide

P. 56-59 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.013

Key words
packing material, filled polyethylene film, titanium dioxide, morphology, bright field method, Feret diameter

New knowledge about the morphology of the surface of a polyethylene film filled with titanium dioxide (TiO2), intended for the manufacture of bags and bottling of milk, fermented milk products, packaging of sour cream and cottage cheese, as well as other food products, has been obtained. An analysis of the literature showed that titanium dioxide, which is part of the material under study, is a photosensitive material that provides protection from visible radiation and absorbs ultraviolet (UV). Fine particles of TiO2 added to the bulk of the polymer or to the surface layer effectively scatter visible radiation, which leads to the opacity of the polymer, and also absorb UV, protecting the polymer from photodegradation. In addition, with a small particle size of the filler, the color of the film may acquire a yellow tint. This paper presents the data of microscopic studies of the surface of a TiO2-modified, commercially available polyethylene film. In accordance with the literature data, the morphology of a polymeric material is influenced, first of all, by its nature, structure, ratio of the crystalline and amorphous phases, etc. The presented study is relevant, since the state of the surface of filled packaging materials can affect, ceteris paribus, the adhesive ability and wettability, which, in turn, in the technological aspect, determines the ability of the surface to perceive colorful printing, and determines the possibility of duplication (lamination) of the material. The studies carried out made it possible to obtain an array of 1187 particles and determine their Feret diameter. Since the film samples, visually, have a rich white color without yellowing, it can be stated that the particle size is sufficient to ensure the required appearance of the packaging material. The presented studies are of scientific novelty, since they allow obtaining completely new data on a well-known packaging object.

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16. Henk G. Merkus Particle Size Measurements: Fundamentals, Practice, Quality. 108 p.
Myalenko Dmitriy M., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Fedotova Ol'ga B., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of the Dairy Industry,
Moscow, 35, bld. 7À, Lyusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zhizhin N. A.Analysis of the carbohydrate composition of low-lactose milk by high-performance liquid chromatography

P. 60-63 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.014

Key words
low-lactose milk, HPLC, carbohydrate composition

Milk and its products are an important aspect of a balanced human diet. However, the problem of lactose intolerance associated with insufficient production of the lactase enzyme is relevant throughout the world. Therefore, the demand for low-lactose products is quite constant, which in turn leads to the expansion of its range. Currently, the market for dairy products that have undergone the technological process of enzymatic breakdown of lactose annually increases its growth rate. The main method used to obtain milk and dairy products with a reduced content of lactose or its complete absence is the introduction of the enzyme beta-galactosidase. The introduction of enzyme preparations into food products requires careful calculation, since both a deficiency and an excess of beta-galactosidase in a product can lead to undesirable consequences. An excess of the lactase enzyme content, according to the literature data, affects the process of proteolysis and, as a result, affects the shelf life of low-lactose products. While a deficiency will lead to incomplete hydrolysis and an increase in the residual lactose content in the product. In this regard, it is also important to improve methods for confirming the "status" of low-lactose products. One of the most widely used methods for quantifying carbohydrates is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this article, two chromatographic approaches for the analysis of the carbohydrate composition of milk using cation exchange and amino-phase columns are considered, and their comparative analysis is carried out. Based on the experimental data obtained, it was found that the use of a chromatographic column with an aminopropyl phase makes it possible to separate mono- and disaccharides of milk and dairy products with a higher resolution (a>1) than on a cation-exchange column. In addition, the time of analysis using an aminophase column was reduced from 30 to 15 minutes. Based on the developed approach, the robustness of the chromatographic technique used was tested. The possibility of using this technique for the quantitative assessment of mono- and disaccharides of milk and dairy products with the concentration of the determined components of less than 0.1 % is shown.

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6. Yurova E. A. Development of modern methods of analysis for the identification of milk and dairy products. Molochnaya reka = Dairy River. 2019;(2):22-25 (In Russ.).
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Zhizhin Nikolay A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, Lyusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Yurova E. A., Kobzeva T. V., Filchakova S. A.Demineralized whey as the main raw material for the production of specialized food products

P. 64-67 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.015

Key words
demineralized whey, proteins, minerals, specialized milk-based nutrition, trace elements, nitrates

The article analyzes the current regulatory documentation, scientific and technical literature, as well as the results of experimental studies in terms of the requirements for demineralized whey as a raw material for the manufacture of specialized food products with improved nutritional properties is given. In the study of whey samples demineralized according to physicochemical parameters, it was found that the content of mass fractions of protein, fat, solids can be regulated by technological processing modes. These indicators are very stable and fit into the requirements for specialized food products: the mass fraction of protein is not less than 11,7%, the mass fraction of moisture is not higher than 3,1 %, the mass fraction of fat is less than 0,5%, the mass fraction of lactose was in the range from 77,0 % to 82,0 %. Particular attention was paid to the measurement of nitrates and nitrites in the studied samples of demineralized milk whey. An increased content of nitrates was observed in individual whey samples obtained after the production of hard cheeses over 88,0 mg/kg, while in individual whey samples these values were at the level of 3,0-4,0 mg/kg. These results led to the conclusion that the selection of whey for the production of specialized food products must begin with raw milk and production technology, as well as taking into account all the raw materials used in production. In the course of the study, the norms for the content of mineral substances and nitrates were determined, which ensure the preservation of functional properties in a specialized food product: sodium content is not more than 30,0 mg/100 g, calcium is not more than 70,0 mg/100 g, magnesium is not more than 9,0 mg/100 g, potassium - no more than 85,0 mg/100 g, nitrates - no more than 20,0 mg/kg. The obtained research results made it possible to establish the dependence of the mass fraction of ash on the content of basic mineral substances in demineralized milk whey with a demineralization level of 90 %. The main influence on the increase in the mass fraction of ash has the content of calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorides.

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2. Agarkova E. Yu., Chilikin A. Yu. Features of the technology of dairy products enriched with whey proteins. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy Industry. 2021;(3):49-51 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.31515/1019-8946-2021-03-49-51
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16. TR CU 022/2011 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "Food products in terms of their labeling" (as amended on September 14, 2018) (In Russ.). ?
Yurova Elena A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kobzeva Tat'yana V.,
Filchakova Svetlana A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Zobkova Z. S.Aspects of the adaptive integration of the design methodology for whole milk products with an increased relative biological value

P. 68-71 DOI: 10.52653/PPI.2022.3.3.016

Key words
enriched fermented milk product, relative biological value, biotesting, adaptive integration of the methodology for creating whole milk products

An algorithm for the design of enriched sour-milk product with an extended area of extended criteria is developed. The enriching additives for the designed sour-milk product have been selected, the range of their doses and the nature of their influence on the indicators of the finished product have been determined. By the method of biotesting using the Tetrahymena pyriformis model, the criterion of optimality - the relative biological value index (RBV) of sour-milk product enriched with functional food ingredients in various combinations: lactulose, multivitamin premix, PUFA (Omega-3), antioxidants in the form of a dry extract of grape seeds containing 96 % oligomeric proanthocyanidins was defined. Dependence of relative biological value (RBV) on a type of the chosen functional food components is defined. The highest RBV value of the designed sour-milk product was established, equal to 160-170 % with respect to the control (100 %), containing multivitamin premix H33053 and lactulose. Rheological characteristics (effective viscosity, moisture-holding capacity of the developed enriched sour-milk product) were studied. The highest index of water-holding capacity (85.3 %) was observed in the experimental sample of the enriched sour-milk product made with the addition of grape-seed extract and lactulose. The highest relative viscosity index (Pa?s) was about 118 %, while in the control this index was about 59 %. The applied computer program for solving prescription problems and technological regulations for the production of enriched sour-milk product were developed. The methodology for designing whole-milk products of increased relative biological value (RBV), developed by VNIMI on the basis of the application of the express method of RBV evaluation and the selected criteria, was successfully tested in the production of sour-milk products: yogurt with sugar, made by tankage method with the addition of stabilizing additives, as well as in the production of sour-milk product enriched with functional ingredients. The results obtained allowed to proceed to a new stage of research related to the study of the peculiarities of adaptation of the developed methodology of RBV evaluation to the technologies of curd and curd products, including the influence on RBV of physical and chemical parameters of curd (mass fraction of protein, lactose, acidity) that significantly differ from similar parameters of the products studied earlier. The influence of production methods of different types of curd on the indicators of RBV is also to be studied.

1. Yurova E. A. Quality control and safety of functional products on a milk basis. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2020;(6):12-15 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.31515 / 1019-8946-2020-06-12-15
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5. Zobkova Z. S., Shelaginova I. R. On the development of a methodology for designing whole milk products. Molochnaya promyshlennost' = Dairy industry. 2021;(9):39-41 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.31515 / 1019-8946-2021-09-39-41
Zobkova Zinaida S., Doctor of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,
35, bld. 7, Lusinovskaya str., Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




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