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Food processing Industry №9/2020



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The results of the work of Food and Processing industry Enterprises of Russia

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS - A CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY

Akimov M.Yu.Preservation of lipids in fruit and berry products enriched omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFA)

P. 8-11 Key words
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxidation, sensory indicators, peroxide value

Abstract
Currently there is an increasing demand for functional foods fortified with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The use of PUFA in food production is complicated by its low solubility in aqueous media and their chemical instability. We aimed at studying of the impact of food matrix pH on the stability of PUFA and changes in its sensory parameters. The food matrix formulated from gelatin and MEG-3 biologically active additive (containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 acids) from DSM Eastern Europe LLC was modeled to study the impact of food pH on the PUFA oxidation rate. The PUFA oxidation was assessed on the basis of peroxide value and sensory parameters of the food matrix stored for 70 days. The initial peroxide value varied in the range of 1.2-1.6 mol (1/2O)/kg. The differences of initial peroxide values are explained by the pH the food. The lipid peroxide value increased with along with the increase in pH of the food. An increase of 0.1 mol (1/2O)/kg was observed on the 56th day of the experiment. It amounted to 1.5 mol (1/2O)/kg for the sample with pH=4.0, while at the pH of 3.0 the peroxide value increased by 0.1 mol (1/2O)/kg on the 49th day of storage and amounted to 1.3 mol (1/2O)/kg. These values were retained until the end of the experiment. The aroma and the taste of the tested food with pH=3 and pH=4 remained constant throughout the experimental storage period. For composing food products from fruit and berries enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, it is advisable to keep the food pH at <= 4.0 by blending the components with a high or low acidity.

References
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2. Yates CM, Calder PC, Rain-ger G. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2014. Vol. 141 (3). Ð. 272-282.
3. Bowen KJ, Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Are There Benefits? Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2016. Vol. 18 (11). P. 69.
4. Deckelbaum RJ, Torrejon C. The omega-3 fatty acid nutritional landscape: health benefits and sources. The Journal of Nutrition. 2012. Vol. 142 (3). P. 587-591.
5. Bates B, Cox L, Nicholson S, Page P, Prentice A, Steer T, Swan G. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: results from Years 5-6 (combined) of the rolling programme (2012/2013-2013/14). London: Public Health England, 2016. 29 p.
6. Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2015. Vol. 1851 (4). P. 469-484.
7. Jump, DB, Lytle KA, Depner CM, Tripathy S. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a treatment strategy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2018. Vol. 181. Ð. 108-125.
8. Ducheix S, Montagner A, Polizzi A, Lasserre F, Marmugi A, Bertrand-Michel J. Essential fatty acids deficiency promotes lipogenic gene expression and hepatic steatosis through the liver X receptor. Journal of Hepatology. 2013. Vol. 58 (5). P. 984-992.
9. Podzolkov VI, Tarzimanova AI. Znachenie omega-3 polinenasyshhennyh zhirnyh kislot v profilaktike narushenij serdechnogo ritma [The value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of heart rhythm disorders]. Racional'naja farmakoterapija v kardiologii [Rational pharmacotherapy in cardiology]. 2020. Vol. 16. No. 3. P. 498-502 (In Russ).
10. Sergienko VA, Man'kovskij BN, Sergienko LM, Sergienko AA. Vlijanie omega-3 polinenasyshhennyh zhirnyh kislot na parametry ambulatornogo monitoringa arterial'nogo davlenija u pacientov s saharnym diabetom 2 tipa i avtonomnoj nevropatiej serdca [Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on parameters of outpatient blood pressure monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and Autonomous heart neuropathy]. Saharnyj diabet [Diabetes]. 2019. Vol. 22. No. 1. P. 62-69 (In Russ).
11. Lenihan-Geels, G, Bishop KS. Alternative Origins for Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Diet. Cham: Springer, 2016. P. 475-486.
12. Yang B, Ahotupa M, Maatta P, Kallio H. Composition and antioxidative activities of supercritical CO2 extracted oils from seeds and soft parts of northern berries. Food Research International. 2011. Vol. 44 (7). Ð. 2009-2017.
13. Fatima T, Snyder CL, Schroeder WR, Cram D, Datla R, Wishart D, Weselake RJ, Krishna P. Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed. PLoS ONE. 2012. Vol. 7 (4). e34099.
14. Ding J, Ruan C, Guan Y, Krishna P. Identification of micro RNAs involved in lipid biosynthesis and seed size in developing sea buckthorn seeds using high-throughput sequencing. Scientific Reports. 2018. Vol. 8 (1). P. 1-15.
15. Stoica-Guzun A, Parvulescu OC, Brosteanu A, Chira N, Stroescu M, Dobre T. Influence of sea buckthorn pomace pre-treatment and drying conditions on the drying kinetics, quantity and quality of seed oil. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018. Vol. 57 (4). Ð. 363-372.
16. Kodencova VM, Vrzhesinskaja OA, Risnik DV, Nikitjuk DB, Tutel'jan VA. Obespechen-nost' naselenija Rossii mikronutrientami i vozmozhnosti ee korrekcii. Sostojanie problemy [Provision of the Russian population with micronutrients and opportunities for its correction. State of the problem]. Voprosy pitanija [Nutritional issues]. 2017. Vol. 86. No. 4. P. 113-124 (In Russ.).
17. Kodencova VM, Risnik DV, Nikitjuk DB. Obogashhenie produktov vitaminami: mediko-social'nyj i jekonomicheskij aspekty [Fortification of food with vitamins: medical, social and economic aspects]. Pishhevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2017. No. 9. P. 18-21 (In Russ.).
18. Isaev VA, Simonenko SV. PNZhK omega-3 i innovacionnye pishhevye tehnologii [Polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and innovative food technology]. Voprosy dietologii. [Dietetics issues]. 2015. Vol. 5. No. 3. P. 13-18 (In Russ.).
19. Walker RM, Decker EA, McClements DJ. Development of food-grade nanoemulsions and emulsions for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids: opportunities and obstacles in the food industry. Food & Function. 2015. Vol. 6 (1). Ð. 41
20. Jacobsen C, Nielsen NS, Horn AF, Sorensen A-DM. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013. 464 p.
21. Wang J, Shahidi F. Oxidative stability of marine oils as affected by added wheat germ oil. International Journal of Food Properties. 2017. Vol. 20 (sup 3). Ð. S3334 - S3344.
22. Shahidi F, Zhong Y. Lipid oxidation and improving the oxidative stability. Chemical Society Reviews. 2010. Vol. 39 (11). Ð. 4067-4079.
Authors
Akimov Mikhail Yu., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
I.V. Michurin Federal Scientific Center,
30, Michurin str., Michurinsk, Tambov Region, Russia, 393774, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Litvyak V.V., Solomin D.A., Zabolotets A.A., Ermakov A.I.Innovative method for producing natural starch, fractionated by the size of starch granules

P. 12-17 Key words
natural starch, starch grain, fractionation, technology

Abstract
Using a LEO 1420 scanning electron microscope (Germany) and, for metallization of the sample surface with gold, the EMITECH K 550X vacuum system, the sizes (maximum, minimum and average diameter) of natural starch grains of various biological origin were studied, and the equations of variational size distribution of native granules were obtained starch of various botanical origin. We are the first to propose an innovative method for the isolation of natural starch from various plant starch-containing raw materials with grain classification by size, as a result of the following process steps that are successively implemented: preparation of plant raw materials containing starch for processing, fine grinding of plant raw materials containing starch, separation of finely ground plant materials containing in a hydrocyclone installation starch for a starch suspension and a mixture of pulp with other by-products, partial thickening of a starch suspension in a hydrocyclone unit, dehydration, drying, removal of metallomagnetic impurities, packaging, packaging, labeling and transportation of starch. The innovative aspect of the technology is expressed in an additional technological stage - the classification of grains of natural dry natural starch by the size of three sub-stages. In the first sub-classification step, the grains of natural starch of the largest fraction with a diameter of more than 100 ?m are separated by means of a sieve using various sieves. In the second classification sub-stage, grains of medium-sized natural starch are separated with a diameter of 30-100 mkm in a centrifugal field using centrifuges of various designs. At the final third sub-classification stage, the grains of natural starch of the smallest fraction of 10-30 mkm are separated by filtration using filtering systems of various designs.

References
1. Dhital S, Warren FJ, Butterworth PJ, Ellis PR, Gidley MJ. Mechanisms of starch digestion by alfa-amylase - structural basis for kinetic properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2017. Vol. 57. P. 875-892.
2. Bertoft E. Understanding starch structure: Recent progress. Agronomy. 2017. Vol. 7. P. 56.
3. Wang Juan, Guo Ke, Fan Xiaoxu, Feng Gongneng, Wei Cunxu. Physicochemical Properties of C-Type Starch from Root Tuber of Apios fortunei in Comparison with Maize, Potato, and Pea Starches. Molecules. 2018. Vol. 23. No. 9. P. 21-32.
4. Zhu F. Structures, physicochemical properties, and applications of amaranth starch. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2017. Vol. 57. P. 313-325.
5. Zhu J, Zhang S, Zhang B, Qiao D, Pu H, Liu S, Li L. Structural features and thermal property of propionylated starches with different amylose/amylopectin ratio. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017. Vol. 97. P. 123-130.
6. Li G, Wang S, Zhu F. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2016. Vol. 137. P. 328-338.
7. Karunaratne R, Zhu F. Physicochemical interactions of maize starch with ferulic acid. Food Chemistry. 2016. Vol. 199. P. 372-379.
8. Lin Amy Hui-Mei. Structure and Digestion of Common Complementary Food Starches. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2018. Vol. 66. P. S35 - S38.
9. Zhang L, Zhao L, Bian X, Guo K, Zhou L, Wei C. Characterization and comparative study of starches from seven purple sweet potatoes. Food Hydrocoll. 2018. Vol. 80. P. 168-176.
10. He W, Wei C. Progress in C-type starches from different plant sources. Food Hydrocoll. 2017. Vol. 73. P. 162-175.
11. Fan X, Zhao L, Zhang L, Xu B, Wei C. A new allomorph distribution of C-type starch root tuber of Apios fortune. Food Hydrocoll. 2017. Vol. 66. P. 334-342.
12. Zhang S, Fan X, Lin L, Zhao L, Liu A, Wei C. Properties of starch from root tuber of Stephania epigaea in comparison with potato and maize starches. International Journal of Food Protection. 2017. Vol. 20. P. 1740-1750.
13. He W, Fan X, Wang Z, Wei C. Application of quantitative graphical method based on small angle X-ray scattering spectrum in crop starch study. Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2017. Vol. 43. P. 1827-1834.
14. Gulyuk NG, Zhushman AL, Ladur TA, Shtyrkova EA. Krahmal i krahmaloprodukty [Starch and starch products]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985. 240 p. (In Russ.)
15. Andreev NR. Osnovy proizvodstva nativnyh krahmalov [Basics of native starch production]. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 2001. P. 289 (In Russ.).
16. Litvyak V, Zabolotets A, Ermakov A, Ospankulova G. Morphological characteristics of starch granules of various varienies of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Ukrainian Food Journal. 2019. Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 18-33.
17. Drejper N, Smit G. Prikladnoj regressionnyj analiz [Applied regression analysis]. Mnozhestvennaya regressiya = Applied Regression Analysis. 3 e izd. Moscow: Dialektika, 2007. 912 p. (In Russ.)
18. Radchenko SG. Metodologiya regressionnogo analiza: Monografiya [Regression analysis methodology: Monograph]. Kiev: Kornijchuk, 2011. 376 p. (In Russ.)
19. James N. BeMiller, Roy L. Whistler. Starch: Chemistry and Technology. 3rd Edition. Academic Press, 2009. 894 p.
20. Roy LW, James NB, Eugene FP. Starch: Chemistry and Technology. Academic Press, 2012. P. 220.
21. Demskij AB, Veden'ev VF. Oborudovanie dlya proizvodstva muki, krupy i kombikormov [Equipment for the production of flour, cereals and feedstuffs]. Moscow: Deli print, 2005. 760 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Litvyak Vladimir V., Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Solomin Dmitry A.
Research Institute of Starch Products - Branch of V.?M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for food systems of RAS,
11, Nekrasova str., Kraskovo village, Moscow Region, Lyuberetskiy district, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zabolotets Anastasiya A., graduate student
Scientific and Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus',
29, Kozlova str., Minsk, Republic of Belarus', 220037, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ermakov Aleksey I.
Belarusian National Technical University,
65, Independence avenue, Minsk, Republic of Belarus', 220013, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tabatorovich A.N., Stepanova E.N., Bakaitis V.I.Analysis of the use of enriching additive in sugar confectionery products

P. 18-22 Key words
enriching additives, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, iodcasein, succinic acid

Abstract
Practical aspects of the introduction of enriching additives: ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, iodcasein and succinic acid into the formulations of marmalade, pastila and candy are considered. The recommended daily norms and the maximum level of consumption of basic micronutrients additives for various groups of the Russian population are systematized. The physical and chemical properties of additives, in general, are optimal for introduction into the confectionery masses. Ascorbic acid is the most labile additive, its losses depending on the name in manufacture of unglazed marmalade on agar averaged 23.7-35.8 %. Losses of ascorbic acid in the manufacture of pastila averaged 44.0-48.9 %. Given the low risk of ascorbic acid hypervitaminosis, the calculated bookmark rate should be increased by 50-100 %, especially for products on pectin, pastila, whipped candy, as well as in unglazed and fat-containing products. Coating products with glaze and using by airtight packaging is an effective method of stabilizing ascorbic acid during storage. Enrichment with synthetic beta-carotene is most effective together with ascorbic acid, which contributes to its stability during production and storage. The dosage of iodkazein was (mg / kg): in a pastila for adults of both sexes 19.5; for children 3-14 years 15.6; in a pastila of specialized purpose for \pregnant and nursing women 64.9. Loss of iodine in the manufacture and storage of products not identified. The effectiveness of succinic acid as a regulator of acidity and an enriching additive in combination with ascorbic acid is shown. The optimal dosage of succinic acid is 2.0-2.5 g/kg of products with 100 % preservation. Enriching additives should be introduced at the end of the technological process and cooling of confectionery masses. Complex enrichment of sugar products with premixes and combinations of individual additives is a priority.

References
1. Tekhnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza "O bezopasnosti pishchevoj produkcii" TR TS 021/2011: (utv. resheniem Komissii Tamozhennogo soyuza ot 9 dekabrya 2011 g. ¹ 880) [Technical regulations of the Customs Union "On food safety"]. [Electronic resource]. [cited 2020 Apr. 5]. Available from: http:// www.base.garant.ru/70106650/
2. Kodencova VM, Vrzhesinskaya OA, Spirichev VB, SHatnyuk LN. Obosnovanie urovnya obogashcheniya pishchevyh produktov vitaminami i mineral'nymi veshchestvami [Substantation of vitamins and minerals level in fortified foodstuffs]. Voprosy pitaniya [Problems of nutrition]. 2010. No 1. P. 23-33 (In Russ.).
3. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washi-ngton DC: Institute of Medicines, National Academy Press, 2000. 506 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/9810
4. Sarafanova LA. Pishchevye dobavki: Enciklopediya, 2 e izdanie. [Nutrition additives]. Saint-Peterburg: Giord, 2004. 808 p. (In Russ.)
5. Normy fiziologicheskih potrebnostej v energii i pishchevyh veshchestvah dlya raz-lichnyh grupp naseleniya Rossijskoj Federacii: metodicheskie rekomendacii MR 2.3.1.2432-08. [Norms of physiological requirements for energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation]. Moscow: Federal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor Publishing, 2008. 50 p.
6. Tabatorovich AN. Razrabotka i tovarovednaya ocenka marmeladno-pastil'nyh izdelij, obogashchennyh mikronutrientami [Development and commodity assessment of marmalade and pastille products enriched with micronutrients]; thesis of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Kemerovo: Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, 2012. 22 p.
7. Tabatorovich AN, Stepanova EN. Razrabotka i ocenka kachestva tykvennogo marmelada, obogashchennogo askorbinovoj kislotoj [Development and quality evaluation f pumpkin marmalade, enriched with ascorbic acid]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv [Food Processing: Techniques and Technology]. 2012. No. 4. P. 57-64 (In Russ.).
8. Leonov DV, Muratova EI. Razrabotka tekhnologii zhelejnyh konfet funkcional'nogo naznacheniya [Development of technology of jelly candies of the functional purpose]. Voprosy sovremennoj nauki i praktiki (Universitet im. V.?I. Vernadskogo) [Problems of modern science and practice. University named after V.I. Vernadsky]. 2010. No. 4-6 (29). P. 328-335.
9. Spirichev VB, Shatnyuk LN, Poznyakovs-kij VM. Obogashchenie pishchevyh produktov vitaminami i mineral'nymi veshchestvami: nauka i tekhnologiya [Food fortification with vitamins and minerals: science and technology]. Novosibirsk: Siberian University Publishing, 2004. 548 p. (In Russ.)
10. Haldimann M, Alt A, Blanc A, Blondeau K. Iodine content of food groups. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2005. Vol. 18. P. 461-471. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.003
11. Primenenie jodkazeina dlya preduprezhdeniya joddeficitnyh zabolevanj v kachestve sredstva populyacionnoj, gruppovoj i individual'noj profilaktiki jodnoj nedostatochnosti: Metodicheskie rekomendacii MR 2.3.7.1916-04. [Use of yodkazein for the prevention of iodine-deficient diseases as a means of population, group and individual prevention of iodine deficiency]. Moscow: Federal Center of Gossanepidnadzor of Russia Ministry of health Publishing, 2004. 15 p.
12. Tabatorovich AN, Reznichenko I Yu. Tekhnologiya i ocenka kachestva pastily, obogashchennoj organicheskim jodom [Technology and quality estimation of pastila, enriched with organic iodine]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv [Food Processing: Techniques and Technology]. 2016. No. 1 (40). P. 61-67 (In Russ.).
13. Shakhmardanova SA, Gulevskaya ON, Khananashvili Ya A, Zelenskaya AV, Nefedov DA, Galenko-Yaroshevskiy PA. Preparaty yantarnoj i fumarovoj kislot kak sredstva profilaktiki i terapii razlichnyh zabolevanij [Succinic and fumaric acid drugs for prevention and treatment of various diseases]. Zhurnal fundamental'noj mediciny i biologii [Journal of fundamental medicine and biology]. 2016. No. 3. P. 16-30 (In Russ.).
14. Rekomenduemye urovni potrebleniya pishchevyh i biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv: Metodicheskie rekomendacii MR 2.3.1.1915-04 [Recommended levels of intake of nutritional and biologically active substances]. Moscow: Federal Center of Gossanepidnadzor of Russia Ministry of health Publishing, 2004. 36 p.
15. Stepanova EN, Tabatorovich AN. Vozmozhnost' ispol'zovaniya yantarnoj kisloty v tekhnologii proizvodstva marmelada [Possibility of using succinic acid in the technology of marmalade manufacture]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv [Food Processing: Techniques and Technology]. 2010. No. 2 (17). P. 8-12 (In Russ.).
16. Reznichenko I Yu, Tabatorovich, AN, Chistyakov AM. Sposob proizvodstva zhelejnogo marmelada specializirovannogo naznacheniya, obogashchennogo yantarnoj kislotoj [Method of production of jelly marmalade of specialized purpose, enriched with succinic acid]. Russia patent RU 2659239C1. 2018.
17. Shatnyuk LN, Miheeva GA, Nekrasova TE, Kodencova VM. Vitaminno-mineral'nye premiksy v tekhnologii produktov zdorovogo pitaniya [Vitamin and mineral premixes in technology of healthy food products]. Pishhevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2014. No. 6. P. 42-47.
18. Galieva AI. Razrabotka i issledovanie potrebitel'skih svojstv obogashchennogo drazhe [Development and research of consumer properties of enriched dragee]; Dissertation Abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Kemerovo: Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry, 2014. 16 p.
19. Produkciya kompanii "YUG" [Products of the company "South"]. [cited 2020 Apr 7]. Available from: https://www.ug-pantoprodukt.ru/products
Authors
Tabatorovich Alexander N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Stepanova Elena N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bakaitis Valentina I., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Siberian University of Consumer Ñooperation,
26, K. Marx avenue, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630087, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Yamaletdinova M.F.Specification of the heat capacity of seeds shell of local Uzbekistan sorts of the apricot

P. 23-25 Key words
apricot seed, thermophysical properties, temperature, thermal capacity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, shell, seed, amount of heat, absorption

Abstract
Local sorts of apricot have high commodity and taste qualities. Apricots contain up to 20-23 % sugar, mineral salts, microelements, organic acids, pectin and vitamins, especially vitamin A and vitamin C. There are many biologically active substances in the apricots and they have dietary and medicinal properties. Apricots contain seeds that are considered as a waste - this definition is most obtained by apricot seeds, which benefits and harm are ignored. Sweet apricot seeds are used in the confectionery production, medicine, pharmaceuticals and cosmetology. Bitter-tasting apricot seeds can also be used as a substitute for almonds after an appropriate processing. Apricot seed shell is a good raw material for the production of activated coal. After charring the shell of the seeds, it is possible to get a black dye that resembles mascara. In Uzbekistan, apricot seeds are used to make various Oriental sweets and shurdanak (salted seeds), it is a delicious delicacy of Central Asia. These are slightly split at the seam of salty seeds of the apricot. They acquire a whitish color during baking, because they are baked in the ash after salting. In this article, the author has studied the thermophysical characteristics of the apricot shell and seed. Thermophysical characteristics, that is, heat capacity is the amount of heat that is required to increase the temperature of an object of a certain mass in a certain temperature range, it determines the nature and speed of the process. The heat capacity indicator is the specific heat capacity, which is determined by the amount of heat that needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of product by 1 °C. The author has carried out experiments to determine the heat capacity of the shell of the apricot seed. According to the experimental data, the specific heat of the shell of apricot seeds was determined, which makes it possible to further study of the calculation of heat and mass transfer processes that occurring during the processing of apricot seeds.

References
1. Bajmetov KI, Turdieva MK, Nazarov P. Osobennosti vozdelyvanija mestnyh sortov abrikosa v Uzbekistane [Features of cultivation of local varieties of apricot in Uzbekistan]. Tashkent, 2011 (In Russ.).
2. Scherbakov VG, Lobanov VG. Biohimija i tovarovedenie maslichnogo syr'ja [Biochemist-ry and commodity oilseeds]: uchebnik. 7 e izdanie. Saint Petersburg: Lan', 2016. 392 p. (In Russ.)
3. Ginzburg AS, Gromov MA, Krasovskaja GI. Teplofizicheskie harakteristiki pishhevyh produktov [Thermophysical characteristics of food]. Moscow: Pischevaya promyshlennost', 1980. 288 p. (In Russ.)
4. Gafurov KH, Il'jasov SG, Safarov OF, Shomurodov TR. Teplofizicheskie harakteristiki jader kostochek abrikosa [Thermophysical characteristics of apricot kernel kernels]. Pischevaya promyshlennost'. 1991. No. 11. P. 78 (In Russ.).
5. Panin AS. Issledovanie teplofizicheskih processov obrabotki polufabrikatov hlebopekarnogo proizvodstva [Study of thermophysical processes for the processing of semi-finished bakery products]; thesis of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Moscow, 1979. 196 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Yamaletdinova Munira F., graduate student
Bukhara Engineering and Technology Institute,
15, Kayuma Murtazaeva str., Bukhara, Republic of Uzbekistan, 200100, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Samoylov A.V., Suraeva N.M., Rachkova V.P., Petrov A.N.Evaluation of starch content level in tomato ketchup

P. 26-29 Key words
ketchup, starch, anthrone reagent, reaction with iodine, quality of food products

Abstract
To maintain high consumer characteristics of tomato products, constant monitoring of compliance with the use of food additives in their production, including starch as a thickener, is required. In this work, for the first time, a comparative analysis of the results of detecting the presence of added starch was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods in the composition of tomato ketchups from various manufacturers. The research was carried out at VNIITEK - a branch of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Scientific Center for Food Systems named after V.M. Gorbatova RAS. Samples of nine types of tomato ketchups of various categories from eight manufacturers developed according to GOST and TU were used as objects of study. The quantitative content of starch was determined using an anthrone reagent. The qualitative method was based on the reaction of the formation of a colored complex compound of starch with iodine. The range of detected starch concentrations in ketchups, in the labeling of which starch was declared, ranged from 3.09 to 4.78 %. In accordance with the results of the quantitative determination of this carbohydrate and taking into account literature data on the average proportion of natural starch in raw materials, in all 7 types of ketchups produced according to GOST, there were no violations related to information falsification misleading the potential consumer regarding its content. Whereas after the color reaction with iodine, such violations were detected in more than half of the samples of the indicated products (57%). In all samples of ketchups developed according to TU, using the quantitative method, violations related to information falsification on declaring the quality of a product misleading a potential consumer by the presence of the word "tomato" in the labeling were recorded.

References
1. GOST 32063-2013. Ketchupy. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standard 32063-2013. Ketchups. General specifications]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. 11 p.
2. GOST R 54347-2011. Produkty pererabotki fruktov i ovoshchej. Kachestvennyj metod vyyavleniya prisutstviya krahmala v tomatoproduktah [State Standard R54347-2011. Processed fruits and vegetables. Qualitative test method for identification of starch presence in tomato products]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2012. 3 p.
3. Himicheskij sostav pishchevyh produktov: spravochnik [Chemical composition of food products: reference]. Pod redakciej IM Skurihina, MN Volgareva [Edited by IM Skurikhin and MN Volgareva]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. 329 p. (In Russ.)
4. GOST 3343-2017 Produkty tomatnye koncentrirovannye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standard 3343-2017 Concentrated tomato products. General specifications]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2018. 13 p.
5. Rachkova VP, Suraeva NM, Glazkov SV, Samojlov AV. Spektrofotometricheskoe opredelenie krahmala v tomatnyh produktah s antronovym reaktivom [Spectrophotometric determination of starch in tomato products with anthrone reagent]. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin of KrasGAU]. 2018. No. 6. P. 187-193 (In Russ.).
6. Salunkhe DK, Jadhav SJ, Yu MH. Quality and nutritional composition of tomato fruit as influenced by certain biochemical and physiological changes. QuaI. Plant. H. Fds. hum. Nutr. XXIV. 1974. No. 1/2. P. 85-113.
7. Promyshlennye tekhnologii konservirovaniya: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Industrial canning technologies: textbook for universities]. Pod redakciej doktora tekhnicheskih nauk, akademika RAN AN Petrova [Edited by Doctor of Technical Sciences, Academician of RAS AN Petrov]. Moscow, 2018. 603 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Samoylov Artem V., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Suraeva Natalya M., Doctor of Biological Sciences,
Rachkova Vera P.,
Petrov Andrey N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Àcademician of RÀS
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology - Branch of V.?M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems for RAS,
78, Moscow region, Vidnoe, Shkol'naya str., 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Nuraliev S.U.Features of ensuring the competitiveness of domestic food in the new economic conditions

P. 30-33 Key words
economic policy, trade and sales policy, competition, competitiveness, food, government support, regulation, food market

Abstract
The competitiveness of domestic food in the domestic and international markets in the new economic conditions largely depends on the availability of guaranteed sales channels and the effectiveness of the state trade and sales policy. Government intervention and the development of its own commodity distribution infrastructure should be aimed at creating conditions for the development of fair competition in the circulation of food products between various distribution channels. Foreign experience of state support for the development of its own commodity distribution infrastructure testifies to a more efficient use of society's economic resources and minimization of costs in the field of food products. An effective state trade and sales policy allows manufacturers to solve the problem of guaranteed sales of manufactured products in the domestic and international markets based on the rational use of the economic resources of society and the realization of the country's competitive advantages in world commodity markets.

References
1. Veduta E. Cifrovaja jekonomika privedet k jekonomicheskoj kibersisteme [Digital economy will lead to an economic cyber system]. Mezhdunarodnaja zhizn' [International Affairs]. 2017. No. 10. P. 87-102 (In Russ.).
2. Kiselev SV. Sel'skaja economica: uchebnik [Rural Economics: Textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-Moscow, 2010. 572 p. (In Russ.)
3. Novak R. Sozdanie i razvitie optovyh prodovol'stvennyh rynkov v Pol'she [Creating the development of wholesale food markets in Poland]. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Materials of the International scientific-practical conference]. Moscow, 2017. 300 p. (In Russ.)
4. Nuraliev SU. Torgovo-economicheskaja politika i ee rol' v obespechenii economicheskoj i prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti strany [Trade and economic policy and its role in ensuring the economic and food security of the country]. Economica sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajuschih predprijatij [Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises]. 2019. No. 5. P. 22-25. (In Russ.).
5. Nuraliev SU. Mezhdunarodnaja torgovlja: uchebnik [International trade: textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2018. 307 p. (In Russ.)
6. Nuraliev SU. Economica: uchebnik [Economics: textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2019. 363 p.
7. Nuraliev SU. Osnovnye napravlenija i zadachi torgovo-jekonomicheskoj politiki v obespechenii prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti [The main directions and objectives of trade and economic policy in ensuring food security]. Pischevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019. No. 3. P. 14-17. (In Russ.).
8. Nuraliev SU. Osobennosti razvitija torgovli prodovol'stviem v Rossii i za rubezhom [Features of the development of food trade in Russia and abroad]. Economica sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajushhij predprijatij [Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises]. 2020. No 3. P. 10-15. (In Russ.).
9. Rossija v cifrah 2018: kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik. Rosstat [Russia in numbers 2018: brief statistical compilation]. Moscow, 2019. 522 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Nuraliev Sirajidin U., Doctor of Economical Sciences, Professor
Union of the markets of Russia,
14, V. Voloshinoy str., Mytischi, Moscow Region, 141014, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kolonchin K.V., Seregin S.N., Sysoev G.V.Food complex in Russia - 2019: results and tasks of the upcoming period in the new conditions of development. Part II

P. 34-40 Key words
innovation, secured, resources, investments, economic growth, agro-industrial complex, fishery complex

Abstract
Implementation of state programs for the development of agroindustrial and fishery complexes with the provision of state support to organizations ensured the achievement of food safety criteria in Russia. Along with this, further production growth, export development and increased competitiveness are possible only if the existing gaps in various sectors are closed on a new technical and technological basis for enterprises that constitute the industrial core of agricultural and fishing production. To further develop the market for new types of healthy food products, the state must solve the problems of poverty reduction in order to expand the aggregate demand in the food market of the country. Software innovations and state support of these areas of development will expand the space of strategies in this direction, ensure the scale of production of these products to enhance health and increase the life expectancy of the population.

References
1. Doktrina prodovol'stvennoy bezopasnosty Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 21.01.2020 No. 20) [Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of January 21, 2020 No. 20)]. Available from: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/45106/page/1 [cited 2020 Jan].
2. Strategii razvitiya agropromyshlennogo i rybokhoziastvennogo komplexov Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2030 goda (Rasporiagjeniya Pravitelstva RF ot 12.04.2020 No. 993 r) [Strategies for the development of agro-industrial and fisheries complexes of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030 (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 12, 2020 No. 993 r)]. Available from: http://government.ru/department/59/events/[cited 2020 Jan].
3. Strategiya razvitiya rybohoziaystvennogo komplexa Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2030 goda (Rasporiazhenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 26 noyabrya 2019 g. ¹ 2798 ð.) [Strategy for the development of the Russian Federation fisheries complex for the period up to 2030 (Order of the Russian Federation Government of November 26, 2009 No. 2798 ð.)]. Available from: http://government.ru/docs/38448/
4. Informatzionnye materialy Komiteta Soveta Federatsii po agrarno-prodovol'stvennoy politike i prirodopol'zovaniyu ot 21.01.2020 k soveschaniju "Aktual'nye voprosy razvitiya otechestevennogo traktorostroenija" [Information materials of the Federation Council Committee on Agrarian and Food Policy and Environmental Management dated 21.01.2020 to the meeting "Topical issues of the domestic tractor building's development"]. Available from: http://council.gov.ru/events/news/112544/
5. Lukonin SA. Rossiya i Kitay: predely sotrudnitchestva. Trudy vol'nogo ekonomitcheskogo obschestva Rossii [Russia and China: the limits of cooperation. Works of Russian Free Economic Society]. Trudy Vol'nogo ekonomitcheskogo obschestva Rossii [Proceedings of the Free Economic Society of Russia]. 2019. Vol. 220. P. 71-82 (In Russ.).
6. Mozias PM. Projekt "Odin poyas, odin put'" i rossijsko-kitajskoe ekonomitcheskoe sotrudnitchestvo: jeshcho odin shans? ["One Belt, One Road" project and Russian-Chinese economic cooperation: another chance?]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2019. No. 12. P. 47-71 (In Russ.).
7. Ershov MV, Tanasova AS. Mir i Rossiya: infliatsyia minimal'na, ekonomicheskiy rost zamedlyaetsya, risky povyshajutsya [The world and Russia: inflation is minimal, economic growth is slowing down, risks are rising]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2019. No. 12. P. 5-23 (In Russ.).
8. Mau VA. Ekonomika i politika v 2019-2020 gg.: global'nye vyzovy i natzional'nye otvety [Economics and politics in 2019-2020: global challenges and national answers]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2020. No. 3. P. 5-27 (In Russ.).
9. Kapeljushnikov RI. Komanda T. Piketti o neravenstve v Rossii; kollektsiya statisticheskikh artefaktov [Piketty's team on inequality in Russia: a collection of statistical atefacts]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2020. No. 4. P. 67-106 (In Russ.).
10. Kolodko Gj V. Posledstviya. Ekonomika I politika v postpandemicheskom mire [After. Economics and politics of the post-pandemic world]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2020. No. 5. P. 25-44 (In Russ.).
11. Drapkin IM, Lukjanov SA, Bokova AA. Vlijanie pryamikh inostrannih investitzii v rossijskoy ekonomike [Influence of foreign direct investment on domestic investment in the Russian economy]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2020. No. 5. P. 69-85 (In Russ.).
12. Rodrik D. Otkrovennyi razgovor o tor-govle. Idei dlya razumnoy mirovoy ekonomiki. [Straight Talk on Trade. Ideas for a Smart World Economy]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Instituta Gaydara, 2019. P. 384 (In Russ.).
13. Malgan D. Iskusstvo gosudarstvennoy strategii [Art of the state strategy]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Instituta Gaydara, 2020. P. 472 (In Russ.).
14. Bloom N, Van Reenen J, Williams H. Politika poddergky innovatzii: nabor instrumentov [A toolkit of policies to promote innovation]. Voprosy Ekonomiki [Economic Issues]. 2019. No. 10. P. 5-31 (In Russ.).
15. Informatsionnie materialy [Information materials]. Available from: www.soyanews.inf
Authors
Kolonchin Kirill V., Candidate of Economic Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
17, Verkhnyaya Krasnoselskaya str., Moscow, 107140, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Seregin Sergey N., Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor
Federal Scientific Center of Food Systems named after V.?M. Gorbatov,
26, Talalikhina str., Moscow, 109316
Sysoev Georgy V., applicant
Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky,
23, Gagarina avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950



Ustinova Yu.V., Ermolaeva E.O., Chistyakov A.M., Nikiforova Yu.D. Structure of working time spent by a chemical engineer in the food industry

P. 41-44 Key words
photo of the working day, working time, chemical engineer, food enterprise, supervision, processing

Abstract
To manage personnel and their productivity, the company needs to master the method of "working day photography", which allows you to study the time distribution of a particular employee. The purpose of the study is to identify the reasons for not completing tasks, study the time spent on each operation and optimize the labor process as a whole. According to the classification of costs, the article studied the structure of the working time of a chemical engineer working at food enterprises. It was found that the share of working time of a chemical engineer is 75 %, and the share of breaks is 25 %. the main expenses of working time are the main 28 % and auxiliary 38 % work. As it turned out, it takes a considerable time to fill in the log, because the calculation work for filling in is performed manually, and the data is in the electronic journal "Journal of pick-up and delivery operators and car wash operators", which is maintained by the acceptance Group, entering the name of the supplier in any form, as a result of which one supplier may have several names in the log, which forces the chemical engineer to additional manual summation. Processing negatively affects the psychological and sometimes physical condition of the employee, leads to a decrease in motivation, interest in work, violation of discipline, failure to fulfill their tasks, reduced stress tolerance and conflicts in the enterprise, as well as working overtime can lead to premature wear and tear of equipment.

References
1. Akmulina NV, Akhmetov FG. Ispol'zovanie rabochego vremeni v radiologicheskom otdele respublikanskoj veterinarnoj laboratorii [Use of working hours in the radiological Department of the Republican veterinary laboratory]. Nauchnie zapiski KGAVM imeni Baumana [Scientific notes of KHAWM them. N.Uh. Bauman]. 2010. P. 6-10 (in Russ.).
2. Vasina GI, Maslennikov AV, Kalachev IA, Kuz'min MS. Avtomatizirovannaya obrabotka fotografij rabochego dnya [Automated processing of working day photos]. Sovremennie problemi nauki i obrazovaniya [Modern problems of Science and Education]. 2012. No. 5. P. 238 (in Russ.).
3. Puchkova LS. Optimizaciya rabochego vremeni v kontekste berezhlivosti [Optimizing working time in the context of thrift]. Kontsept [Concept]. 2017. P. 50-55 (in Russ.).
4. Fomichyov SK, Skryabina NI, Urazlina O Yu. "Berezhlivoe upravlenie": upravlenie potokom sozdaniya cennosti [Lean management: managing the value stream]. Metodi menedzhmenta kachestva [Quality management methods]. 2012. No. 7. P. 15-21 (in Russ.).
5. Avdeev SY, Lukin AS. Metodicheskie osnovy primeneniya koncepcii berezhlivogo proizvodstva dlya povysheniya effektivnosti hozyajstvuyushchih sub'ektov [Methodological bases for applying the concept of lean production to improve the efficiency of economic entities]. Economicheskie nauki [Economics]. 2011. No. 3 (76). P. 82-85 (in Russ.).
6. Imai M, Kaydzen G. Klyuch k uspekhu yaponskih kompanij [The key to the success of Japanese companies]. Moscow: Alpina publisher, 2017. 274 p.
Authors
Ustinova Yuliya V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Ermolaeva Evgeniya O., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Chistyakov Andrey M., graduate student,
Nikiforova Yuliya D., undergraduate
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650043, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Prodexpo is the largest international food and beverage exhibition in Russia and Eastern Europe

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

Khrulev A.A., Dubrovskaya O.V. Flottweg Sedicanter® in the production of vegetable proteins

Belyaeva M.A., Eremin A.E.The Stage-Gate method in the food industry, grocery retail and chain restaurant business on the example of an overview of innovative technologies for increasing the shelf life of meat products

P. 48-51 Key words
HPP, Ready to Eat&Ready to Cook, Stage-Gate, research & development, active packaging

Abstract
The article deals with the general method of modern developing processes in new technologies - the stage-gate method which is widely used in the food industry, grocery retail and restaurant chains. Using the example of an idea to increase the shelf life of meat products (ready to cook meals), the review of innovative technologies that allow to implement the business task is considered. The authors consider the main methods. Microbiological aspects of the effectiveness of these models for the production of ready meals and semi-finished products of various degrees of readiness are described. The article describes various physical, chemical, and microbiological methods for increasing the shelf life of food products. The paper describes the application of high hydrostatic pressure, ionizing radiation, technology of supercooling, the possibility of using preservatives and natural antimicrobial agents. Details of new types of promising packaging are given: active, smart, bactericidal, and edible. The article discusses the positive aspects of the use of new technologies, as well as the difficulties associated with the possibility of integrating innovations in the food industry and grocery retail.

References
1. Donskova LA, Kotkova VV, Volkov A Yu. Visokoe gidrostaticheskoe davlenie kak technologicheskiy priem obespecheniya kachestva myasnikh produktov v protsesse khraneniya [High hydrostatic pressure as a technological method for ensuring the quality of meat products in the storage process]. Technologiya i tovarovedenie innovatsionnikh pischevikh produktov [Technology and commodity science of innovative food products]. 2017. No. 47. P. 94-101.
2. Urinbaev MD, Kokumbekova NK. Obrabotka visokim davleniem dlya obespecheniya bezopasnosti i dlitelnosti srokov khraneniya produktov pitaniya [High pressure Processing to ensure the safety and duration of food storage period]. Innovatsionnie technologii proizvodstva i khraneniya materialnikh tsennostey dlya gosudarstvennikh nuzhd: mezhdunarodniy nauchniy sbornik [Innovative technologies of production and storage of material values for state needs: international scientific collection]. Moscow, 2015. P. 316-321.
3. Shelikhov PV, Gladkaya AD. Izuchenie primeneniya visokogo davleniya kak ekologicheski bezopasnogo sposoba obrabotki pischevikh produktov [Study of the use of high pressure as an environmentally safe method of processing food]. Bezopasnost' produktov pitaniya i technologiya pererabotki: sbornik nauchnikh trudov VNAU [Food Safety and processing technology: collection of scientific papers of VNAU]. 2010. No. 5. P. 217-221.
4. Donskova LA, Kotkova VV, Volkov A Yu. Issledovanie biologicheskikh tsennostey verenikh kolbasnikh izdeliy, obrabotannikh visokim gidrostaticheskim davleniem [Research of the biological value of cooked sausage products processed by high hydrostatic pressure]. Technologiya prodovolstvennikh produktov [Technology of food products].
5. Hicks DT, Pivarnik LF, McDermott R, Richard N, Hoover DG & Kniel KE. Consumer awareness and willingness to pay for high-pressure processing of ready-to-eat food. Journal of Food Science Education. 2009. No. 8 (2). P. 32-38.
6. Heinz V & Buckow R. Food preservation by high pressure. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety. 2010. No. 5 (1). P. 73-81.
7. Patterson MF. A Review: Microbiology of pressure-treated foods. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005. No. 98 (6). P. 1400-1409.
Authors
Belyaeva Marina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Eremin Alexander E., graduate student
Russian University of Economics named after G.?V. Plekhanov,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 115093, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Akhmedov M.E., Demirova A.F., Rakhmanova M.M., Rakhmanova R.A. Efficiency of using EMF microwave and multi-level sterilization modes in the production technology of Apple-carrot drink for dietary nutrition

P. 52-56 Key words
drink, step heating, sterilization mode, autoclave, temperature

Abstract
The article presents the results of studies on improving the technology for the production of apple and carrot drinks using new technical solutions for the production of apple juice and heat treatment of carrots and new modes of stepwise (multi-level) heat sterilization. The possibility of using an ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic field for pre-processing apples before pressing and carrots, instead of steaming, was studied. The optimal parameters of microwave processing of apples and carrots are established. For the practical implementation of this process, a design of the apparatus for microwave processing of plant materials has been developed, the novelty of which is confirmed by the RF patent for the invention. The persistence of vitamin C and beta-carotene was studied in various carrot pretreatment methods, which confirmed the effectiveness of using microwave processing, in which the loss of vitamins is more than halved. The use of stepwise (multi-level) thermal sterilization using the new design of the autoclave basket provides the possibility of thermal sterilization without creating back pressure in the open type apparatus, reducing the duration of the sterilization mode by 30 minutes compared to the traditional mode and saving heat energy. The block diagram of an improved technology for the production of apple and carrot drink is presented. Advanced technology and new multi-level sterilization modes can be recommended for implementation in canneries.

References
1. Flaumenbaum BL, Tanchev SS, Grishin MA. Osnovy konservirovaniya pishchevyh produktov [Basics of food Sterilization]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1986. 264 ð. (In Russ.)
2. Sbornik tekhnologicheskih instrukcij po proizvodstvu konservov [Collection of technological instructions for the production of canned food]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost [Food industry], 1977. 431 ð. (In Russ.)
3. Babarin VP. Sterilizaciya konservov [Sterilization of canned food]. Saint Petersburgb: Giord, 2006. 312 ð. (In Russ.)
4. Renard CMGC & Maingonnat JF. Thermal processing of fruits and fruit juices. In DW Sun (Edition). Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues (Second edition). Taylor & Francis. 2012. P. 413-440.
5. Ahmedov ME, Demirova AF, Dogeev GD, Alibekova MM, Rahmanova RA. Apparat dlya obrabotki rastitelnogo sir'ya v electromagnit-nom pole sverkhvisokoy chastoty [Apparatus for processing plant raw materials in an ultra-high frequency electromagnetic field]. Russia patent RU2714715 Ñ2.2020.
6. Azadova EF, Ahmedov ME, Demirova AF. Ispol'zovanie elektromagnitnogo polya SVCH pri proizvodstve konservov dlya detskogo pitaniya [Use of the microwave electromagnetic field in the production of canned food for baby food]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of Agricultural raw materials]. 2015. No 5. P 55-57 (In Russ.).
7. Ahmedov ME. Intensifikaciya tekhnologii teplovoj sterilizacii konservov "Kompot iz yablok" s predvaritel'nym podogrevom plodov v EMP SVCH [The intensification of technologies of thermal sterilization of canned food "Compote from apples" with preliminary hea-ting of fruits in a microwave electromagnetic field]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [Proceedings of universities. Food technology]. 2008. No. 1. P. 15-16 (In Russ.).
8. Kas'yanov GI, Demirova AF, Ahmedov ME. Innovacionnaya tekhnologiya sterilizacii plodovogo i ovoshchnogo syr'ya [ Innovative sterilization technology for fruit and vegetable raw materials]. Doklady Rossijskoj akademii sel'skohozyajstvennyh nauk [Reports of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences]. 2014. No. 6. P. 57-59 (In Russ.).
9. Ismailov TA, Ahmedov ME, Demirova AF, Azadova EF, Gapparova ZM. Sposob proizvodstva pyure iz morkovi [Method of production of carrot puree]. Russia patent RU2651300 Ñ2.2018.
10. Kas'yanov GI. Perspektivy obrabotki pishchevogo syr'ya elektromagnitnym polem nizkoj chastity [Prospects for processing food raw materials with a low frequency electromagnetic field]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [Proceedings of universities. Food technology]. 2014. No. 1. P. 35-38 (In Russ.).
11. Panina OR, Kas'yanov GI, Rohman' SV. Razrabotka rezhimov SVCH-sterilizacii obedennyh konservov [Development of microwave sterilization modes for canned food]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [Proceedings of universities. Food technology]. 2014. No. 1. P 122-124 (In Russ.).
12. Demirova AF, Ahmedov ME. Intensifikaciya processa sterilizacii konservov s ispol'zovaniem stupenchatoj teplovoj obrabotki v staticheskom sostoyanii tary [Intensification of the canned food sterilization process using step-by-step heat treatment in the static state of the container]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of Agricultural raw materials]. 2011. No. 1. Ð. 22-24 (In Russ.).
13. Ahmedov ME, Demirova AF, Dogeev GD, Alibekova MM, Rahmanova RA. Patent RF na poleznuyu model' ¹ 183292. Avtoklavnaya korzina [Autoclave basket]. Russia patent na poleznuyu model RU 183292 U1.2018.
14. Rukovodstvo po razrabotke rezhimov sterilizacii i pasterizacii konserviruemoj produkcii [Guidelines for the development of sterilization and pasteurization modes for canned products]. Utv. 2011. VNIIKOP. Vidnoe, 2011. 93 ð.
15. Senkevich VI. Nauchnye osnovy opredeleniya rN konservov dlya razrabotki rezhimov sterilizacii [Scientific basis for determining the pH of canned food for the development of sterilization modes]. Tekhnika. Tekhnologii. Inzheneriya [Technics. Technology. Engineering]. 2018. No 2. Ð. 43-47 (In Russ.).
16. Stolyanov AV, Kajchenko AV, Vlasov AV, Maslov AA. Ekonomichnaya metodika razrabotki rezhimov sterilizacii konservov iz gidrobiontov dlya promyshlennyh avtoklavov [Economical method of development of sterilization modes for canned food from hydrobionts for industrial autoclaves]. Vestnik MGTU [Bulletin of MGTU]. 2015. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 661-666 (In Russ.).
17. GOST 30425-97 Konservy. Metod opredeleniya promyshlennoj steril'nosti. [Method of determination of industrial sterility].
Authors
Akhmedov Magomed E., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Demirova Amiyat F., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Dagestan State Technical University,
70, Shamil avenue, Makhachkala, Russia, 368015
Dagestan State University of National Economy,
5, Jamalutdin Ataev str., Makhachkala, Russia, 367008, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Rakhmanova Mafmyat M., Candidate of Economic Sciences
Technical College,
3, build 3, Chernishevskiy lane, Makhachkala, the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, 367013, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Rakhmanova Regina A.
Dagestan State University of National Economy,
5, Jamalutdin Ataev str., Makhachkala, Russia, 367008, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW MATERIALS AND ADDITIVES

Panasyuk A.L., Kuz'mina E. I., Egorova O.S. Prospects of the frozen fruit raw materials use for the wine products production

P. 58-63 Key words
fruit raw materials, processing methods, freezing modes, defrosting, quality characteristics of raw materials

Abstract
As a raw material for the food industry, both cultivated and wild-growing fruits and berries are widely used. The harvest, fruits quality and nutritional value during long-term storage preserving is an important task facing the industry. This research area development will reduce losses as much as possible and create food stocks for a uniform supply of the population and the processing industry during the year for further processing. This article provides studies overview on the effect of various freezing methods on fruit quality indicators. It was shown that fruits and berries biochemical substances loss, frozen in the usual way, is on average up to 40%, in quick-frozen - about 20%. The analysis of modern defrosting methods and their influence on the plant materials quality and chemical parameters is presented. The correct choice of fruits and berries defrosting method can reduce losses and preserve their basic nutrients, vitamins, and organoleptic characteristics. Plant materials defrosting at room temperature most of all affects the cell juice loss both immediately after thawing and when stored in air. The most partial load modes include defrosting in the microwave and in the refrigerator. Use of microwave energy can reduce juice loss in pip fruits by 30%, in large fruits and berries - by 27%, compared with defrosting in air at a temperature of 5 °C. The results of the analysis showed that at present in the literature there are no data on the optimal modes of freezing, defrosting fruits and berries, as well as their subsequent processing for the wine products production. It is concluded that it is necessary to conduct in-depth studies aimed at developing optimal raw materials freezing and defrosting modes, with a view to their subsequent use in winemaking.

References
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14. Khapova CA, Molyakova TA. Sortovye resursy fragaria ananassa posle defrostatsii [Varietal resources of fragaria ananassa after defrosting]. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii [Fruit and berry growing in Russia]. 2012. No. 31 (2). P. 292-298 (In Russ.).
15. Chirkova ES, Chepeleva GG. Vliyanie rezhimov zamorazhivaniya na khimicheskii sostav i tovarnoe kachestvo yagod smorodiny chernoy (Ribes nigrum L.) sibirskikh sortov [Influence of freezing regimes on the chemical composition and commercial quality of black currant berries (Ribes nigrum L.) of Siberian varieties]. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk state agrarian University]. 2016. No. 2. P. 92-98 (In Russ.).
16. Proizvodstvo bystrozamorozhennykh plodov i ovoshchey [Production of quick-frozen fruits and vegetables]. [Electronic resource]. Available from: https://studopedia.su/9_82769_lektsiya--.html [cited 2020 Apr 10].
17. Butareva AV. Vliyanie usloviy defrostatsii na kachestvo yagod smorodiny chernoy [Influence of defrosting conditions on the quality of black currant berries]. Agropromyshlenniy kompleks: kontury budushchego: Materialy IX Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii studentov, aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh [Agro-industrial complex: contours of the future: Proceedings of the IX International scientific and practical conference of students, postgraduates and young scientists]. Kursk: Kursk State Agricultural Academy named after Professor I.?I. Ivanov. 2018. P. 28-34 (In Russ.).
18. Stryukova AD, Makarova NV. Vliyanie zamorazhivaniya i razmorazhivaniya na khimicheskiy sostav i antioksidantnuyu aktivnost' yagod zemlyaniki [Effect of freezing and thawing on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of strawberry berries]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2013. No. 5. P. 68-70 (In Russ.).
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25. Rabie Khattab, Amyl Ghanem, Marianne Su-Ling Brooks. Stability of Haskap Berry (Lonicera Caerulea L.) Anthocyanins at Different Storage and Processing Conditions. Journal of Food Research. 2016. No. 5 (6). DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v5n6p67
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27. Zolotarev SV, Baulina Yu V, Tvorogova AA, Kobozev IV. Agropishchevye aspekty mode-lirovaniya protsessa pererabotki v tekhnologii proizvodstva zamorozhennykh fruktovykh desertov [Agro-food aspects of modeling the processing process in the production technology of frozen fruit desserts]. Vestnik Altaiskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University]. 2010. No. 10 (72). P. 78-83 (In Russ.).
28. Tyupkina GI, Kisvai NI, Konyukhova EA. Perspektivnaya tekhnologiya proizvodstva bezalkogol'nykh napitkov na osnove mestnogo rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Promising technology for the production of soft drinks based on local plant raw materials]. Problemy osvoeniya i sokhraneniya Arktiki: Materialy Vserossiiskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Problems of Arctic development and conservation: Proceedings of the all-Russian scientific and practical conference]. Norilsk: Research Institute of Agriculture and Ecology of the Arctic. 2015. P. 177-181 (In Russ.).
29. Kazantseva MA, Yarushin AM. Primenenie zamorozhennykh yagod v proizvodstve kupazhirovannykh sokov [Use frozen berries in the production of blended juices]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2009. No. 2. P. 36-37 (In Russ.).
30. Proizvodstvo plodovykh i yagodnykh sokov [Production of fruit and berry juices]. [Electronic resource]. Available from: http://konservirovanie.su/books/item/f00/s00/z0000001/st016.shtml [cited 2020 April 15].
31. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Trofimchenko VA. Otsenka tekhnologicheskikh svoistv ryabiny obyk-novennoy dlya proizvodstva spirtnykh napitkov [Assessment of technological properties of mountain ash for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2016. No. 9. P. 19-22 (In Russ.).
32. Sharoglazova LP, Velichko NA. Razrabotka retseptur sladkikh nastoek s ekstraktom i sokom iz plodov moroshki [Development of recipes for sweet tinctures with extract and juice from cloudberry fruits]. Vestnik KRASGAU [Krasgau Bulletin]. 2016. No. 6 (117). P. 99-104 (In Russ.).
Authors
Panasyuk Alexander L., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kuz'mina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Egorova Olesya S.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of brewing, beverage and wine industry - Branch of V.?M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sedova K.S., Vlasova E.A., Kiseleva A.G.Use of laccase to improve the quality of wheat bakery products with bran

P. 64-68 Key words
laccase, bakery products, wheat bran, arabinoxylans, gluten

Abstract
Laccase belongs to the class of oxidases and is used in the food industry to stabilize alcoholic and alcohol-free drinks. This enzyme has prospects for use in baking due to the effect on the gelation of arabinoxylans of wheat flour and bran. The purpose of this work is to study the possibility of using laccase to improve the quality of bakery products with bran. The object of development is a bran loaf, which was cooked by two-phase dough preparation method from a mixture of wheat baking flour and wheat food bran. The dosage of laccase was 0.01 % by weight of wheat flour. Previously, it was found using the IDK-3M device that this enzyme contributes to a slight strengthening of the gluten of wheat flour. During test laboratory baking we studied the influence of laccase on the organoleptic and some physical and chemical (acidity and humidity) quality indicators of the dough and the bread. It was found that under the influence of laccase, the dough becomes more elastic, less sticky, the dough pieces hold their shape better, which positively affects the volume of the cooked bread and crumb structure. The shelf life of the product freshness is increased by 2 days. The parameters of acidity and humidity of the bran loaf cooked using the enzyme, correspond to the data established in the standards.

References
1. Zhygunov D, Mardar M, Kovalyova V. Use of enzyme preparations for improvement of the flour baking properties. Food Science and Applied Biotechnology. 2018. Vol. 1. Issue 1. P. 26-32.
2. Nunes CS, Kunamneni A, Kumar V. Chapter 7 - laccases - properties and applications. Enzymes in Human and Animal Nutrition. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2018. P. 33-161.
3. Hautphenne C, Penninckx M, Debaste F. Product formation from phenolic compounds removal by laccases: a review. Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2016. Vol. 5. P. 250-266.
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5. Mate DM, Gonzalez-Perez D, Falk M, Kittl R, Pita M, De Lacey AL, Ludwig R, Shleev S, Alcalde M. Blood tolerant Laccase by directed evolution. Chemistry & Biology. 2013. Vol. 20. No. 2. P. 223-231.
6. Mayolo-Deloisa K, Gonzàlez-Gonzàlez M, Rito-Palomares M. Laccases in food industry: bioprocessing, potential industrial and biotechnological applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2020. Vol. 8. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00222
7. Minussi RC, Pastore GM, Durarn N. Potential applications of laccase in the food industry. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2002. Vol. 13. Issue 6-7. P. 205-216.
8. Khalighi S, Berger RG, Ersoy F. Cross-linking of wheat bran arabinoxylan by fungal Laccases yields firm Gels. Processes. 2020. Vol. 8. No. 1. doi: 10.3390/pr8010036
9. Kurniawati S, Nicell JA. Characterization of Trametes versicolor laccase for the transformation of aqueous phenol. Bioresource Technology. 2008. Vol. 99. Issue 16. P. 7825-7834.
10. GOST 27839-2013. Muka pshenichnaja. Metody opredelenija kolichestva i kachestva klejkoviny (s popravkami) [Wheat flour. Methods for determining the quantity and quality of gluten]. Vved. 2014 07 01. Moscow: Standartinform, 2013. 20 p. (In Russ.)
11. Piontek K, Antorini M, Choinowski T. Crystal structure of a laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor at 1.90 A resolution containing a full complement of coppers. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2002. Vol. 277. No. 40. P. 37663-37669.
12. GOST 5670-96. Hlebobulochnye izdelija. Metody opredelenija kislotnosti [Bakery products. Methods for determining acidity]. Vved. 1997 08 01. Minsk: Standartinform, 1996. 6 p. (In Russ.)
13. GOST 21094-75. Hleb i hlebobulochnye izdelija. Metod opredelenija vlazhnosti [Bread and bakery products. Method for determining moisture]. Vved. 1976 07 01. Moscow: Standartinform, 1975. 4 p. (In Russ.)
14. GOST 25832-89. Izdelija hlebobulochnye dieticheskie. Tehnicheskie uslovija [Bakery dietetic products. Technical conditions]. Vved. 1990 07 01. Moscow: Standartinform, 1989. 14 p. (In Russ.)
15. GOST 31805-2018. Izdelija hlebobulochnye iz pshenichnoj hlebopekarnoj muki [Bakery products from wheat baking flour]. Vved. 2019 09 01. Moscow: Standartinform, 2018. 16 p.
16. Bushuk, W. Distribution of water in dough and bread. Baker's Digest. 1966. Vol. 40. P. 38-40 (In Russ.).
17. Martinez-Lopez AL, Carvajal-Millan E, Marquez-Escalante J, Campa-Mada AC, Rascon-Chu A, Lopez-Franco YL, Lizardi-Mendoza J. Enzymatic cross-linking of ferulated arabinoxylan: Effect of laccase or peroxidase catalysis on the gel characteristics. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2019. Vol. 28. P. 311-318.
18. Selinheimo E, Autio K, Kruus K, Buchert J. Elucidating the mechanism of laccase and tyrosinase in wheat bread making. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007. Vol. 55. Issue 15. P. 6357-6365.
Authors
Sedova Kseniya S., undergraduate,
Vlasova Elena A., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Kiseleva Anastasiya G., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology,
7, Sheremetevskiy avenue, Ivanovo, Ivanovo Region, Russia, 153000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sannikova T.A., Machulkina V.A., Gulin, A.V.Influence of melissa leaves on the quality of zucchini jam

P. 69-71 Key words
zucchini, lemon balm leaves, jam, quality, basic chemicals

Abstract
The quality of food produced and delivered for mass consumption is one of the important issues of food safety. The use of non-traditional fruits of crops for cooking jam, in particular zucchini of varying degrees of maturity, expands the range of the new food product and makes the production technology waste-free. Purpose of work: obtaining a new food product from zucchini of varying degrees of maturity with the addition of lemon balm leaves. The work was carried out at VNIIOOB, a branch of the FSBSI PAFSC RAS in the Astrakhan Region in accordance with generally accepted methods and technical conditions for the production of this type of product. From zucchini varieties Sosnowski technical and biological degree of maturity made jam with the addition of 5 grams per 1 kg of raw young lemon balm leaves. The content of basic chemicals was determined both in fresh raw materials before processing and in jam after the fermentation period (3 months). As a result, an increase in the content of dry matter, glucose, fructose, sucrose and ascorbic acid by 10.6, 10.2, 8.3, 15.3 and 1.4 times - fruits of a technical degree of maturity and by 9.3, was noted in jam. 9.9, 7.5, 46.6 and 1.2 times - the fruits of the biological degree of maturity. The amount of nitrates decreased by 1.5-1.7 times depending on the degree of maturity of the fruit and was below the maximum permissible concentration (400 mg / kg of crude material) by 3.9-4.2 times. Melissa leaves, as a herbal supplement, were a source of biologically active substances and provided antioxidant properties with jam. The authors believe that squash jam of various maturity levels with the addition of young lemon balm leaves is a new safe food product with a high content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, pectin and low nitrates, which allows expanding the range of products on the country's markets.

References
1. Kopcev SV, Glazkov SV. Sravnitel'nyj analiz soderzhaniya nitratov v processe pererabotki fruktov i ovoshchej metodom VEZHKH [Comparative analysis of nitrate content in the processing of fruits and vegetables by HPLC]. Ovoshchi Rossii [Vegetables of Russia]. 2019. No. 6. P. 101-104.
2. Sannikova TA, Machulkina VA, Ivanov AP. Bahchevye kul'tury - vazhnejshij istochnik pektina [Gourds - the most important source of pectin]. Kartofel' i ovoshchi [Potatoes and vegetables]. 2008. No. 6. P. 27-28.
3. Pavlov LV et al. Cukaty iz kabachkov. Promyshlennoe syr'yo. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [Candied zucchini. Industrial raw materials. Technical specifications]. Ovoshchi Rossii [Vegetables of Russia]. 2011. No. 1. P. 60-61.
4. Krohalyova SI, Cherepanov PV. Soderzhanie nitratov v rastitel'nyh produktah pitaniya i ih vliyanie na zdorov'e cheloveka [The content of nitrates in plant foods and their impact on human health]. Vestnik Priamurskogo GU im. Sholom-Alejhama [Bulletin of Priamursky University named after Sholom-Aleikhem]. 2016. No. 3 (24). P. 27-36.
5. Machulkina VA, Sannikova TA, Antipen-ko NI. Bezothodnaya tekhnologiya pererabotki ovoshche-bahchevoj produkcii [Non-waste technology for processing vegetable and melon products]. Kartofel' i ovoshchi [Potatoes and vegetables]. 2011. No. 7. P. 22-23.
6. Sannikova TA, Machulkina VA. Organolepticheskaya ocenka kachestva ovoshche-bahchevoj produkcii [Organoleptic assessment of the quality of vegetable and melon products]. Nauka i obrazovanie v zhizni sovremennogo obshchestva: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Science and education in the life of modern society]. Tambov: Konsaltingovaya kompaniya "YUKOM" [Consulting company YUKOM]. 2015. Vol. 2. P. 122-126.
7. Melissa lekarstvennaya. Himicheskij sostav [Melissa officinalis. Chemical composition]. Elektronnyj resurs [Electronic resource].
8. Himicheskij sostav melissy [The chemical composition of lemon balm] Elektronnyj resurs [Electronic resource].
Authors
Sannikova Tat'yana A., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Machulkina Vera A., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Gulin Alexander V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Vegetable and Melon Growing - Branch of Precaspian Agrarian Federal Scientific Center of RAS,
16, Lyubich str., Kamyzyak, Astrakhan region, Russia, 416341, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY AND SAFETY

Shterman S.V, Sidorenko M.Yu., Shterman V.S., Sidorenko Yu.I., Chebotareva N.I.On the modern concept of Taste of food. II. Multisensory sensations in the formation of the Taste of food

P. 72-75 Key words
taste, smell, sight, hearing, touch, kinesthetic sensations, sensory organs, microbiota, Taste formation

Abstract
Nowadays in connection with the development of experimental research techniques, the science of Taste has made significant progress. Receptors of five basic tastes were found that a person can distinguish - sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and protein substances that received the Japanese name - umami, which respond to the taste. Researchers have also made significant progress in detecting the receptors responsible for identifying fats in food intake. It has also been shown that intestinal microbiota actively affects the appetite control system and the departments in the brain that are responsible for emotions, as well as human behavior and consciousness. The first contact of a person with food, however, occurs not by sensing its taste, but by perceiving its aroma. It is shown that the sense of smell of a person is a more informative sensory channel compared with taste in the process of forming a Taste of food. It has been established at present that with the help of 40 odorous substances (odorants), it is possible to create a recognizable aromatic profile for up to 85% of all food products. It is shown that not only hunger induces food intake, but also the visual image of food. The appearance of food is as important as its taste and aroma. Similarly, what a person hears when he eats and drinks, for example, crunching or rustling a product in a package, background music, etc., plays a much more important role in forming a Taste of food than you can imagine. Tactile sensations perceived by receptors located in various organs of the body also contribute to the palatability of food. Textural properties can become one of the key in the perception of a particular food product and be one of the main reasons consumers are attached to it. Kinesthetic signals coming from the musculoskeletal structures of a person also contribute to the creation of a Taste image of food. The process of forming Taste of food occurs, thus, taking into account the results of processing information received from all the senses, microbiota and many other organs of the human body.

References
1. MacQuaaid J Tasty. The art and science of what we eat. 2015. New York: Scribner. 291 p.
2. Hartley IE, Liem DG, Keast R. Umami as an 'alimentary' taste. A new perspective on taste classification. Nutrients. 2019. No. 11 (1) P. 182.
3. Spens Ch. Gastrofizika. Novaya nauka o pitanii õ [Gastrophysics. New nutritional Science]. Perevod s angl. E. Zajcevoj [transcription from English of E. Zaitseva]. Moscow: Azbuka Attikus, 2017. 308 p.
4. Holms B. Vkus: Nauka o samom maloizuchennom chelovecheskom chuvstve [The Science of the least studied haman feeling]. Perevod s angl. B. Holms. 2 e izdanie [Transcription from English of B. Holms. Second Edition]. Moscow: Al'pina Pablisher, 2018. 348 p.
5. Shterman SV, Sidorenko M Yu. Tajny pishchevyh predpochtenij ili pochemu my edim to, chto edim? [The secrets of Food prefernces or Why do we eat what we eat?]. Moscow: IPC "Maska", 2020. 200 p.
6. Keast RS. Is fat the sixth taste primary? Evidance and implications. Flavour. 2015. Vol. 4 (5).
7. Majer E. Vtoroj mozg. Kak mikroby v kishechnike upravlyayut nashim nastroeniem, resheniyami i zdorov'em [How gut microbes govern our mood, decisions and health]. Moscow: Al'pina non-fikshn, 2018. 348 p.
8. Gijanej Stefan Dzh. Golodnyj mozg: Kak perekhitrit' instinkty, kotorye zastavlyayut nas pereedat' [Hungry brain: how to outsmart the instincts that make us overeat?]. Perevod s angl. AV Lyuminoj [Transcription from English of AV Lyumina]. Moscow: Eksmo, 2018. 368 p.
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12. Zampin M, Spence C. The role of auditory cues in modulating the perceived crispness and staleness of potato chips. Journal of Sensory Science. 2004. No. 19. P. 347-363.
Authors
Shterman Sergey V., Doctor of Technical of Sciences,
Sidorenko Mikhail Yu, Doctor of Technical Sciences
Limited liability company "GEON",
building 1, Obolenskoe highway, urban settlement Obolensk, Serpukhov district, Moscow region, 142273, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Shterman Valeriy S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Moscow State University of Food productions,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sidorenko Yuriy I., Doctor of Technical of Sciences, Professor
Moscow State University of Technology and management named after K.?G. Razumovsky (PKU),
73, Zemlyanoy Val str., Moscow, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Natalya I. Chebotareva
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,
1, Lenin Hills, Moscow, 119991, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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