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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №6/2020

The results of the work of Food and Processing industry Enterprises of Russia

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: MODERN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

Abramova I.M., Golovacheva N.E., Morozova S.S., Gallyamova L.P., Shubina N.A., Titova O.T.Investigation of the effect of enzymatic processing of black currant and cherry on the quality and stability of semi-sweet tinctures

P. 8-12 Key words
alcoholized fruit drink, alcoholized juice, semi-sweet tincture, cationic composition, phenolic substances, antioxidant activity, enzyme preparation

Abstract
Processing of fruit and berry raw materials is one of the important stages of the technological process for the preparation of semi-finished products of alcoholic beverage production. For the effective extraction of soluble substances before pressing, preliminary preparation of raw materials is required, aimed at reducing the viscosity of cell juice, increasing cell permeability and improving the drainage properties of the pulp. The enzymatic method of processing raw materials has several advantages over other methods, since the products of enzymatic cleavage are in semi-finished products and drinks, enrich their composition and make it possible to obtain high-quality semi-finished products. In experimental samples of cherry and blackcurrant alcoholized fruit drinks treated with the enzyme preparations Fruktotsim P6 L, Bruzime BGX, the content of total phenolic substances increased, antioxidant activity increased, which confirms the effectiveness of the enzymatic treatment. All experimental samples of alcoholized fruit drinks had a higher optical density at a wavelength of 280 nm compared with the control, which confirms the increase in their content of phenolic compounds. In the semisweet "Cherry" and "Blackcurrant" tinctures, prepared on alcoholized fruit drinks after enzymatic treatment (experimental samples), the content of total phenolic substances and antioxidant activity increased, the mass concentration of iron decreased, the optical density increased, which indicates an increase in the content of phenolic compounds, and organoleptic improved indicators.

References
1. Samsonova AN, Usheva VB. Fruktovie i ovoshchnie soki [Fruit and vegetable juices]. Moscow: Agroprom, 1990. 287 р. (In Russ.)
2. Burachevskiy II. Tekhnologiya likerovodochnogo proizvodstva [Technology of alcoholic beverage production]. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 2011. 357 p. (In Russ.)
3. Alekseenko EV. Biokataliticheskiye metody obrabotki plodovoyagodnogo syr'ya [Biocatalytic methods for processing fruit and berry raw materials]. Khraneniye i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2008. No. 5. P. 662-665 (In Russ.).
4. Rimareva LV, Kurbatova EI, Trifonova VV. Podbor optimal'nykh mul'tienzimnykh sistem i usloviy biokataliza polimerov plodovo-yagodnogo syr'ya s tsel'yu povysheniya kachestva sokov i morsov - polufabrikatov likerovodochnykh izdeliy [Selection of optimal multi-enzyme systems and conditions for biocatalysis of polymers of fruit and berry raw materials in order to improve the quality of juices and fruit drinks - semi-finished products of alcoholic beverages]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma "Mik-robnie biokatalizatory dlya pererabatyvayuschikh otrasley APK" [Collection of scientific papers of the III International scientific and practical symposium "Microbial biocatalysts for the processing industries of the agro-industrial complex"]. Moscow: Vserossiyskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut pishchevoy biotekhnologii [Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology], 2017. P. 208-228 (In Russ.).
5. Burachevskiy II, Vorob'yeva EV, Gallyamova LP, Petukhova ZE. Vliyaniye tekhnolo-gicheskikh obrabotok na stabil'nost' likorovodochnykh napitkov [The influence of technological treatments on the stability of alcoholic beverages]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likorovodochnykh izdeliy [Production of alcohol and distillery]. 2010. No. 9. P. 6-7 (In Russ.).
6. Ovsyannikova EA, Ponamaryova MV, Potapov AN, Kiselyova TF. Intensifikatsiya ekstraktsionnykh protsessov biokataliticheskim metodom [Intensification of extraction processes by biocatalytic method]. Vestnik KRASGAU [Bulletin of KSAU]. 2013. No. 1 (76). P. 169-173 (In Russ.).
7. Volchyok AA, Bushina EV, Rozhkova AM, Zorov IN, Shcherbakov SS, Sinitsyn AP. Fermentnyye kompleksy novogo pokoleniya dlya sokovoy promyshlennosti [New Generation Enzyme Complexes for the Juice Industry]. Biotekhnologiya [Biotechnology]. 2013. No. 5. P. 78-89 (In Russ.).
8. GOST 32080-2013 Izdeliya likerovodochnie. Pravila priyemki i metody analiza [Alcoholic beverages. Acceptance rules and analysis methods]. (In Russ.)
9. Gerzhikova VG. Metody tekhnokhimicheskogo kontrolya v vinodelii [Technochemical control methods in winemaking]. Simfe-ropol': Tavrida, 2009. 304 р. (In Russ.)
10. Ul'yanova EV, Larionov OG, Revina AA. Vysokoeffektivnaya zhidkostnaya khromatografiya v issledovanii antioksidantnykh svoystv vin [High-performance liquid chromatography in the study of the antioxidant properties of wines]. Sorbtsionnie i khromatograficheskie protsessy [Sorption and chromatographic processes]. 2010. No. 4. P. 522-532 (In Russ.).
11. GOST R 51821-2001 Vodki i vodki osobyye. Metod opredeleniya massovoy kontsentratsii kationov kaliya, natriya, ammoniya, kal'tsiya, magniya, strontsiya i anionov ftoridov, khloridov, nitratov, nitritov, fosfatov i sul'fatov s primeneniyem ionnoy khromatografii [Special vodka and vodka. Method for determining the mass concentration of potassium, sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, strontium cations and fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulfate anions using ion chromatography]. (In Russ.)
12. Vorob'yova EV, Abramova IM, Golova-chyova NE, Morozova SS, Gallyamova LP, Shubina NA. Vliyaniye fermentativnoy obrabotki na protsess proizvodstva spirtovannykh morsov iz sushenogo syr'ya [The effect of enzymatic processing on the process of production of alcoholized fruit drinks from dried raw materials]. Khraneniye i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2018. No. 2. P. 28-33 (In Russ.).
13. Valuyko GG, Zinchenko VI, Mekhuzla IA. Stabilizatsiya vinogradnykh vin [Stabilization of grape wines]. Simferopol': Tavrida, 2002. 208 р. (In Russ.)
Authors
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Golovachyova Natal'ya Ye., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Morozova Svetlana S., Candidate of Chemical Sciences,
Gallyamova Lyubov' P.,
Shubina Natal'ya A.,
Titova Ol'ga T.
Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center of Food, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Morozova S.S., Bakumenko O.E., Tarasova V.V.Technology of kissel concentrates using natural sweeteners

P. 13-18 Key words
jelly, jelly concentrate, sweetener, sugar reduction, calorie content, xylitol, beckons, stevia

Abstract
According to the "Fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of healthy nutrition for the period up to 2020", the adult diets do not comply with the principles of healthy eating in view of the consumption of foods containing a large amount of animal fat, simple carbohydrates, lack of vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, which leads to an increase in overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has increased in recent years, increasing the risk of diabetes, heart disease vascular system, etc. The purpose of the state policy in the field of healthy nutrition is the preservation and strengthening of the health of the population, the prevention of diseases caused by malnutrition and unbalanced nutrition. Meanwhile, according to epidemiological studies, the number of people with diseases such as caries, diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity, etc. is increasing every year. One of the reasons for such an increase in these diseases is the excessive sugar content in diets. This is due to the fact that in the diet of various age categories of the population in a large number there are non-alcoholic sweet carbonated drinks, restored juices containing sugar. The development of recipes for food concentrates of kissels with the introduction of natural sweeteners will make it possible to obtain products with a low sugar content and, therefore, reduce the caloric content of this group of food products as a result of replacing sugar in the recipe with natural or synthetic sweeteners, while maintaining or improving the consumer properties of the finished product.

References
1. Golubev VN, Chicheva-Filatova LV, Shlenskaja TV. Pishhevye i biologicheski aktivnye dobavki [Food and biologically active additives]. M.: Akademija [Academy], 2003. 208 p.
2. Bakumenko OE. Tehnologija obogashhennyh produktov pitanija dlja celevyh grupp. Nauchnye osnovy i tehnologija [Enriched food technology for target groups. Scientific fundamentals and technology]. M.: DeLi pljus [Moscow: DeLi Plus], 2013. 286 p. ISBN 978 5 905170 47 8.
3. GOST 19327-84 Koncentraty pishhevye. Pervye i vtorye obedennye bljuda. Obshhie tehnicheskie uslovija [GOST 19327-84 Food concentrates. First and second lunch dishes. General specifications].
4. GOST 15113.5-77 Koncentraty pishhevye. Metody opredelenija kislotnosti [GOST 15113.5-77 Food concentrates. Methods for determining acidity].
5. GOST 15113.4-77 Koncentraty pishhevye. Metody opredelenija vlagi [GOST 15113.4-77 Food concentrates. Moisture determination methods].
6. GOST 30178-96 Syr'e i produkty pishhevye. Atomno-absorbcionnyj metod opredelenija toksichnyh jelementov [GOST 30178-96 Raw materials and food products. Atomic absorption method for the determination of toxic elements].
7. Tutel'jan VA, Nechaev AP. Pishhevye ingredienty v sozdanii sovremennyh produktov pitanija [Food ingredients in the creation of modern food products]. M.: DeLi pljus [Moscow: DeLi Plus], 2014. 520 p.
8. Reznichenko I Yu. Pischevye koncentraty i saharistye konditerskie izdelija special'nogo naznachenija: novye receptury, tehnologii, harakteristika potrebitel'skih svojstv [Food concentrates and sugar confectionery for special purposes: new recipes, technologies, characteristics of consumer properties]. Kemerovo: KemTIPP, 2006. 211 p.
9. Judina SB. Tehnologija produktov funkcional'nogo pitanija [Technology of functional nutrition products] M.: DeLi print [Moscow: DeLi Plus], 2008. 280 p.
10. Skurihin IM, Tutel'yan VA. Himicheskij sostav rossijskih pishhevyh produktov: spravochnik [The chemical composition of Russian food products: Handbook]. M.: DeLi print [Moscow: DeLi Plus], 2002. 236 p.
Authors
Morozova Stella S., undergraduate,
Bakumenko Olesya E., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Tarasova Veronika V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Minnikhanova E.Yu., Zavorokhina N. V, Chugunova O.V.Development of a complex mixture of polysaccharides and food acids for lowcalorie sweet dishes

P. 19-22 Key words
low-calorie, sweet dishes, polysaccharides, food acids, organoleptic

Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of sensory characteristics of polysaccharides of various nature when they are combined with food acids, the development of a recipe for a basic mixture of low-calorie dishes for public catering in order to use in recipes of low-calorie sweet dishes. The research was conducted in 3 stages: 1) selection of combinations of complex additives of sweeteners and food acids; 2) selection of optimal combinations of food acids, CDP and polysaccharides; 3) development of the basic mixture recipe for cooking low-calorie dishes. The authors analyzed the sensory characteristics of citric, lactic and succinic acids in combination with polysaccharides of various nature. Organoleptic tests were evaluated by a touch panel, the organization of the tasting analysis corresponded to GOST ISO 6658-2016, the consistency was evaluated according to GOST 31986-2012 and GOST ISO 11036-2017, GOST ISO 8588-2011. The optimal organoleptic combinations of the presented food acids and complex additives of sweeteners (aspartame, sodium saccharinate, Sucralose, sweetness coefficient 340) were identified: the mixture with citric acid had a long pleasant aftertaste without foreign tastes and the best taste characteristics. In the second part of the study, polysaccharides were added to model samples of acids with complex sweeteners; the best sensory characteristics were obtained by model samples consisting of a mixture of low-esterified malic pectin with lactic acid. We worked out the technology for obtaining a stable elastic jelly using low-esterified Apple pectin, since the complex mixture of sweeteners and food acids does not have a dehydrating effect. A dry mix recipe has been developed that can be the base for the development of low-calorie sweet dishes for public catering and has a variation in the use of lactic and succinic acids depending on the taste and aroma characteristics of the raw materials used and its corrective ability.

References
1. Chubenko NT. O vrede izlishkov sahara v pishhevyh racionah [About the harm of excess sugar in food ration]. Hlebopechenie Rossii [Bakery in Russia]. 2015. No. 2. P. 38-39 (In Russ.).
2. Fillips G. Spravochnik po gidrokolloidam [Handbook of hydrocolloids]. Saint Petersburg: Giord, 2006. 536 p. (In Russ.)
3. Pershina ON. Razrabotka tehnologii termostabil'nyh fruktovyh nachinok [Development of technology for thermostable fruit fillings]. Pischevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry], 2014. No. 11. P. 32 (In Russ.).
4. Rudakova VV. Organicheskie kisloty kak pischevye dobavki [Organic acids as food additives]. Materialy HHHV nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii studentov i aspirantov (Brjanskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet). 2019. P. 50-56 (In Russ.).
5. Sriamornsak P. Chemistry of pectin and its pharmaceutical uses: a review. Silpakorn University International Journal. 2003. No. 3 (1-2). P. 206-228.
6. Shahmardanova SA. Preparaty jantarnoj i fumarovoj kislot kak sredstva profilaktiki i terapii razlichnyh zabolevanij (Pervyj Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj medicinskij universitet im. I.?M. Sechenova) [Preparations of amber and fumaric acids as means of prevention and therapy of various diseases (I.?M. Sechenov First Moscow State medical university)]. Zhurnal fundamental'noj mediciny i biologii [Journal of Fundamental Medicine and Biology]. 2016. No. 3. P. 16-30 (In Russ.).
7. Zavorohina NV, Minnihanova E Ju. Vlijanie zagustitelej i geleobrazovatelej polisaharidnoj struktury na sensornoe vosprijatie sladkih bljud [Influence of polysaccharide structure thickeners and gels on sensory perception of sweet dishes]. Sovremennaja nauka i innovacii [Modern Science and innovation]. 2019. No. 3. P. 107-111 (In Russ.).
8. Potrjasov NV. Ispol'zovanie pektina v razlichnyh tehnologijah [Use of pectin in various technologies]. Molodoj uchenyj [Young Scientist]. 2014. No. 4. P. 242-244 (In Russ.).
Authors
Minnikhanova Ekaterina Yu., graduate student,
Zavorokhina Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Chugunova Olga V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Ural State University of Economics,
62/45, 8 Marta/Narodnoj Voli str., Ekaterinburg, Sverdlovskaya oblast', Russia, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Akhmedov A.N., Abdurakhimov S.A.The technology for producing refined bleached forpress oil from low-grade cotton seeds

P. 23-26 Key words
bleached refined forpress oil derived from low grade (III-IV varieties) cotton seeds, gossypol, chlorophyll, and derivatives thereof

Abstract
This article discusses the bleaching and refining technologies of cotton oils in a two-step way, which are important in the processing of cotton seeds of grades III-IV. A solution of NaOH is used for the first stages of alkaline refining, and a second-aqueous solution of sodium silicate, which is less active than the first one. Introduction of a two-stage method of alkaline refining of oils obtained from low-grade cotton seeds and their bleaching with activated clays helps to reduce losses of valuable oil, alkali and others. The developed technology for producing selected forpress oil from low-grade cotton seed shows an increase in oil yield of 3.8 % and an improvement in its quality.

References
1. Sergeev AG et al. Rukovodstvo po tekhnologii i prerabotke rastitelnikh masel i jirov [Guidelines for the technology and processing of vegetable oils and fats]. Leningrad: All-Union Research Institute of Fats. 1975. Vol. 1. Book. 1. 727 p. (In Russ.)
2. Arutyunyan NS et al. Tekhnologiya pererabotki jirov [Technology of processing fats]. Moscow: Agrompromizdat, 1985. 368 p. (In Russ.)
3. Rzhekhin VP et al. Rukovodstvo po metodam issledovaniya, tekhnologicheskomu kontrolyu i uchetu proizvodstva v maslo-zhirovoy promyshlennosti [Guide to research methods, technological control and accounting of production in the oil and fat industry]. Leningrad: All-Union Research Institute of Fats. 1967. Vol. 2. 423 p. (In Russ.)
4. Salikhanova DS, Pardayev GE, Eshmetov ID, Agzamkhodjayev AA. Kompleksnaya ochsitka khlopkovykh masel na ugolynykh i glinistykh adsorbentov [Comprehensive cleaning of cottonseed oils on corner and clay adsorbents]. Tashkent: Navruz, 2016. 160 p. (In Russ.)
5. Akhmedov AN. Sovershenstovovaniye tekhnologii kompleksnoy rafinatsii masel, poluchennykh iz nizkosortnykh semyan khlopchatnika [Improving the technology of complex refining of oils obtained from low-grade cotton seeds]. Tashkent, 2012. 110 p. (In Russ.)
6. Akhmedov AN, Pardayev FE, Suvanova FU, Abdurakhimov SA. Effektivnaya tekhnologiya pererabotki nizkosortnykh semyan khlopchatnika [An efficient technology for processing low-grade cotton seeds]. Tashkent: Navruz, 2019. 129 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Akhmedov Azimzhon N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Karshi Engineering and Economic Institute,
225, Mustakillik str., Karshi, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Abdurakhimov Saidakbar A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Tashkent Chemical and Technological Institute,
32, Navoiy str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Nuraliev S.U.Trade policy and its role in ensuring food security in the context of globalization

P. 28-32 Key words
food security, trade policy, wholesale food markets, retail markets, monopolization of distribution channels, wholesale and retail trade

Abstract
The country's food security largely depends on the effectiveness of the trade and marketing policy and the level of state support for the development of its own distribution infrastructure through the creation of a network of wholesale food markets. Foreign experience of state support for the creation of these structures and the regulation of their activities contributes to the development of competition and the prevention of monopolization of distribution channels. An effective state sales and marketing policy allows us to solve the problem of guaranteed sales of domestic producers at the domestic market at a fair price and to ensure the economic and food security of the country.

References
1. Veduta E. Cifrovaja jekonomika privedet k jekonomicheskoj kibersisteme [Digital economy will lead to an economic cyber system]. Mezhdunarodnaja zhizn' [International Affairs]. 2017. No. 10. P. 87-102 (In Russ.).
2. Kiselev SV. Sel'skaja economica: uchebnik [Rural Economics: Textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-Moscow, 2010. 572 p. (In Russ.)
3. Novak R. Sozdanie i razvitie optovyh prodovol'stvennyh rynkov v Pol'she [Creating the development of wholesale food markets in Poland]. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Materials of the International scientific-practical conference]. Moscow, 2017. 300 p. (In Russ.)
4. Nuraliev SU. Torgovo-economicheskaja politika i ee rol' v obespechenii economicheskoj i prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti strany [Trade and economic policy and its role in ensuring the economic and food security of the country]. Economica sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajuschih predprijatij [Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises]. 2019. No. 5. P. 22-25 (In Russ.).
5. Nuraliev SU. Mezhdunarodnaja torgovlja: uchebnik [International trade: textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2018. 307 p. (In Russ.)
6. Nuraliev SU. Economica: uchebnik [Economics: textbook]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2019. 363 p.
7. Nuraliev SU. Osnovnye napravlenija i zadachi torgovo-jekonomicheskoj politiki v obespechenii prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti [The main directions and objectives of trade and economic policy in ensuring food security]. Pischevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019. No. 3. P. 14-17 (In Russ.).
8. Nuraliev SU. Osobennosti razvitija torgovli prodovol'stviem v Rossii i za rubezhom [Features of the development of food trade in Russia and abroad]. Economica sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajushhij predprijatij [Economics of agricultural and processing enterprises]. 2020. No 3. P. 10-15 (In Russ.).
9. Rossija v cifrah 2018: kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik. Rosstat [Russia in numbers 2018: brief statistical compilation]. Moscow, 2019. 522 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Nuraliev Sirajidin U., Doctor of Economical Sciences, Professor
Union of the markets of Russia,
14, V. Voloshinoy str., Mytischi, Moscow Region, 141014, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sakhno N.I.Features of the catering market of the Kaliningrad region

P. 33-37 Key words
catering, Kaliningrad region, development, market, analyze

Abstract
The aim of the study is to assess the level of development of the public catering market in the Kaliningrad region and highlight its features. Catering is an important part of the development of not only the regional economy, but also of human development, directly affecting its vital functions. Catering has become a dynamically developing industry in the Russian Federation for many years, however, a number of indicators in comparison with foreign statistics leaves much to be desired. The Kaliningrad region is an exclave - a very special subject of the Russian Federation, and therefore needs comprehensive research, support and development. One of such methods can be a study of the region's catering market. The article discusses the catering market of the Kaliningrad region, especially the situation on the market of the city of Kaliningrad. The catering market of the region was not the subject of thorough research, and the author analyzed the situation in the catering market, outlined the main features of the market in the region, gave a description of the dynamics of the development of the catering market, described the market problems in the region and possible development prospects, using mainly statistical data. The article includes an introduction, a main part, conclusions and a list of sources. The main results of the work can be considered the systematization and structuring of information regarding the number of catering enterprises, the variety of formats and their types, with specific indicators. Analysis of the dynamics of market development in conjunction with the analysis of the purchasing power of the population. In addition, a number of assumptions have been put forward regarding the characteristics of the catering market in the region and further prospects for its development.

References
1. Oficial'nyj sajt territorial'nogo organa Federal'noj sluzhby gosudarstvennoj statistiki po Kaliningradskoj oblasti [Federal State Statistic Service]. Available from: http://kaliningrad.gks.ru [cited 2019 April 14].
2. Oficial'nyj sajt Oblastnogo pravitel'stva Kaliningradskoj oblasti [Government of Kaliningrad region]. Available from: https://gov39.ru [cited 2019 April 14].
3. Informacionnoe agentstvo "RBK.research" [Analytic agency RBK.research]. Available from: www.research.rbc.ru [cited 2019 April 10].
4. Sakhno, NI, Gegechkori ON. Perspektivy razvitiya rynka predpriyatij strit-fuda Kaliningradskoj oblasti kak odin iz faktorov razvitiya turisticheskogo sektora regiona. Materialy I Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Ulan-Ude: VSGUTU, 2017. 130-134 p. (In Russ.)
5. Postanovlenie pravitel'stva Kaliningradskoj oblasti "O Strategii social'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Kaliningradskoj oblasti na dolgosrochnuyu perspektivu" ot 02 avgusta 2012 goda № 583.
6. Informacionnyj sajt Kaliningradskoj oblasti "Novyj Kaliningrad" [Information site Novyj Kaliningrad]. Available from: https://www.newkaliningrad.ru [cited 2019 April 8]. 7. Oficial'nyj sajt zhurnala restoratorov Rossii "Restoranoved" [Internet journal "Restoranoved"]. Available from: http://restoranoved.ru [cited 2019 April 21].
8. Novoselov SV, Mayurnikova LA, Vasil'ev KI. Analiz regional'nyh uslovij dlya razvitiya innovacionnoj deyatel'nosti v sfere pitaniya [Analysis of regional conditions for the development of innovative activity in the food sphere]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv [Technique and technology of food production]. Kemerovo: KTIPP, 2012. 3-8 p. (In Russ)
Authors
Sakhno Nikita I., graduate student
Kaliningrad State Technical University,
1, Sovetskiy avenue, Kaliningrad, Russia, 236022, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Medvedev A.V., Solopova A.N., Kotova E.K., Kotova T.V.Assessment of the economic efficiency of the investment project for the production of non-alcoholic tonic drink "Wild Cat"

P. 38-41 Key words
non-alcoholic tonic drinks, raw materials, production scheme, economic efficiency, optimization mathematical model

Abstract
Over the past five years, in the country and in the world there has been an increase in the production and consumption of non-alcoholic tonic drinks (NTD). Representatives of various scientific schools are developing new NTD formulations. The regional characteristics of the used plant raw materials with a tonic effect are taken into account. The priority task of the food industry is to carry out activities aimed at making healthy food products, taking into account not only the traditions and habits of the population, but also the cost-effectiveness of introducing them into production. The paper considers the requirements of regulatory documentation for raw materials, elaborates the technological scheme of NTD production, describes the requirements for labeling and packaging of the finished drink. Introducing new technologies into production is an expensive process. The aim of the work is a preliminary automated assessment of the economic efficiency of an investment project for the production of NTD based on new recipes. The specified assessment is carried out from the point of view of traditional indicators of project efficiency, using the Karma optimization software package, which allows identifying the economic potential and finding the optimal characteristics of investment, production, financial activities of investment and production projects. The influence of the key indicator of the project (the market price of a unit of production) on the main indicators of the effectiveness of the investment project is studied. The life cycle is analyzed and the economic potential of the investment project is revealed through the use of an optimization mathematical model. The dependence of the net present value of the project on the planning horizon is described with a variation in the market unit price parameter. High characteristics of the economic efficiency of the investment project are obtained. Practical recommendations are given on sales markets, production technology, implementation of investment projects related to the production of NTD "Wild Cat".

References
1. Issledovaniya companii Euromonitor International [Company Euromonitor International Research]. - [Electronic resourse] URL: http://www.foodmarket.spb.ru/current.php?article=1204 (Date of the application: 04.04.2020).
2. Alaa Bani Hani, Jinous F. Tahmasseb. What Is the Cost of Soft Energy Drinks to our Health and Economy? Sports and Energy Drinks. 2019. P. 39-63.
3. Proizvodstvo energeticheskih napitkov - zayavka poiska investicij na startupnetwork.ru [Energy drink production - investment search application for startupnetwork.ru]. - [Electronic resourse]/URL: https: //startupnetwork.ru/projects/353120.html (Date of the application: 04.04.2020).
4. Philip R. Ashurst, Robert Hargitt, Fiona Palmer. Chapter 3: Ingredientsin Soft Drinks. Soft Drink and Fruit Juice Problems Solved (Second Edition). 2017. P. 29-66.
5. Wilson Jos? Fernandes Lemosunior, Luana Pereira do Amaral dos Reis, Vanessa Sales de Oliveira, L?o Oliveira Lopes, Karen Signori Pereira. Reuse of refillable PET packaging: Approaches to safety and quality in softdrink processing. Food Control. 2019. Vol. 100. P. 329-334.
6. Kotova TV, ?eremi?kina AS. Analiz ka?estva ?nergeti?eskih napitkov na sootvetstvie trebovani?m standartov [Analysis of the quality of energy drinks in accordance with the requirements of the standards]. Tehnika i tehnologi? pi?evyh proizvodstv [Food technology and technology]. 2012. No. 2 (25). P. 148-154.
7. Pinna С, Demartini М, Tonelli F, Terzi S. How Soft Drink Supply Chains drive sustainability: Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) identification. Procedia CIRP. Vol. 72. 2018. P. 862-867.
8. Svidetel'stvo 2018617155. Medvedev AV, Roslov MN, Ukhov AS. Generalizator i komponovshchik programmnogo obespecheniya podderzhki prinyatiya resheniy v situatsionnykh tsentrakh sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya [Generalizer and linker of decision support software in situational centers of socio-economic development]; statement 05.08.2016; published 10.01.2017. 536 Kb. URL: http://www1.fips.ru/Archive/EVM/2016/.
9. Medvedev AV. Model' optimal'nogo finansovo-investicionnogo planirovaniya deyatel'nosti proizvodstvennogo predpriyatiya [Model of optimal financial and investment planning of a manufacturing enterprice]. Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal prikladnyh i fundamental'nyh issledovanij [International journal of applied and fundamental research]. 2015. No. 9 (4). P. 622-625.
10. Fedulova EA, Medvedev AV, Kosinskiy PD. Modeling of the agribusiness enterprise activity on the basis of the balanced scorecard. Foods and Raw Materials. 2016. Vol. 4. No. 1. P. 154-162.
Authors
Medvedev Alexey V., Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor
Solopova Alla N., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Kemerovo branch (institute) of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
39, Kuznetsk avenue, Kemerovo, Russia, 650992, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kotova Ekaterina K., State inspector
Office of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance for the Republics of Khakassia and Tuva and the Kemerovo region,
2b, Muromtseva str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650001, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kotova Tatyana V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kemerovo State Medical University,
22а, Voroshilova str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650029
Ural State University of Economics,
62/45, 8 March/Narodnaya Volya str., Ekaterinburg, Russia, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ACTUAL ISSUES OF TECHNICAL REGULATION

Bagryantseva O.V., Khotimchenko S.A., Elizarova E.V.Justification of the food additives list change which are permitted for use in the Eurasian economic union

P. 42-46 Key words
food additives, list, legislation of the Eurasian Economic Union

Abstract
The main requirement for the use of food additives (FA) is the absence of their harmful effects on the human body as a result of their prolonged intake with food - throughout the life of a person and even several generations. In connection with the emergence of new scientific data, the development of food production technologies, there is a need to amend the legislative acts of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the introduction of which will help ensure the safe application of FA, as well as harmonize the EAEU legislation with international legislation. "Decisions" on the possible application of certain FAs in the food industry are made on the basis of a thorough analysis of all available scientific data, including results of these substances carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and embryotoxicity, taking into account the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Union decisions guaranteeing safe use and the technological justification for to use substances as FA. The article provides the rationale for updating the list of FA permitted for use in the food industry on the territory of the EAEU.

References
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3. Edinye sanitarno-epidemiologicheskie i gigienicheskie trebovaniya k tovaram, podlezhashchih sanitarno epidemiologicheskomu nadzoru (kontrolyu), Razdel 1. Trebovaniya bezopasnosti i pishchevoj cennosti pishchevyh produktov [Unified sanitary-epidemiological and hygienic requirements for goods subject to sanitary-epidemiological surveillance (control), Section 1. Safety and nutritional value requirements for food products]. 2010. 442 p. (in Russ.)
4. Kotkova TV, Shatrov GN, Bagryantseva OV. Pishchevye dobavki, aromatizatory, tekhnologicheskie vspomogatel'nye sredstva: zakonodatel'naya baza. Pishchevye ingredienty v sozdanii sovremennyh produktov pitaniya [Food additives, flavors, technological aids: legislative base. Food Ingredients in the Creation of Modern Food Products]. Edition by VA Tutelyan, AP Nechaeva. ISBN 978 5 905170 59 1. Мoscow, 2014. P. 61-92 (in Russ.).
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11. Opinion on the follow-up of the re-evaluation of sorbic acid (E200) and potassium sorbate (E202) as food additives. EFSA Journal. 2019. Vol. 17 (3). 5625. doi: 0.2903/j. efsa. 2019.5625.
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13. Scientific opinion on the safety of monacolins in red yeast rice. EFSA Journal. 2018. Vol. 16 (8). 5368. doi: 10.2903/j. efsa. 2018.5368
14. Statement on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 1: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until October 2014. EFSA Journal. 2014. 12 (12). 3938.
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17. Scientific Opinion on the safety of anionic methacrylate copolymer for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA Journal. 2010. Vol. 8 (7). 1656.
18. Commission Regulation (EU) No 816/2013 of 28 August 2013 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the use of Neutral methacrylate copolymer and Anionic methacrylate copolymer in solid food supplements and the Annex to Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 as regards the specifications for Basic methacrylate copolymer (E 1205), Neutral methacrylate copolymer and Anionic methacrylate copolymer. Official Journal of the European Union. 2013. L. 230. P. 1-6.
19. Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate. Evaluation of certain food additives, Sixty-ninth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Technical Report Series 952. 2009. P. 27-31.
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23. Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012 laying down specifications for food additives listed in Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 83, 22.3.2012, p. 1) 02012R0231 - EN - 25.10.2018-020.001-1.
Authors
Bagryantseva Olga V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Khotimchenko Sergey A., Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of RAS
Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Biotechnology,
2/14, Ust'inskiy passage, Moscow, 109240
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health,
2/14, Ust'inskiy lane, Moscow, 109240,
Elizarova Elena V., Candidate of Medical Sciences
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health,
2/14, Ust'inskiy passage, Moscow, 109240, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Vasyukova A.T., Tikhonov D.A., Tonapetyan T.A.Regulation of organoleptic indicators and nutritional value of stuffing systems from skinny ocean fish using functional dietary supplements

P. 47-51 Key words
formation, organoleptic indicators, mince dinbeef systems, dietary supplements, aliphatic compounds

Abstract
A promising direction of public policy in the field of healthy eating is the creation of technologies for the production of qualitatively new foods with a directional change in chemical composition that meets the needs of the human body. The use of technological additives in the creation of functional products is relevant. The article shows the possibilities of regulating organoleptic indicators of minced systems from skinny ocean fish using oil-containing products, flavor-aromatic additives, structuralizers and food dietary supplements of functional purpose. This reciprocal addition of the formulation by various components allows to create a combined mince of special purpose and products based on it, most in line with the needs of the body for food and biological value. The purpose of the research was to regulate organoleptic indicators and the nutritional value of stuffing systems from skinny ocean fish using functional dietary supplements. Introduction to the recipe "Moby Luxury Universal" as a biologically active additive allows to enrich minceca Ca, Fe and I, as well as vitamins, dietary fiber and proteins. It has been obtained that the formation of taste characteristics is carried out by the formation of alyphateous compounds, the basis of which are di- and trimethylamine (DMA and TMA), free amines, alcohols. It has been established that the best options for combining fish raw materials and additives are 120:4:3. Unconventional flavor range is obtained for meatballs with "Mobi Luxury Universal".

References
1. Zhuravleva SV, Bojcova TM, Prokopec Zh G, Zhuravleva AV. Vliyanie biomodifikacii na organolepticheskie pokazateli myshechnoj tkani ryb [Influence of biomodification on organoleptic indicators of fish muscle tissue]. Vestnik CamchatGTU [Bulletin of CamchatGTU]. 2018. No 45. P. 37-42 (In Russ.).
2. Zhuravleva SV, Bojcova TM. Poluchenie funkcional'nyh produktov pitaniya s ispol'zovani-em Lbm. Acidophilum [Getting functional foods using Lbm. Acidophilum]. Pischevaya I morskaya biotechnologiya: problemi I perspective (tezisi III mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy conferentsii). Svetlogorsk [Food and Marine Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects: Talking Points of the Third Internarnational scientific and practical conference. Svetlo-gorsk]. 2008 Moscow: MAKS Press, 2008. Р. 54 (In Russ.).
3. Biohimiya syr'ya. Glava 4. Ekstraktivnye azotistye veshchestva tkanej gidrobiontov [The biochemistry of raw materials. Chapter 4. Extractive nitrogen substances of hydrobionic tissues]. https: //docviewer.yandex.ru/(Date of the application 29.03.2020) (In Russ.).
4. Semenov EV, Slavyanskij AA, Karamzin VA. Kolichestvennoe modelirovanie processa razdeleniya suspenzij v rotore fil'truyushchej centrifugi periodicheskogo dejstviya [Mechanisms to improve the efficiency of the food and processing industries of the Central Federal District]. Chemical and oil and gas engineering. 2014. No. 11. P. 7-10 (In Russ.).
5. Dracheva LV, Zajcev NK, Zharikova OA, Vasyukova AT. Summarnaya antioksi-dantnaya aktivnost' rastitel'nyh ekstraktov [Total antioxidant activity of plant extracts]. Pischevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2011. No. 9. P. 44-45.
6. Pershakova TV, Vasyukova AT, Zhilina TS, Yakovleva TV, Puchkova VF, Fedorkina IA. Primenenie netradicionnogo syr'ya v recepturah kulinarnyh izdelij [Application of unconventional raw materials in recipes of culinary products]. Izvestia visshikh uchebnich zavedeniy. Pischevaya technologiya [News of higher education institutions. Food technology]. 2011. No. 1 (319). P. 36-37 (In Russ.).
7. Kaganov IN, Slavyanskij AA. Granulomet-riya sahara-peska [Sugar-Sand Granulometry]. Sakharnaya promyshlennost' [Sugar Industry]. 1970. No. 12. P. 6-10 (In Russ.).
8. Food Shelf Life Stability: Chemical, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes. Eskin N.?A. M., Robinson N.?D. S. (eds.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 2001.
9. Froning GW and McKee SR. Mechanical separation of poultry meat and its use in products-Poultry meat processing. USA: Ed. Sams-CRC Press LLC, 2001.
10. Roberfroid MB. Global new on functional foods: European perspectives. British Journal Nutrition. 2002. Vol. 88. Suppl. 2. P. 133-138.
11. Vasyukova AT, Vasyukov MV. Impact on the quality of smoked fish products. Teacher International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology. 2017. Vol. 3. Issue 8. Р. 15-18.
12. Vasyukova AT, Leonov OA, Zaharov VL, Vasyukov MV. Razrabotka i obosnova-nie tekhnologii zharenyh na grile polufabrikatov (monografiya) [Development and justification of the technology of grilled semi-finished products (Monograph)]. Saarbrucken, Deutschland (Germany): Lambert Academic Publishing. 2016. 201 p. (In Russ.)
13. Moshkin A, Vasyukova A, Novozhilov M. Dry functional mixtures with fruit-berry powders for yeast dough. Znanstvena misel journal. 2019. No. 32. P. 46-52. (The journal is registered and published in Slovenia. ISSN 3124-1123. Vol. 1)
14. Semenov EV, Slavyanskij AA, Karamzin VA. Kolichestvennoe modelirovanie processa razdeleniya suspenzij v rotore fil'truyushchej centrifugi periodicheskogo dejstviya [Quantitative modeling of the process of separation of suspensions in the rotor of the filtercentie of periodic action]. Chemical and oil and gas engineering. 2014. No. 11. P. 7-10 (In Russ.).
15. Kabulov B, Kassymov S, Moldabayeva Z, Rebezov M, Zinina O, Chernyshenko Y, Arduvanova F, Peshcherov G, Makarov S, Vasyukova A. Developing the formulation and method of production of meat frankfurters with protein supplement from meat by-products. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences. - 2020. No. 14. P. 213-218.
Authors
Vasyukova Anna T., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Tikhonov Dmitriy A., graduate student,
Tonapetyan Taronik A., graduate student
K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technology and Management,
73, Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Shelekhova N.V., Shelekhova T.M., Skvortsova L.I., Poltavskaya N.V.Comprehensive study of composition whiskey by gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

P. 52-56 Key words
whiskey, gas chromatography, identification, ionic composition, volatile organic impurities, capillary electrophoresis

Abstract
In order to improve the efficiency of work in the field of control and regulation of alcohol turnover, an important task is to develop new methods for identifying the chemical composition of alcoholic beverages. This area of research is highly significant because it is related to the health of the Russian population and which fully meets the requirements of the "Strategy for improving the quality of food products in the Russian Federation" and the new "Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation". The purpose of this study is to develop and test new instrumental methods for determining the chemical composition of whiskey. Based on gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis methods, new Express analysis methods have been developed that are simple, reliable, and highly accurate. Using the developed methods, 11 samples of whiskey produced in Ireland, Scotland and Russia were studied. New experimental data are obtained that indicate the effectiveness of the developed methods for determining the chemical composition of whiskey. Using gas chromatography, it was found that all the studied samples contain acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, 1 propanol, isobutanol, 1 butanol, isoamylol, and acetic acid. Most samples contained acetone, ethylformate, 2 propanol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl lactate, furfural, ethylcaprinate, and 2 phenylethanol, 2 butanol, 1 pentanol, and ethylcaprinate were found in 2 samples. It is shown that the mass concentration of components of volatile organic impurities varies widely, the total amount of identified impurities is in the range of 1236-5737 mg/dm3. Using capillary electrophoresis, it was found that all the studied whiskey samples contain ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, and the total cation content is in the range of 4.69-32.5 mg/dm3. Differences were found in the composition of volatile organic impurities and whiskey cations, which are explained by chemical reactions occurring during production processes. Promising areas for further research have been identified that allow us to expand the list of normalized physical and chemical indicators in whiskey and formulate objective criteria for detecting falsification.

References
1. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija kontrolja kachestva alkogol'noj produkcii [Current state and prospects of development of quality control of alcoholic beverages]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019. No. 4. P. 117-118 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235 2486 2019 10059
2. Nikitina SJ, Shahov SV, Pyl'nyj DV, Rudakov OB. Analiticheskij kontrol' kachestva rektifikovannogo jetanola, vodok i spirtovyh distilljatov [Analytical quality control of rectified ethanol, vodka and alcohol distillates]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018. No. 6. P. 56-60 (In Russ.).
3. Rudakov OB, Nikitina SJ. Trendy v analiticheskom kontrole kachestva pit'evogo jetanola [Trends in analytical quality control of drinking ethanol]. Analitika i kontrol' [Analytics and control]. 2017. Vol. 21. No. 3. P. 180-196 (In Russ.).
4. Shelekhova NV. Sistema avtomatizirovannogo monitoringa kachestva i bezopasnosti alkogol'noj produkcii metodami kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [System of automated monitoring of quality and safety of alcoholic beverages by methods of capillary electrophoresis]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2012. No. 4. P. 20-22 (In Russ.).
5. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA, Serba EM, Shelekhova TM, Veselivskaya OV, Skvorcova LI. Informatsionnyye tekhnologii v analiticheskom kontrole kachestva alkogol'noy produktsii [Information technologies in analytical quality control of alcoholic beverages]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018. No. 8. P. 30-33 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235 2486 2018 00019
6. Kirillov EA, Kononenko VV, Grunin EA, Solovyov AO, Alekseev AN. Proizvodstvo zernovogo distillyata na bragorektifikatsionnykh ustanovkakh iz krakhmalosoderzhashchego syrya [Production of grain distillate on bragorektifikatsionnyh installations from starch-containing raw materials]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2016. No. 3. P. 22-24 (In Russ.).
7. Shkolnikova MN, Rozhnov ED, Chetveri-kov VI. Issledovaniye protsessa peregonki fruktovogo vinomateriala pri poluchenii oblepikhovykh distillyatov [Study of the process of distilling fruit wine material in obtaining sea buckthorn distillates]. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin of KrasGAU]. 2019. No. 7. P. 147-154 (In Russ.).
8. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy kontrolja tehnologicheskih processov proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Improving the control system of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2017. No. 1. P. 34-36 (In Russ.).
9. Novikova IV, Agafonov GV, Jakovlev AN, Chusova AE. Tehnologicheskoe proektirovanie proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Technological design for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Saint Petersburg: Lan', 2015. 384 p. (In Russ.)
10. Agafonov GV. Innovacionnye resheniya v tekhnologii proizvodstva alkogol'noj produkcii [Innovative solutions in the technology of production of alcoholic beverages]. Materialy VI otchetnoj nauchnoj konferencii prepodavatelej i nauchnyh sotrudnikov VGUIT za 2017 g. 2018. Part 1. P. 59 (In Russ.).
11. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA, Rimareva LV. Kapilljarnyj jelektroforez - vysokojeffektivnyj analiticheskij metod issledovanija sostava slozhnyh biologicheskih sred [Capillary electrophoresis is a highly effective analytical method for studying the composition of complex biological media]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2017. No. 2. P. 34-38 (In Russ.).
12. Becker Yu. Chromatografiya. Instrumental'naya analitika: metody chromatografii i kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Chromatography. Instrumental analysis: methods of chromatography and capillary electrophoresis]. Moscow: Tekhnosfera, 2009. 458 p. (In Russ.)
13. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV. Upravleniye tekhnologicheskimi protsessami proizvodstva alkogol'noy produktsii s primeneniyem informatsionnykh tekhnologiy [Management of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages using information technology]. Khraneniye i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2017. No. 3. P. 28-31 (In Russ.).
14. Hotimchenko SA, Bessonov VV, Bagryanceva OV, Gmoshinskij IV. Bezopasnost' pishchevoj produkcii: novye problemy i puti reshenij [Food safety: new challenges and solutions]. Medicina truda i ekologiya cheloveka [Occupational medicine and human ecology]. 2015. No. 4. P. 7-14 (In Russ.).
15. Arnautov OV, Bagryanceva OV, Bessonov VV. O neobhodimosti sovershenstvovaniya sistemy preduprezhdeniya fal'sifikacii pishchevyh produktov v evrazijskom ekonomicheskom soyuze [On the need to improve the system of preventing food falsification in the Eurasian Economic Union]. Voprosy pitaniya [Nutrition question]. 2016. Vol. 85. No. 2. P. 104-115 (In Russ.).
16. Shelekhova NV, Abramova IM, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Issledovaniye khimicheskogo sostava spirtnykh napitkov s primeneniyem instrumental'nykh metodov [Study of the chemical composition of alcoholic beverages using instrumental methods]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019. No. 12. P. 68-71 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235 2486 2019 10200
17. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Rasshireniye anali-ticheskikh vozmozhnostey kapillyarnogo elektroforeza dlya issledovaniy spirtnykh napitkov [Expansion of analytical capabilities of capillary electrophoresis for research of alcoholic beverages]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019. No. 11. P. 68-71 (In Russ.). DOI: 10.24411/0235 2486 2019 10181
Authors
Shelekhova Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shelekhova Tamara M., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Skvortsova Lyubov' I.,
Poltavskaya Natal'ya V.
Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of Science Federal Research Center of Food and Biotechnology,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Belyaeva, M.A., Kechkin, I.A.Heat and mass transfer processes during long-term storage of wheat grain in metal silos

P. 57-60 Key words
long storage, active ventilation, metal silos, heat and mass transfer processes

Abstract
Changes in temperature and humidity parameters (initial value of 10.6 %) of wheat grain during the storage year were studied. Grain humidity in both the wall and Central part of the metal silo remained almost unchanged, remaining at the level of 10 to 11 %. Humidity values were recorded monthly. As for the grain temperature, it varied from 20 to 32 °C, with a minimum outdoor temperature of minus 5 °C, in accordance with seasonal temperature changes. It is noted that the grain moisture in the surface layer tended to increase by 0.4-1.2 %. Grain humidity at the end of the experiment was 11.6 %. Experiments on changes in grain temperature and humidity during active ventilation in large-capacity metal silos have shown that the rate of change (decrease) in temperature depends on the specific air flow rate, the difference in air and grain temperatures. Experimental storage has shown that grain with a moisture content of up to 13.6 % can be stored for up to nine months without deterioration. A longer shelf life is possible for wheat grains with a moisture content of up to 12 %. The above-grain and under-roof space of large-capacity metal silos is directly related to one of the significant factors that can potentially improve the quality of grain safety during long - term storage-through the use of possible techniques that reduce the effects of moisture condensation on the internal surfaces of the roof and unfilled walls of the silo. This condensation of moisture is most likely in the autumn-winter period, when the stored grain is not yet cooled by active ventilation, and the outside air temperature regularly falls to values below the dew point temperature for air in direct contact with the specified internal surfaces of the silo. Calculations show that conditions for such condensation are possible already at the temperature difference between the grain and the outside air from 5 to 6 °C. The very same possible condensation of moisture ends with its runoff to the surface of the grain mass, which leads to the appearance of free moisture on the surfaces of grains and is a significant factor in reducing the quality of grain safety during its long-term storage. In this article, special attention was paid to the processes occurring in the under-roof space of large-capacity metal silos and suggested ways to solve this problem.

References
1. Kechkin IA. Aerodinamicheskiye parametry vozdukha pri ventilirovanii zerna v silosakh vmestimostyu 1000. 2000. 5000 i 10000 tonn [Aerodynamic parameters of air during grain ventilation in silos with capacity of 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10000 tons]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov I Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh i aspirantov [Proceedings of the I-th International scientific and practical conference of young scientists and postgraduates]. 2018. P. 46-47 (In Russ.).
2. Kechkin IA, Razvorotnev AS, Gavrichen-kov Yu D. Izmeneniya parametrov vozdukha vnutri metallicheskogo silosa pri khranenii pshenitsy [Changes in the parameters of the air inside the metal silo during storage of wheat]. Sbornik materialov II Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii "Innovatsionnyye issledovaniya i razrabotki dlya nauchnogo obespecheniya proizvodstva i khraneniya ekologicheski bezopasnoy selskokhozyaystvennoy i pishchevoy produktsii" [Proceedings of the II International scientific and practical conference "Innovative research and development for scientific support of production and storage of environmentally safe agricultural and food products"]. 2017. P. 451-452 (In Russ).
3. Semenov GV, Ivashkin Yu A, Belyaeva MA. Ierarhicheskaya struktura sistemnih issledovanii processa teplovoi obrabotki myasnih polufabrikatov [Hierarchical structure of system studies of the process of heat treatment of meat semi-finished products.]. Hranenie i pererabotka selhozsirya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2009. P. 24-26 (In Russ.).
4. Trofimov VA, Belyaeva MA. Distancionnaya lazernaya identifikaciya tipa stroitelnogo materiala [Remote laser identification of the type of building material]. Nauchno-tehnicheskiy vestnik informacionnih tehnologii_mehaniki i optiki [Scientific and Technical Bulletin of information technologies, mechanics and optics]. 2012. P. 8-13 (In Russ.).
5. Shen H, Shou J-P. Study on the heat transfer process of grain drying heat exchange bed. Asian journal of information technology. 2017. Vol. 11. P. 689-691 (In Eng.).
6. Ermolaev V, Kechkin I, Romanenko A, Tarakanova V, Buzetti K. Management of air flows inside steel silo during grain storage. International Conference on Food Industry, Economy and Security. 2020. P. 22-25 (In Eng.).
7. Zhou B, Fan J, Feng L, Cheng J, Chen L. Flow simulation around double cylinders based on Lattice Boltzmann method at low Reynolds numbers. International Journal of Ventilation. 2017. Vol. 16. P. 124-133 (In Eng.).
8. Davies WJ, Ribaut JM. Stress resilience in crop plants: Strategic thinking to address local food production problems. Food and Energy Security. 2017. Vol. 6 (1). P. 12-18 (In Eng.).
9. Ermolaev V, Kechkin I, Romanenko A, Ivanov M, Gurkovskaya E. Dependence of fat acidity value on wheat grain storage conditions. International Conference on Food Industry, Economy and Security. 2020. P. 34-39 (In Eng.).
10. Belyaeva MA. Modelirovanie tekhniko-ekonomicheskikh system (uchebnoe posobie) [Modeling of technical and economic systems (Textbook)]. 2018. P. 102-105 (In Russ.).
Authors
Belyaeva Marina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kechkin Ivan A., graduate student
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997
All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Grain and Products of its Processing - Branch of the V.?M. Gorbatov Federal Research,
11, Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow, 127204, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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Coordinated actions of the EAEU countries contribute to food security in the Union market

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