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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №1/2020



The Results of the work of Food and Processing Industry Enterprises of Russia

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: NEW IDEAS IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Voskanyan O.S., Nikitin I.A., Klokonos M.V., Guseva D.A.Optimization of blending vegetable oils for the content of unsaturated fatty acids using the brute force method

P. 8-13 Key words
modeling, brute force, vegetable oil blends, omega-6, omega-3

Abstract
The creation of a new generation of fat products of a functional and specialized purpose, safe to use, for the oil and fat industry is one of the promising areas of innovative development of the food industry. To compile new scientifically based blends of vegetable oils, methods of mathematical modeling are used to select their composition. The aim of the work was to develop an integrated approach to the creation of blends of vegetable oils optimized for the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids for healthy and therapeutic nutrition, in particular with a given ratio of omega-6/omega-3 = 5/1 polyunsaturated fatty acids using the full brute force. As a result of the study, the selection of potential ingredients of blends of vegetable oils was substantiated, and compositions of vegetable oils of a given quality, composition and properties were designed. For this, mathematical models of the designed blends have been developed taking into account a set of criteria and limitations. The criterion for the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 was taken as the objective function. One of the main limitations in the problem to be solved was the level of maximum concentration of ingredients so that in the resulting blend none of the plant components prevailed over the others and, accordingly, could not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of the finished composition. As a result of the work of an automated system of scientific research, about 300 blends of vegetable oils were generated. Taking into account the organoleptic requirements, three alternative blend compositions were selected with an omega-6: omega-3 ratio in the first and second versions of 5:1, and in the third - 10:1, which makes them possible to use for healthy and therapeutic nutrition.

References
1. Skoryukin AN. Tekhnologiya polucheniya i primeneniya kupazhirovannyh produktov s optimal'nym sostavom PNZHK [The technology of production and application of blended products with an optimal composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids]; dissertation abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Moscow: Moscow State University of food production, 2004. 24 p.
2. Trushina EN, Mustarina OK, Volgarev VL. O mekhanizmah dejstviya PNZHK na immunnuyu sistemu [On the mechanisms of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the immune system]. Voprosy pitaniya [Nutrition issues]. 2003. No. 3. P. 35-39 (In Russ.).
3. Nikolaeva SV, Gruzinov EV, Klyushina EA, Shlyonskaya TV, Dobrzhickij AA. Reologicheskie harakteristiki tryohkomponentnoj smesi rastitel'nyh masel [Rheological characteristics of a three-component mixture of vegetable oils]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2007. No. 10. P. 32-33 (In Russ.).
4. Nikolaeva SV, Klyushina EA, Gruzinov EV, Shlyonskaya TV. Primenenie metoda linejnogo programmirovaniya dlya optimizacii smesej rastitel'nyh masel [Application of linear programming method for optimization of vegetable oil mixtures]. Maslozhirovaya promyshlennost' [Oil and fat industry]. 2007. No. 1. P. 23-24 (In Russ.).
5. MR 2.3.1.2432-08 Normy fiziologicheskoj potrebnosti v energii i pishchevyh veshchestvah dlya razlichnyh grupp naseleniya Rossijskoj Federacii [Methodological recommendations 2.3.1.2432-08. Norms of physiological demand for energy and food substances for different population groups of the Russian Federation]. Moscow, 2009. 38 p. (In Russ.)
6. Nikolaeva SV. Analiz, upravlenie i avtomatizirovannaya obrabotka ocenok pokazatelej kachestva produktov [Analysis, management and automated processing of assessments of product quality indicators]. Moscow: Sputnik+, 2011. 84 p. (In Russ.)
7. Znachenie zhira v pitanii. Svyaz' izbytochnogo potrebleniya zhira s razvitiem ateroskleroza i ozhireniya. Potrebnost' v zhire v razlichnyh usloviyah zhizni i deyatel'nosti, istochniki zhira [The value of fat in the diet. Association of excessive fat consumption with the development of atherosclerosis and obesity. The need for fat in a variety of living conditions and activities, sources of fat]. [Electronic resource]. - Available from: https: //studfiles.net?/?preview?/?6233950?/?page: 3.
8. Nikolaeva SV. Sistemnyj analiz mnogokomponentnyh pishchevyh ob'ektov i tekhnologij v usloviyah informacionnoj neopredelennosti [System analysis of multicomponent food objects and technologies in conditions of information uncertainty]; thesis of Doctor of Technical Sciences (Voronezh State Technological Academy). Moscow, 2013. 394 p.
9. STO 001 00334534 2007 "Rastitelnye smesi masel s optimiziruemym zhirnokislotnym sostavov" [Standart VNIIZH STO 001 00334534 2007 Vegetable oil mixtures with optimized fatty acid composition]. [Electronic resource]. - Available from: http://www.oilworld.ru?/?dors?/?news. phpview=35122.
10. Ostryakov AN, Kopylov MV. Kupazhirovannoe rastitelnoe maslo - funkcional'nyj produkt pitaniya [Blended vegetable oil is a functional food product]. Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya [Successes of modern natural science]. 2011. No. 7. P. 171-172 (In Russ.).
11. Nikolaeva SV, Kustov AI, Makeeva OV. Osobennosti primeneniya ob'ektno-orientirovannyh informacionnyh tekhnologij pri formirovanii upravlencheskogo resheniya na predpriyatii APK [Features of the application of object-oriented information technologies in the formation of management decisions in the enterprise agribusiness]. Ekonomika i menedzhment sistem upravleniya [Economics and management of management systems]. 2013. No. 4.2 (10). P. 257-264 (In Russ.).
12. Pishchevaya cennost' masel i zhirov [Nutritional value of oils and fats]. [Electronic resource]. - Available from: ttps: //yandex.ru?/?search?/?? text=ZHirnokislotnyj sostav rastitelnykh masel&lr=213&clid=2186617.
13. Usatnikov SV, Timofeenko TI, Rudenko OV, Nikonovich SN, Birbasova AV, Ovgareva DA. Otsenka effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya komp'yuternoj programmy pri sozdanii smesej rastitel'nyh masel dlya zdorovogo pitaniya [Evaluation of the effectiveness of the computer program in the creation of mixtures of vegetable oils for healthy nutrition]. Fundamentalnye issledovaniya [Fundamental study]. 2015. No. 10 (2). P. 314-317 (In Russ.).
14. Ipatova OM, Prozorovskaya NN, Baranova VS, Guseva DA. Biologicheskaya aktivnost' l'nyanogo masla kak istochnikaomega-3 al'fa-linolenovoj kisloty [Biological activity of linseed oil as a source of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid]. Biomedicinskaya himiya [Biomedical chemistry]. 2004. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 25-43 (In Russ.).
15. The Brute Force algorithm. [Electronic resource]. - Available from: https: //ru.wikipedia.org?/?wiki?/?Polnyj_perebor.
16. Prozorovskaya NN, Guseva DA, Shironin AV, Sanzhakov MA, Tikhonova EG, Ipatova OM. Maslo rastitelnoe na osnove smesi semyan l'na, kunzhuta i rastoropshi s sootnosheniem PNZHK omega-3 i omega-6 (1:1,4:1,6) i sposoby ego polucheniya [Vegetable oil based on a mixture of flax seeds, sesame seeds and milk Thistle with a ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 (1: 6: 81,6) and methods for its production]. Russia patent RU 2402911. 2009.
17. Prozorovskaya NN, Guseva DA, Shironin AV, Sanzhakov MA, Tikhonova EG, Ipatova OM. Maslo rastitelnoe na osnovesmesi semyan l'na, kunzhuta i rastoropshi s sootnosheniem PNZHK omega-3 i omega-6 (1:6:81,6) i sposoby ego polucheniya [Vegetable oil based on a mixture of flax seeds, sesame and milk Thistle with a ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 (1:6:81,6) and methods for its production]. Russia patent RU 2402912. 2009.
18. Prozorovskaya NN, Guseva DA, Shironin AV, Sanzhakov MA, Tikhonova EG, Ipatova OM. Maslo rastitelnoe na osnove smesi semyan l'na, kunzhuta i rastoropshi s sootnosheniem PNZHK omega-3 i omega-6 (1:3-1:4) i sposoby ego polucheniya [Vegetable oil based on a mixture of flax seeds, sesame and milk Thistle with a ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 (1:3-1:4) and methods for its production]. Russia patent RU 2402913. 2009.
19. Nikolaeva SV, Gruzinov EV, Klyushina EA, Shlyonskaya TV. Komp'yuternoe proektirovanie smesej rastitel'nyh masel, optimizirovannyh po soderzhaniyu polinenasyshchennyh zhirnyh kislot [Computer-aided design of mixtures of vegetable oils optimized for the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids]. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. FGBOU VO Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj universitet pishchevyh proizvodstv, Moskva [Materials of scientific and practical conference. Moscow State University of food production, Moscow]. Moscow: MGUPP, 2006. P. 158-160 (In Russ.).
20. Rudenko OV, Timofeenko TI, Nikonovich SN, Birbasova AV, Ovgareva DA, Usatnikov SV. Svidetel'stvo o gosudarstvennoj programme dlya EVM: No. 2015660121. [Russia Svidetel'stvo o gosudarstvennoy programme dlya EVM: No. 2015660121.]. Optimizaciya sostava zhirnyh kislot rastitelnykh masel dlya lechebnogo i dieticheskogo profilakticheskogo pitaniya [Optimization of the composition of fatty acids vegetable oils for therapeutic and dietary preventive nutrition]. 27.07. 2015.
21. Birbasova AV. Teoreticheskoe i eksperimental'noe obosnovanie receptur kupazhirovannyh masel funkcional'nogo naznacheniya [Theoretical and experimental substantiation of functional blended oils formulations]; dissertation abstract of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Krasnodar: Kuban' State Technological University, 2016. 24 p.
22. Voskanyan OS, Paronyan VH, Shlenskaya TV. Sovremennoe sostoyanie i tendencii razvitiya proizvodstva emul'sionnyh produktov pitaniya [Current state and development trends of emulsion food production]. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 2003. 353 p. (In Russ.)
23. Nikolaeva SV, Gruzinov EV, Klyushina EA, Shlyonskaya TV, Dobrzhickij AA. Vyazkostnye harakteristiki tryohkomponentnoj smesi rastitel'nyh masel, optimizirovannoj po soderzhaniyu polinenasyshchennyh zhirnyh kislot [Viscosity characteristics of a three-component mixture of vegetable oils optimized for the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids]. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj universitet pishchevyh proizvodstv [Materials of scientific and practical conference. Moscow State University of food production]. Moscow: MGUPP, 2007. P. 209-213.
Authors
Voskanyan Ol'ga S., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Nikitin Igor' A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Klokonos Mariya V., graduate student,
Guseva Dar'ya A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
K.G. Razumovskiy Moscow State University of Technologies and Management,
73, Zemlyanoy Val str., Moscow, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Poleshhuk V.I., Slutskaya T.N., Poleschhuk D.V., Maximova S.N., Gorjacheva E.D.Technology of Preserved Products of Pacific Sardines (Iwashi)

P. 14-17 Key words
pacific sardine, quality, preserves production, potting composition, sea buckthorn, chitosan, sodium alginate

Abstract
The relevance of the development of preserves technology of high-quality from the Pacific Sardine (Ivasi) is substantiated. The results of analytical and experimental studies on the feasibility of using the fill in the production of preserves from cut fish and the justification of its composition are presented. The model systems of preserved sardine products made using different pouring options, including sea buckthorn juice, chitosan, sodium alginate in various ratios, are investigated. The influence of all the listed components on the final indicators of the quality of the finished product has been established. Experimental data were obtained confirming the effect of the composition of the fill on the organoleptic properties of preserves (taste and texture). The influence of the obliphy juice amount on the finished product taste and aroma is shown. Studies of the residual activity of fish muscle proteases in model systems that have a negative impact on the quality of preserved products in storage were carried out. The depth of proteolytic changes in samples of sardine preserves is established, depending on the composition of the pot according to the content of amino nitrogen. On the basis of the obtained results, the formulation of pouring in sardine preserves and the rational ratio of sea buckthorn, chitosan and sodium alginate in its composition are substantiated. A flow chart for the production of preserved food from split Pacific sardine (Ivasi) using a filling is presented. The dynamics of the buffering index in the process of maturing of preserved products during storage is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, the shelf life of preserves from split sardines in a fill, consisting of sea buckthorn, chitosan and sodium alginate, has been established. The conclusion was made about the expediency of using these components in the production of preserves from sardine - a raw material that is difficult in process due to its chemical composition and biochemical characteristics.

References
1. Slutskaya TN, Maximova SN, Poleshchuk DV, Ponomarenko S Yu, Poleshchuk VI. Sovershenstvovanie tehnologii solenoj produkcii iz sardiny tihookeanskoj (ivasi) [Improving the technology of salted products from Pacific Sardine (Iwasi)]. Innovative and resource-saving food technology. Materials of the I National Scientific and Technical Conference with international participation. 2018.
2. Gulenkova GS. Osobennosti biokhimicheskogo sostava plodov oblepihi [Features of the biochemical composition of the fruit of sea buckthorn]. Vestnik KrasGAU, 2013. No.11. P. 262-265.
3. Moskalyuk TA. Oblepikha - novyj vzgljad na tehnologii, zdorov'e i okruzhajushhuju sredu [Sea buckthorn - a new look at technology, health and the environment]. Vestnik Dalnevostochnogo otdelenija Rossijskoj akademii nauk [Bulletin of Far Eastern Branch of the RAS]. 2014. No. 3. P. 153-157.
4. Suryakumar G, Asheesh G. Medicinal and therapeutic potential of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011. Vol. 138. Issue 2. P. 268-278.
5. Maximova SN, Safronova TM. Hitozan v tehnologii rybnyh produktov: kharakteristiki, funkcii, jeffektivnost' [Khitosan in fish products technology: kharacteristics, functions, efficiency]. Vladivostok: Dalrybvtuz, 2010. 256 p.
6. Maximova SN. Khitinovye materialy v tehnologii vodnyh bioresursov [Khitin materials in water bioresources technology]. SPb, 2017. 176 p.
7. Maximova SN, Slutskaya TN, Poleshchuk DV, Ponomarenko S Yu, Poleshchuk VI. Ispolzovanie bioreguljatorov proteoliza rastitel'nogo proishozhdenija v tehnologii preservov [The use of bioregulators of vege-table proteolysis in preservative technology]. Izvestiya Kaliningradskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [News of Kaliningrad State Technical University]. 2018. No. 48. P. 112-118.
Authors
Poleshhuk Viktorija I., graduate student,
Slutskaya Tatiana N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Poleschhuk Denis V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Maximova Svetlana N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University,
52b, Lugovaya str., Vladivostok, 90087, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gorjacheva Elena D., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ashurbekova F.A., Guseynova B.M., Daudova T.I.Technological aspects of receiving high-quality extracts from fruits of wild plants

P. 18-22 Key words
fruits of wild plants, aqueous-alcoholic extracts, chemical composition, nutrition value, process parameters of receiving extracts, ways of an intensification of extraction

Abstract
The nutrition value of fruits of a hawthorn east is investigated (Crataegus orientalis L.), elder black (Sambucus nigra L.), cornel ordinary (Cornus mas L.) and their aqueous-alcoholic extracts. The standard methods in biochemistry in them determined the content of extractive and phenolic substances, sugars, titrable acids, vitamins C and Р. Results of analyses demonstrate that the fruits of wild plants ripening in the conditions of Dagestan - elder black, a hawthorn and a cornel can be used with success as raw materials for receiving high-quality extracts of the rich biologically and physiologically active agents. Concentration of vitamin C in fresh fruits of wild plants varied from 19.4 (hawthorn) to 36.4 mg % (elder). Content of vitamin P was 93.3 (hawthorn) - 182.9 mg % (elder). In fruits of elder black the greatest number of sugars (12.8?%) and titrable acids (2.5?%), and fruits of a hawthorn of phenolic substances (2.9?%) is revealed. The possibility of production of high-quality extracts from fruits of wild plants rich with biologically active agents, with application of various technological modes and ways of extraction is revealed: raw materials insisting duration; temperature condition of carrying out extraction, fortress of solvent and size of the hydromodule. Results of researches demonstrate that it is inexpedient to carry out extraction longer than 7 days, and the best temperature condition for an intensification of this process is 20-22 °С. The optimum value of the hydromodule (ratios raw materials?/?ekstragen) is 1:4. It is revealed that the greatest extraction of sugars, titrable acids and vitamin C came from fruits of wild plants at application of the ekstragent from 50?% about. ethanol. Content is 70?% about. ethanol in solvent promoted the best exit in extract of vitamin P and phenolic substances. Results of biochemical analyses of extracts from fruits of a hawthorn, elder and a cornel showed that carrying out extraction in the way of double insisting on condition of selection of the optimum technological modes allows to provide on average 55-65?% exit of valuable nutrients from the studied fruit raw materials.

References
1. Spirichev VB, Shatnyuk LN, Poznyakovskij VM. Obogashchenie pishchevyh produktov vitaminami i mineral'nymi veshchestvami. Nauka i tekhnologii [Enrichment of foodstuff vitamins and mineral substances. Science and technologies]. Novosibirsk: Sibirskoe universitetskoe izdatelstvo, 2005. 548 р.
2. Minina SA, Kaukhova IЕ. Himiya i tekhnologiya fitopreparatov [Chemistry and technology of phytomedicines]. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media, 2004. 560 p.
3. Ponomarev VD. O vzaimosvyazi mezhdu anatomicheskim stroeniem korney solodki I skorost'yu ikh extragirovaniya [About interrelation between the anatomic structure of roots of a licorice and speed of their extraction]. Tezisy dokladov simpoziuma po izucheniyu i ispol'zovaniyu solodki v narodnom hozyajstve [Theses of reports of a symposium on studying and use of a licorice in the national economy]. Ashkhabad, 1969. P. 79.
4. Ponomarev VD. Ekstragirovanie lekarstvennogo syr'ya [Extraction of medicinal raw materials]. Moscow: Medicina, 1976. 238 p.
5. Metody biohimicheskogo issledovaniya rastenij [Methods of a biochemical research of plants]?/?ed. AI Ermakov. Leningrad: Agropromizdat, 1987. 430 p.
6. Lago JHG, Toledo-Arruda AC, Mernak M et al. Structure-activity association of flavonoids in lung diseases. Molecules. 2014. Vol. 19. P. 3570-3595.
7. Cuevas A, Saavedra N, Salazar LA, Abdalla DSP. Modulation of immune function by polyphenols: possible contribution of epigenetic factors. Nutrients. 2013. No. 5. P. 2314-2332.
8. Tarahovskij Yu S, Kim Yu A, Abdrasilov BS, Muzafarov ЕN. Flavonoidy: biofizika, biokhimiya, medicina [Flavonoids: biophysics, biochemistry, medicine]. Puschino: Synchrobook, 2013. 310 p.
9. Yashin Ya I, Ryzhnev V Yu, Yashin A Ya, Chernousova NI. Prirodnye antioksidanty. Soderzhanie v pishchevyh produktah i vliyanie ih na zdorov'e i starenie cheloveka [Natural antioxidants. Contents in foodstuff and their influence on health and aging of the person]. Moscow: TransLit, 2009. 212 p.
10. Mochilniy MP. Pishhevye i biologicheskie veshhestva v pitanii [Food and biological substances in food]. Moscow: DeLi Print, 2007. 240 p.
11. Kalt W, Kushad MM. The role of oxidative stress and anti-oxidants in plant and human health: introduction to the Colloquium. HortScience. 2000. Vol. 35 (40). P. 203-209.
12. Guseynova BM, Ismailov Je Sh, Daudova TI. Intensifikatsiya protsessa extraktsii nutrientov iz plodov I yagod deistviem microvoln [Intensification of process of extraction of nutrients of fruits and berries action of microwaves]. Izvestija vuzov. Pischevaya tekhnologija [University news. Food technology]. 2011. No. 4. P. 50-52 (In Russ.).
13. Guseynova BM, Mukailov MD. Osobennosti extraktsii nutrientov iz plodov ryabiny, terna I shipovnika [Features of extraction of nutrients from fruits of a mountain ash, a sloe and a dogrose]. Izvestiya Timiryazevskoj sel'skohozyajstvennoj akademii [Timiryazev Agricultural Academie news]. 2018. No. 1. P. 109-117 (in Russ.).
14. Khishova OM. Tabletirovanie lekarstvennogo rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Tabletting of medicinal vegetable raw materials]. Vitebsk, 2005. P. 55-89.
15. Kumar S, Pandey AK. Free radicals: health implications and their mitigation by herbals. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2015. Vol. 7. No 6. P. 438-457.
Authors
Ashurbekova Firuza A., graduate student,
Guseynova Batuch M., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Dagestan State Agricultural University named after M.?M. Dzhambulatov,
180, M. Gadzhieva str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367032, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Daudova Tatyana I.
Pri-Caspian Institute of Biological Resources of the Dagestan center of Science of RAS,
45, M. Gadzhieva str., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367020, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kukin M.Yu., Kabanov V.L.Study of the principles of sodium isoascorbate crystallization

P. 23-26 Key words
solubility, crystallization, equilibrium, sodium isoascorbate, food additive

Abstract
Crystallization of sodium isoascorbate from solutions is an object of investigation to use the data obtained for food additive E316 technology development. Sodium isoascorbate (erythorbate) is one of the most reclaimed antioxidants not produced in Russia but imported from abroad so development of a domesic technology is a problem of current interest. Sodium isoascorbate was carried out with D(-)-isoascorbic acid and sodium hydroxide reaction. Determination of mass fraction of sodium isoascorbate and isoascorbic acid was carried out by iodometric titration. Because of sodium isoascorbate is chemically unstable the influence of temperature, contact with metal and oxygen in the air on its oxidation rate was studied. Temperature effects on solubility of sodium isoascorbate and isoascorbic acid in water and ethanol are given. Influence of the duration of the crystallization process on the value of the coefficient of supersaturation of the solution is shown in the temperature range from 20 °C to 50 °C. With metal reactor the most rational option is to carry isohydric crystallization, followed by separation of the suspension and transfer of the filtrate to isothermal crystallization is shown. The principles established allows to found the main conditions for the isolation of the food additive E316 - sodium isoascorbate from solution and can be used to develop a domestic technology for its production.

References
1. Semenova АА. O tehnologicheskoj praktike primenenija pishhevyh dobavok v mjasnoj promyshlennosti [On technological practice of usage of food additives in meat industry]. Vsyo o myase [All about meat]. 2009. No. 1. P. 17-23 (In Russ.).
2. Fu Z, Chen WP, Wang P. Studies on the optimization of D-erythorbic acid production by Penicillium griseoroseum FZ-13 in relevant fermented culture medium. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2013. Vol. 7. No. 9. P. 730-735.
3. Asakura A, Hoshino T, Kiyasu T, Shinjoh M. Manufacture of L-ascorbic acid and D-erythorbic acid. Patent US. No. 6146860. 2000.
4. Wang J, Cui F, Ren B. New Conversion Technology of Sodium Isoascorbate. Journal of Zhengzhou University (Natural Science Edition). 2010. Vol. 1. P. 112-115.
5. Alvarez AJ, Myerson AS. Continuous plug flow crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds. Crystal Growth & Design. 2010. Vol. 10. No. 5. P. 2219-2228.
6. Matusevich LN. Kristallizaciya iz rastvorov v himicheskoj promyshlennosti [Crystallization from solutions in the chemical industry]. Moscow: Khimiya, 1968. 304 p. (In Russ.)
7. Сombined Сompendium of Food Additive Specifications. Monographs 1. Vol. 1, 4. Analytical methods, test procedures and laboratory solutions used by and referenced in food additive specifications. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006.
8. Rao KR et al. The nonlinear optical properties of the monoclinic d-isoascorbic acid crystal. Applied Physics B. 2016. Vol. 122. No. 11. P. 270.
9. Kukin M Yu, Novinyuk LV. Study of Sodium Ascorbate Solubility. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and Processing of Farm Products]. 2014. No. 6. P. 26-27 (in Russ.).
Authors
Kukin Michail Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kabanov Vladimir L.
All-Russia Research Institute for Food Additives - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
St. Petersburg, Russia, 55, Liteyniy avenue, Saint Petersburg, 191014, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Shelekhova N.V., Shelekhova T.M., Skvortsova L.I., Poltavskaya N.V.Determination of the main cations in whiskey by capillary electrophoresis

P. 27-30 Key words
safety, whiskey, identification, capillary electrophoresis, quality control, cations, methods

Abstract
The current state and development trends of alcohol production dictate the need for new approaches to the quality assessment system. As part of the solution of this problem, an important area of research is to expand the range of indicators characterizing the identification features of quality, which requires the development of new analytical approaches to determining the composition of alcoholic beverages. Objective: development and testing in the laboratory terms methods for determining the mass concentration of ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium in whiskey by capillary electrophoresis. In the course of research general requirements to the conditions of measurements are formulated. Optimal ratios of buffer solution electrolytes were established: 30 mmol?/?dm3 L-Histidine, 30 mmol?/?dm3 2 Morpholinoetha-nesulfonic acid Monohydrate, 2 mmol?/?dm3 18 crown-6 esther. Developed the procedure of capillary conditioning, including sequential washing of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution, deionized water, electrolyte at the constant pressure of 1500 mbar. The optimal parameters of electrophoretic separation are selected: capillary with a total length 60 cm, effective length 15 cm, voltage 20-25 kV, capillary thermostating 20…22 °C. The range of measured concentrations of 0,10-10,0 mg?/?dm3 was determined. In the course of laboratory studies, a linear dependence (no more than R2=0.98) of the recorded signals on the concentration of ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium within the analytical area of the technique was revealed. The limits of the relative error of the measurement method, which are no more than 10-15?%, are established. Analytical capabilities of the developed technique are investigated on the example of tests of whisky. The mass concentration of ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium in the presented samples was determined, characteristic profiles were obtained. As a result of researches, the express technique based on application of a method of capillary electrophoresis which is the simple and reliable way of routine selective determination of 5 cations in whisky for 6 min is developed. Results of researches can be used for development of the objective criteria of identification indirectly allowing to establish signs of falsification, and also for expansion of a range of physical and chemical indicators of quality of alcoholic beverages.

References
1. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy kontrolja tehnologicheskih processov proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Improving the control system of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2017. No 1. P. 34-36 (In Russ.).
2. Novikova IV, Agafonov GV, Jakovlev AN, Chusova AE. Tehnologicheskoe proektirovanie proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Technological design for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Saint Petersburg: Lan', 2015. 384 p. (In Russ.)
3. Agafonov GV. Innovacionnye resheniya v tekhnologii proizvodstva alkogol'noj produkcii [Innovative solutions in the technology of production of alcoholic beverages]. Materialy VI otchetnoy nauchnoy konferentsii prepodavateley i nauchnykh sotrudnikov VGUIT za 2017god. 2018. Part 1. P. 59 (In Russ.).
4. Hotimchenko SA, Bessonov VV, Bagryanceva OV, Gmoshinskij IV. Bezopasnost' pishchevoj produkcii: novye problemy i puti resheniy [Food safety: new challenges and solutions]. Meditcina truda i ekologiya cheloveka [Occupational medicine and human ecology]. 2015. No 4. P. 7-14 (In Russ.).
5. Shelekhova NV. Sistema avtomatizirovannogo monitoringa kachestva i bezopasnosti alkogol'noj produkcii metodami kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [System of automated monitoring of quality and safety of alcoholic beverages by methods of capillary electrophoresis]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdeliy [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2012. No 4. P. 20-22 (In Russ.).
6. Arnautov OV, Bagryanceva OV, Bessonov VV. O neobhodimosti sovershenstvovaniya sistemy preduprezhdeniya fal'sifikacii pishchevyh produktov v evrazijskom ekonomicheskom soyuze [On the need to improve the system of preventing food falsification in the Eurasian Economic Union]. Voprosy pitaniya [Nutrition question]. 2016. No 2. P. 104-115 (In Russ.).
7. Nikitina SJ, Shahov SV, Pyl'nyj DV, Rudakov OB. Analiticheskij kontrol' kachestva rektifikovannogo jetanola, vodok i spirtovyh distilljatov [Analytical quality control of rectified ethanol, vodka and alcohol distillates]. Рishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018. No 6. P. 56-60 (In Russ.).
8. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV, Polyakov VA. Nauchnoe obespechenie kontrolya biotekhnologicheskih processov proizvodstva etilovogo spirta [Scientific support for the control of biotechnological processes for the production of ethyl alcohol]. Pivo i napitki [Вeer and drinks]. 2016. No 1. P. 16-20 (In Russ.).
9. Rudakov OB, Nikitina SJ. Trendy v analiticheskom kontrole kachestva pit'evogo jetanola [Trends in analytical quality control of drinking ethanol]. Analitika i kontrol' [Analytics and control]. 2017. No 3. P. 180-196 (In Russ.).
10. Shelekhova NV, Polyakov VA. Primenenie metodov kapilljarnogo jelektroforeza v kontrole kachestva i bezopasnosti spirtnyh napitkov [Application of capillary electrophoresis methods in quality control and safety of alcoholic beverages]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2015. No 11. P. 39-42 (In Russ.).
11. Tutel'yan VA, Eller KI, Aristarhova TV. Metody analiza minornyh biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv pishchi [Methods of analysis of minor biologically active substances of food]. Мoscow: Dinastiya, 2010. 180 p.
12. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV. Issledovanie ionnogo sostava poluproduktov i othodov spirtovogo proizvodstva s primeneniem metoda kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Study of the ionic composition of intermediates and wastes of alcohol production using the method of capillary electrophoresis]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2015. No 8. P. 12-15 (In Russ.).
13. Komarova NV, Kamentsev YS. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po ispol'zovaniyu sistem kapillyarnogo elektroforeza "KAPEL" [Manual for the Use of Capillary Electrophoresis Systems "KAPEL"]. Saint Petersburg: Veda, 2006. 212 p. (In Russ.)
14. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA, Rimareva LV. Kapilljarnyj jelektroforez - vysokojeffektivnyj analiticheskij metod issledovanija sostava slozhnyh biologicheskih sred [Capillary electrophoresis is a highly effective analytical method for studying the composition of complex biological media]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2017. No 2. P. 34-38 (In Russ.).
15. Jakuba JF, Temerdashev ZA. Hromatograficheskie metody v analize i identifikacii vinogradnyh vin [Chromatographic methods in the analysis and identification of grape wines]. Analitika i kontrol' [Analytics and control]. 2015. No 4. P. 288-301 (In Russ.).
Authors
Shelekhova Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Shelekhova Tamara M., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Skvortsova Lyubov' I.,
Poltavskaya Natal'ya V.
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of FITC Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Egorova S.V., Kulakov V.G., Utusheva E.M., Shumova E.S., Andryuschenko V.V.Opportunities for Improving the quality of grain and products for its Tratment in the Regions of the Russian Federation

P. 31-33 Key words
post-harvest processing, grain storage

Abstract
Due to the changing natural conditions, which greatly affect the yield and quality of grain crops, the organization of activities for the storage and processing of grain in the bread-producing industry, as it is of decisive importance in the formation of food resources, is acquiring a significant role. Grain has advantages over other crop crops, as it has high nutritional and fodder benefits; the most important source of income for agricultural producers; well transported, suitable for long-term storage, which makes it possible to form insurance and reserve funds; serves as the main source of raw materials for the food and processing industries. However, according to experts, modern grain losses in Russia are on average 17?%. The protein content in the grain decreased by about 0.3?% and on average in the Russian Federation is at the level of 12.27?%. Wheat mills of different classes are supplied to milling enterprises. All classes, except 5, can be used for food purposes to produce flour, but not all classes can get flour of the required quality. Of fundamental importance is the development and implementation of a comprehensive quality assurance program. The main goal of any program is to develop preventive steps and preventive measures. It is possible to improve the quality of grain and its products by actively introducing modern technologies. In ensuring the control of respiration and the development of pests in grain during storage, it is promising to use the CGS system (controlled gaseous environment) over exposures. The exposure time of the CSG depends on the culture stored in the silo, grain moisture and temperature. When storing grain in the RGS, with an oxygen content of less than 1?%, the grain retains its technological properties, organoleptic characteristics remain unchanged and meet the requirements of GOST. It is possible to create a foundation for the future of the Russian economy only by preserving and rationally processing raw materials.

References
1. Egorova SV. Ispolzovanie tekhnologii preryvistogo ventilirovanija na jetapah posleuborochnoj obrabotki zerna [The use of intermittent ventilation technology at the stages of post-harvest grain processing]. Cerevitinovskie chtenija: materialy IV konferencii molodykh uchenykh, aspirantov i studentov [Cerevitin Readings: Materials of the IV Conference of Young Scientists, Graduate Students and Students]. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 2017. P. 145-146 (In Russ).
2. Egorova SV, Kulakov VG, Utjusheva EM, Rostegaev RS. Semena chia - innovacionnyj produkt v funkcional'nom i specializirovannom pitanii [Chia seeds - an innovative product in functional and specialized nutrition]. Cerevitinovskie chtenija: materialy IV konferencii molodyh uchenyh, aspirantov i studentov [Cerevitin Readings: Materials of the IV Conference of young scientists, graduate students and students]. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 2017. P. 118-120 (In Russ).
3. Kulakov VG. Sposob proizvodstva dieticheskikh maffinov iz bezglyutenovogo syr'ya [Method for the production of diet muffins from gluten-free raw materials]. Russia patent RU № 2667162. 2018.
4. Linnichenko VT, Egorova SV, Drozdova A Yu. Sovershenstvovanie tehnologii pererabotki zerna polby [Improving the technology of grain processing spelled]. Khleboprodukty [Bakery products]. 2015. № 7. P. 62-63.
5. Melnik BE, Egorova SV. Tehnologija peremeshhajushhegosja ventilirovanija zerna [Technology of moving grain aeration]. Elevatornaja promyshlennost' [Elevator industry]. 1991. P. 20.
6. Utjusheva EM. Osobennosti obespechenija kachestva zernovogo syr'ja na jetapah priemki, posleuborochnoj obrabotki i hranenija [Features of ensuring the quality of grain raw materials at the stages of acceptance, post-harvest processing and storage]. Sbornik statej XX Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii [Collection of articles of the XX International scientific-practical conference]. Penza, 2018. P. 107-110.
Authors
Egorova Svetlana V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kulakov Vladimir G.,
Utyusheva Evgeniya M.,
Shumova Ekaterina S.,
Andryuschenko Vseslav V.
Moscow State University of Technology and Management KG Razumovsky,
73, Zemlyanoy Val str., Moscow, 109004



ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Kolonchin K.V.Development of an affordable fisheries commodity base and challenges for future development. Part I

P. 34-40 Key words
raw material base, development of the fishing source requires expansion of scientific research and fishing exploration, construction of modern fishing fleet, coordination of work with international organizations and foreign countries

Abstract
The commodity base is an integral part of any national management complex, ensuring balanced development of all constituent sectors and their financial sustainability. The fisheries commodity base represents the totality of scientifically based amounts of aquatic biological resources that can be used to extract them in all accessible areas. The development of the source requires the attraction of investments, the volume of which is dictated by the specifics of the produced or extracted resources, the scale of production and the factors of production involved here, the geography of the location of the fishing source and processing enterprises. Aquaculture production should be included in the source, and its containment is due to the capacity of the fishing source available in inland waters and open waters of other countries and the oceans. The main role in the development and development of the source of the fisheries complex is played by the fishing fleet, its structure capable of producing aquatic biological resources, both in the coastal two hundred mile zones of Russian jurisdiction and in the open parts of the World Ocean. The fishing source consists of two parts: the first - fishing within the exclusive economic zone (territorial seas, inland waters, continental shelf of the Russian Federation, as well as the Azov-Black sea's and Caspian sea's regions) and the second - open waters of the world ocean, including transboundary stocks regulated by intergovernmental agreements. The Far East Basin of Fisheries takes the lead in fishing, the North Basin of Fisheries is second, the West Basin and the rest do not occupy a minor segment of fishing. Expansion of the source of extraction of water biological resources is possible due to the development of resources of the Arctic zone of Russian jurisdiction, but for this purpose it is necessary to carry out scientific research on the determination of reserves, preservation and establishment of permissible catch volumes for certain species of fish and shellfish. The second important aspect of the expansion of the source is related to the extraction of aquatic biological resources, which live at depths of more than one km. The development of this resource will require large-scale scientific research, determination of their suitability for food purposes.

References
1. Strategyia razvityia deiatel'nosty Rossyiskoi Federatzii v Antarktike na period do 2020 goda I na bolee otdalionnuyu perspectivu. Rasporiagenie Pravitelstva RF ot 30 oktiabryia 2010 g. № 1926 р [Strategy for the development's activities of the Russian Federation in Antarctica until 2020 and beyond. Order Government of the Russian Federation dated October 30, 2010 № 1926 r., cited 2010 Nov]. Available from: https: //www.garant.ru?/?products?/?ipo?/?prime?/?doc?/?6643926?/?#0
2. Spravochnik "Rossiya v zifrakh. 2018": kratkyi statisticheskyi sbornik [Handbook Russia in Number. 2018: short statistical collection, cited 2018 Dec]. Available from: http:// This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
3. Gosudarstvennaya programma Rossiyskoy Federatsii "Razvitite rybokhoziaystvennogo complexa" [State programme of the Russian Federation "Development of fisheries complex"]. Available from: http://fish.gov.ru?/?otraslevaya-deyatelnost?/?ekonomika-otrasli?/?gosprogramma-razvitiya-rybokhozyajstvennogo-kompleksa
4. Informatsionnie materialy Rossrybolovstva [Information materials of Federal Fisheries Agency]. Available from: http://fish.gov.ru
5. Informatsionnie materialy Ob'edinennoy sudostroitelnoy korporazii [Information materials of the United Shipbuilding Corporation]. Available from: http://aoosk.ru
6. Informatsionnie materialy Vremennoy komissii Soveta Federatzsii po zakonodatelnomu obespecheniyrazvitiya tekhniko-teknologicheskoy bazy agropromyshlennogo komplexa Rossiyskoy Federatsii po voprosam "Sovremennoe sudostroenie v rybokhoziaystvennom complexe Rossiyskoy Federatsii: problemy i perspektivy" [Information materials of the the Federation Council Provisional Commission on legislative support for the technical and technological base development at the Agro-Industrial Complex of the Russian Federation on issues "Modern shipbuilding in the fisheries complex of the Russian Federation: problems and prospects", cited 2019 Apr. 18]. Available from: http://council.gov.ru?/?structure?/?commissions?/?iccf_deveng?/?
7. Informatsionnie materialy [Information materials]. Available from: www.oecdru.org
8. Bulatov OA. O perspectivakh novoy "sardinovoy epokhy" v severo-zapadnoy chasty Tikhogo oceana. [About prospects for a New "Sardine Age" in the Northwest Pacific]. Voprosy rybolovstva [Questions of fishery]. 2016. Vol. 17. No. 4 (In Russ.).
9. Zuenko UI, Nuzhdin VA. Vliyanie sovremennykh izmeneniy oceanologicheskikh usloviy v Japonskom more na sostoyanie zapasov promyslovoy populiatsii mintaya [Impact of modern changes in Japanese Sea's oceanological conditions on the source state of pollock's fishing population]. Voprosy rybolovstva [Questions of fishery]. 2016. Vol. 19. No. 3 (In Russ).
10. Voloshin GA, Krichevskiy SV. Regulirovanie ustoychivogo razvitiya morskogo promyshlennogog rybolovstva v Rossii: Problemy I perspectivy. [Regulation of sustainable marine industrial fisheries' development in Russia: Problems and prospects]. Мoscow: LELAND, 2014. 216 p. (In Russ.)
11. Voloshin GA. Opredelenie velichiny sbora za polzovanie ob'ektami vodnikh biologicheskikh resursov [Determination of the fee's value for the use of water biological objects' resources]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba [Public service]. 2018. Vol. 20. No. 2. P. 75-81 (In Russ.)
12. Voloshin GA. Ratzionalniy podhod k gosudarstvennoy ekspluatatzii prava pol'zovaniya objektfmi vodnikh biologicheskikh resursov [Rational approach to state exploitation of the right to use water biological resources]. Voprosy rybolovstva [Questions of fishery]. 2018. Vol. 19. P. 238-246 (In Russ.).
13. Janovskaya NV, Pavlova AO, Kononova LA et al. Statisticheskie svedeniya po rybnoy promyshlennosty Rossii 2012-2013: spravochnik. [Statistics on the Russian fishing industry 2012-2013: handbook]. Moscow: VNIRO, 2014. 77 p. (In Russ.)
14. Janovskaya NV, Pavlova NV, Konono-va LA et al. Statisticheskie svedeniya po rybnoy promyshlennosty Rossii 2014-2015: spravochnik. [Statistics on the Russian fishing industry 2014-2015: handbook]. Moscow: VNIRO, 2016. 75 p. (In Russ.)
15. Janovskaya NV, Pavlova NV, Konono-va LA et al. Statisticheskie svedeniya po rybnoy promyshlennosty Rossii 2015-2016: spravochnik. [Statistics on the Russian fishing industry 2015-2016: handbook]. Moscow: VNIRO, 2017. 74 p. (In Russ.)
16. Janovskaya NV, Pavlova NV, Kononova LA et al. Statisticheskie svedeniya po rybnoy promyshlennosty Rossii 2016-2017: spravochnik. [Statistics on the Russian fishing industry 2016-2017: handbook]. Moscow: VNIRO, 2018. 76 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Kolonchin Kirill V., Candidate of Economic Sciences
Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
17, Verkhnaya Krasnoselskaya str., Moscow, 107140, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gutnikova O.N.Scientific approach to the classification of aquaculture and its objects

P. 41-45 Key words
fishery, fish breeding, aquaculture, marikultura, classification, types, families

Abstract
The aquaculture should be considered as a separate type of business activities on cultivation, catch and processing of fish and fish products. In scientific and reference books a significant amount of approaches to classification of fish and fish products is provided, also a number of interesting determinations of the concept "aquaculture", "marikultura" and "products of fish breeding" is noted. At the same time, explicit discrepancies have the majority of attempts of systematization and classification of the fish products which are an object of a fish complex, shortcomings of the commonly accepted qualifiers in the field of fishery are allocated. Also duality of approaches to coding of fish products takes place that complicates its identification and establishment of customs tariffs, and also imperfection of regulatory legal acts in which there is no separation of food products of the aquaculture and fish caught under natural conditions. Determination and justification of the classification signs considering the habitat of fish, a form of their cultivation, types of productive systems types of processing enterprises and group of finished goods have to promote systematization of commodity group, determination of its characteristic signs and consumer properties. Classification of objects of an aquaculture, allocation of its place in a fishery complex of the country will allow to simplify tovarovedny and normative approach to determination of commodity group, and also to increase the importance of an aquaculture as certain sector of fishery. Substantially scientific determination and justification of an aquaculture as the separate commodity group having the characteristic signs connected with features of its cultivation and catch allow to consider influence of scientific and technical progress on development of a fishery complex of the country, and also development of fish breeding in general.

References
1. Kranina EI. Rol' akvakul'tury v obespechenii prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti Kitaya [The role of aquaculture in food safety in China]. Problemy Dalnego Vostoka [Problems of the Far East]. 2010. No. 2. P. 78-88.
2. Ob akvakulture (rybovodstve) i o vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federatsii [On aquaculture (fish farming) and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation]. Federal'nyj zakon ot 02.07.2013 N 148 FZ [Federal Law dated]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru?/?document?/?cons_doc_LAW_148460?/?(date of the application: 23.08.2018).
3. Rybovodstvo Rossii (akvakul'tura) [Russian fish farming (aquaculture)]. URL: https: //smart-lab.ru?/?blog?/?435195.php (data obrashheniya 24.08.2018).
4. Melnikov VN. Rasshirennoe ponyatie akvakul'tury [Extended aquaculture concept]. Vestnik АGTU, seriya: "Rybnoe khozyajstvo" [Bulletin of АGTU, series "Fisheries"]. 2012. No. 2. P. 57-66.
5. Bugrov IL. Ekonomicheskie aspekty sravnitel'nogo analiza modelej tovarnogo lososevodstva na severnykh i yuzhnykh morskikh bassejnakh Rossii [Economic aspects of a comparative analysis of models of salmon-based farming in the northern and southern sea basins of Russia]. Аktual'nye problemy akvakultury v sovremennyj period: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii. Rostov-na-Donu: FGBNU "АzNIIRKH" [Vestnik ASTU, a series of "Fisheries."]. 2015. P. 17-20.
6. Bogeruk АK. Аkvakultura Rossii: potentsialnye vozmozhnosti i strategiya ikh realizatsii [Russian aquaculture: potential opportunities and strategy for their implementation]. Ribogospodars'ka nauka Ukraїni [Ribogospodar science of Ukraine]. 2007. No. 2. P. 9-19.
7. Shalyapin GP. Normativno-pravovoe regulirovanie akvakultury v Rossijskoj Federatsii [Regulatory and legal regulation of aquaculture in the Russian Federation]: avtoreferat… kand. yur. nauk: 12.00.06 [Dissertation abstract of Candidate of Legal Sciences: 12.00.06]. Moscow, 2012.
8. Karpevich АF. Nauchnyj status, osnovnye ponyatiya i terminologiya v oblasti akvakultury i akklimatizatsii. Biologiya ob'ektov marikul'tury (ehkologiya kultivirovanie bespozvonochnykh i vodoroslej) [Scientific status, basic concepts and terminology in the field of aquaculture and acclimatization. Biology of mariculture objects (ecology cultivation of invertebrates and algae]. Moscow: Аkademiya nauk SSSR, Institut okeanografii im. P.?P. Shirshova [USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanography]. 1987.
9. Yushkova IE. Definitsiya ponyatij: rybovodstvo, akvakul'tura, marikul'tura [Concept definition: fish farming, aquaculture, mariculture]. Rybnoe khozyajstvo. 2016. No. 4. P. 81-87.
10. GOST R 56696-2015 Vozobnovlyaemye istochniki syr'ya. Аkvakultura. Terminy i opredele-niya [Renewable raw materials. Aquaculture. Terms and Definitions]. Vved. 2016.07.01. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 12 p.
11. Sovremenniy Entsiklopedicheskij slovar' [Modern Encyclopedic Dictionary]. URL: http://www.vokabula.rf (date of the application: 25.08.2018).
12. Rybnikova IG. Аkvakultura i zakonodatelstvo v Rossii [Aquaculture and legislation in Russia]. Nauchnye trudy dal'nevostochnogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo rybokhozyajstvennogo universiteta [Scientific works of the Far Eastern State Technical University of Fisheries]. 2010. No. 22. P. 86-92.
13. Ob utverzhdenii edinoj Tovarnoj nomenklatury vneshneekonomicheskoj deyatelnosti Evrazijskogo ehkonomicheskogo soyuza i Edinogo tamozhennogo tarifa Evrazijskogo ehkonomicheskogo soyuza [On approval of the Common Commodity Nomenclature for Foreign Economic Activity of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Common Customs Tariff of the Eurasian Economic Union]. Reshenie Soveta Evrazijskoj ehkonomicheskoj komissii ot 16.07.2012 N 54 [Decision of the Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission of 16.07.2012 No. 54]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru?/?document?/?Cons_doc_LAW_133133?/?
14. Obscherossijskij klassifikator produktsii po vidam ekonomicheskoj deyatelnosti [All-Russian classifier of products by type of economic activity]. Utverzhden Prikazom Rosstandarta ot 31.01.2014 No. 14. URL: http://www.consultant.ru?/?document?/?cons_doc_LAW_163703?/?
15. Pavlunenko LE. Nekotorye aspekty klassifikatsii pishhevoj rybnoj produktsii [Some aspects of the classification of fish products]. Standarty i kachestvo [Standards and Quality]. 2019. No. 3 (981). P. 44-49.
16. GOST R 50380-2005 Ryba, nerybnye ob'ekty i produktsiya iz nikh. Terminy i opredeleniya [Fish, non-fish objects and products from them. Terms and Definitions]. Vved. 2007.01.01. 8 p.
17. Romanov EА. Ekonomika rybokhozyajstvennogo kompleksa Rossii: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie [The economy of the fisheries complex of Russia: a teaching aid]. 2 e izdanie, dop. i pererab. Moscow: MIR [2nd edition, add. and reslave]. 2005. - 336 p.
18. O rybolovstve i sokhranenii vodnykh biologicheskikh resursov [On fisheries and conservation of aquatic biological resources]. Federalnyj zakon ot 20.12.2004 No. 166 FZ [Federal Law of December 20, 2004 No. 166 FZ]. URL: http://legalacts.ru?/?doc?/?federalnyi-zakon-ot-20122004 n-166 fz-o?/?(date of the application: 27.08.2018).
19. Yushkova IE. Organizatsionno-ehkonomicheskoe sostoyanie rybnogo khozyajstva Rossii [Organizational and economic condition of the fish industry of Russia]. Saarbr?cken: Lambert Academic Publishing [Saarbr?cken: Lambert Academic Publishing]. 2016. 356 p.
20. Burlachenko IV. Sovremennaya akvakultura i ee rol' v rybokhozyajstvennom komplekse [Modern aquaculture and its role in the fishery complex]. GUP "VNIRO", FGUP "VNIIPRKH" [State Unitary Enterprise "VNIRO", FSUE "VNIIPRH"]. URL: https: //docplayer.ru?/?28020890 Sovremennaya-akvakultura-i-ee-rol-v rybohozyaystvennom-komplekse. html (date of the application: 29.08.2018).
21. Ob utverzhdenii Klassifikatora v oblasti akvakul'tury (rybovodstva) [On approval of the Classifier in the field of aquaculture (fish farming)]. Prikaz Ministerstva selskogo khozyajstva RF ot 18 noyabrya 2014 № 452 [Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation of November 18, 2014 No. 452]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru?/?document?/?420236865 (date of the application: 29.08.2018).
22. Markovtsev VG. Kultivirovanie tikhookeanskikh bespozvonochnykh i vodoroslej [Cultivation of Pacific Invertebrates and Algae]. Moscow: Аgropromizdat [M.: Agropromizdat]. 1987. 192 p.
23. Moiseev PА. Morskaya akvakultura [Marine aquaculture]. Moscow: Аgropromizdat [M.: Agropromizdat]. 1985. 254 p.
24. Strategiya razvitiya akvakul'tury v Rossijskoj Federatsii na period do 2020 goda [Aquaculture development strategy in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020]. Utverzhdeno Minselkhozom RF 10.09.2007 [Approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation on 10.09.2007]. URL: http://legalacts.ru?/?doc?/?strategija-razvitija-akvakultury-v-rossiiskoi-federatsii-na?/?(date of the application: 29.08.2018).
Authors
Gutnikova Olga N., Candidate of Economic Sciences
Crimean Federal University named after VI Vernadsky,
4, Vernadsky avenue, Simferopol', Republic of Crimea, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Belyaeva M.A., Kechkin I.A.Technological scheme of grain storage in metal silos of large capacity

P. 46-49 Key words
active ventilation, metal silos, process flow diagram, grain storage, high capacity

Abstract
Metal silos of large capacity or capacity with a flat bottom, designed for grain storage, are equipped with two installations of influence on the air space inside the silo: active ventilation of the grain mass and ventilation of the space above the grain under the roof of the silo. Active ventilation systems affect the grain mass with an upward flow of atmospheric air. This system is used to cool the grain mass in order to increase the shelf life, to prevent or eliminate self-heating in it. The installation for ventilation of the over-grain space is used to remove condensate formed during grain storage and settled on the silo structures. To determine the conditions under which ventilation is required in the upper part of large-capacity metal silos, we have measured the temperature and relative humidity in the upper layer of grain and in the supra-grain space in an industrial metal silo. Measurements in the upper layer were carried out at a depth of 70 mm, and above the grain at a distance of 60 mm from the surface of the grain mass. Simultaneously, with the measurements of the air parameters inside the silo, the outside air temperature was measured. The studies were carried out in metal silos with a diameter of 12.5 meters, a vertical wall height of 20 meters and a total height of 26 meters, with a capacity of 2000 tons, filled with wheat grain with a moisture content of 12.5?%, weighing 1800 tons. To ensure and control the supply of the standard volume of air to the grain mass, it is necessary to equip the silo with an industrial diphmanometer, which measures the pressure drop inside the silo in a layer of fixed thickness. To prevent the development of the process of grain it is recommended that a system of monitoring the temperature inside the grain mass to equip and alarm device auto on system fan when the temperature rises more than 7 °C for 2-3 days on two or more sensors working in "real time". It is proposed to regulate the filtration rate due to the bulk height of the grain mass stored in large-capacity metal silos. In this article the technological system of control of air distribution in metal silos of large capacity is offered and tested.

References
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2. Kechkin IA, Razvorotnev AS, Gavrichenkov Yu D. Izmeneniya parametrov vozdukha vnutri metallicheskogo silosa pri khranenii pshenitsy [Changes in the parameters of the air inside the metal silo during storage of wheat]. Sbornik materialov II Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii "Innovatsionnyye issledovaniya i razrabotki dlya nauchnogo obespecheniya proizvodstva i khraneniya ekologicheski bezopasnoy selskokhozyaystvennoy i pishchevoy produktsii" [Proceedings of the II International scientific and practical conference "Innovative research and development for scientific support of production and storage of environmentally safe agricultural and food products"]. 2017. P. 451-452 (In Russ).
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Authors
Belyaeva Marina A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kechkin Ivan A., graduate student
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kryuchkova V.V., Belik S.N., Gorlov I.F., Slozhenkina M.I., Serkova A.E.Influence of vegetable fillers on the quality and storage capacity of fermented milk product

P. 50-55 Key words
fermented milk product, Jerusalem artichoke powder, red currant juice, vitamins, microelements, quality, persistence

Abstract
The article contains materials devoted to solving the problem of enrichment with essential nutrients of traditional products against the background of the general trend towards the creation of enriched products. The functional properties of topinambur powder and red currant juice are reviewed. The necessity of creating functional fermented milk products is grounded. For this purpose, a technology has been developed for the production of fermented milk product with the addition of the examined ingredients and the mineral and vitamin compositions of traditional and enriched products, physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties and storage ability of the fermented milk products studied have been investigated. According to the results of the research, an assessment was made of the quality indicators and the storage capacity of a fermented milk product enriched with Jerusalem artichoke powder and red currant juice. Inulin-containing food ingredient and berry juice allowed optimizing the mineral and vitamin composition of the fermented milk base and ensuring optimal organoleptic properties of the product. It has been established that phytocomponents stimulate the enzymatic processes of the technological microflora. According to the results of a comprehensive analysis, taking into account the reserve ratio (for perishable products 1.5) and the results of microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic studies, the guaranteed shelf life of the fermented milk product is 10 days from the day of production at a temperature of 4±2 °C. The developed fermented milk product with natural plant components is recommended for regular consumption as a pro- and prebiotic component with increased antioxidant activity in the diets of all groups of healthy populations without any restrictions.

References
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Authors
Kryuchkova Vera V., Doctorof Technical Sciences, Professor
Don State University of Agriculture,
24, Krivoshlykov str., Persianovskiy village, October district, Rostov region, Russia, 346493, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Belik Svetlana N., Candidate of Medical Sciences
Rostov State Medical University,
29, Nakhichevanskiy lane, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 344022, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gorlov Ivan F., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Acadenician of RAS,
Slozhenkina Marina I., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of RAS
Volga Region Research Institute of Manufacture and Processing of Meat-and-Milk Production,
6, Rokossovsky str., Volgograd, Russia, 400131, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Volgograd State Technical University,
28, Lenin avenue, Volgograd, Russia, 400005
Serkova Anastasiya E., graduate student
Volga Region Research Institute of Manufacture and Processing of Meat-and-Milk Production,
6, Rokossovsky str., Volgograd, Russia, 400131, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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List of articles published in the journal Food Industry in 2019