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Rambler's Top100

Food processing Industry №7/2019

The Results of the work of Food and Processing Industry Enterprises of Russia

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: MODERN PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

Pavlovskaya N.E., Gagarina I.N., Gorkova I.V., Gavrilova A.Yu.Optimization of the composition of polymer-starch compositions for creating packaging material and tare

P. 8-11 Key words
biodegradable polymers, grain, starch, biodegradation

Abstract
The article discusses the modern aspects of some physico-mechanical characteristics of polymer-starch compositions created on the basis of starch isolated from substandard wheat. This approach facilitates the disposal of agricultural waste and at the same time the production of environmentally friendly, safe, biodegradable containers and packaging. It should be noted that the analyzed packaging and packaging has a short decomposition period of about 45 days and low cost. The article discusses the main factors affecting the mixing, providing high-quality dispersion and distribution of particles in the matrix in order to obtain a homogeneous mixture and given properties of biopolymers. A study on the selection of the mass ratio of components to obtain a biodegradable film based on starch off-standard wheat grain revealed optimal in terms of performance and processability of a composition containing glycerin, starch, organic acid. Samples with a mass fraction of starch 60 %, show the relative elongation of which is more than 30 %. High concentration of starch in the polymer increases its water solubility, accelerates biodegradation by fungi of the genus Trichoderma, Penicillium funiculogum. We have developed a component composition of a biopolymer based on starch of non-conditioned wheat grain, which is biodegradable and intended for the manufacture of disposable tableware and packaging. Optimized temperature effects on the composition to obtain a biodegradable material, component 105 °C. The rheological properties of the obtained biodegradable material, indicating the possibility of using the material for packaging products as films and the manufacture of disposable tableware, have been investigated. The material is not suitable for vacuum packaging. The resulting packaging material meets the standard GOST R 57432-2017 "Packaging. Films of biodegradable material".

References
1. Lukin, N. D. Tehnologija poluchenija termoplastichnyh krahmalov / N. D. Lukin, I. S. Usachev / Vestnik VGUIT. - 2015. - № 4 (66).
2. Pantjuhov, P. V. Kompozicionnye materialy na osnove polijetilena i lignocelljuloznyh napolnitelej. Struktura i svojstva / P. V. Pantjuhov [i dr.]. / Vestnik Kazanskogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta. - 2012. - № 13.
3. Poddenezhnyj, E. N. Progress v poluchenii biorazlagaemyh kompozicionnyh materialov na osnove krahmala (obzor) / E. N. Poddenezhnyj [i dr.] / Vestnik GGTU im. P. O. Suhogo. - 2015. - № 2 (61).
4. Hvatov, A. V. Struktura i mehanicheskie svojstva biorazlagaemyh materialov na osnove PJeNP i prirodnyh dobavok / A. V. Hvatov [i dr.] / Deformacija i razrushenie materialov. - 2012. - № 8. - C. 45-48.
5. Pantjuhov, P. V. Kompozicionnye materialy na osnove polijetilena i lignocelljuloznyh napolnitelej. Struktura i svojstva / P. V. Pantjuhov, T. V. Monahova, A. A. Popov / Bashkirskij himicheskij zhurnal. - 2012. - № 2. - C. 111-117.
6. Gluhih, V. V. Poluchenie, svojstva i primenenie biorazlagaemyh drevesno-polimernyh kompozitov (obzor) / Gluhih V. V. [i dr.] / Vestnik Kazanskogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta. - 2012. - № 9. - S. 75-83.
7. Long, Ju. Biorazlagaemye polimernye smesi i kompozity iz vozobnovljaemyh istochnikov / Ju. Long (Per. s angl. pod red. V. N. Kulezneva). - M.: Izdatel'stvo "Nauchnye osnovy i tehnologii", 2012. - 464 s.
Authors
Pavlovskaya Ninel E., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor,
Gagarina Irina N., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,
Gorkova Irina V., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Gavrilova Anna Yu., Candidate of Biological Sciences
Orel State Agrarian University named after N.V. Parakhin,
69, General Rodin str., Orel, Russia, 302019, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kornienko N.L.Prospects for the use of lamister containers in the technology of fish pastes

P. 12-15 Key words
consumer packaging, lamister, net weight, heat treatment parameters, organoleptic properties, microbiological safety

Abstract
Consumer containers are one of the factors that ensure the demand of the population for fish products. Therefore, to ensure the competitive ability of fish processing enterprises, it is necessary to use modern types of consumer containers. The type and mass of the net of consumer containers, as well as the temperature of the heating medium, determine the heat-physical processes during heat treatment of the semi-finished product and, accordingly, the quality of the finished product. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of net weight and temperature of the heating medium on the final temperature, organoleptic properties and sanitary and hygienic state of the crushed muscle tissue (CMT) of Far Eastern fishes. The work was carried out in the Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University. The objects of the study were CMT samples of reddish and saffron cod, made from desiccated fillets, prepackaged in laminated containers and subjected to heat treatment - baking. The net weight of the experimental samples was 70, 100, 120 g; The temperature of the heating medium (hot air) is 180, 190, 200, 210, 220 °C. After roasting, the temperature at the center of the samples was measured and cooled to 30…35 °C; cooled samples were sensitized using scoring scales developed on the basis of verbal characteristics of individual signs of organoleptic properties of the muscle tissue of fish after baking. It has been established that an increase in the net weight is accompanied by a slight decrease, and an increase in the temperature of the heating medium by an increase in temperature at the center of the samples after baking. It is shown that the factors studied have an ambiguous effect on the individual organoleptic properties of the baked samples. The resulted results of researches testify to formation of the set organoleptic properties of the CMT and the saffron cod (effect of "baking") when baked in a laminated container. This allows us to recommend a laminated container for the manufacture of culinary fish products based on CMT, the technology of which regulates the heat treatment in hermetically sealed consumer packaging.

References
1. Safronova, T. M. Syr'e i materialy rybnoj promyshlennosti / T. M. Safronova, V. M. Dacun, S. N. Maksimova. - SPb., 2013. - 336 s.
2. Andreev, S. Ju. K voprosu o perspektivah razvitija konservov iz mjasa krolikov v Krasnodarskom krae / S. Ju. Andreev / Nauchnyj zhurnal KubGAU. - 2008. - № 36. - S. 1-12.
3. Biji, K. B. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review / K. B. Biji [et al.] / Journal of Food Science and Technology. - 2015. - Vol. 52. - № 10. - P. 6125-6135.
4. Grohovskij, V. A. Izmenenija kachestva natural'nyh konservov iz pecheni treski v stekljannoj i zhestjanoj tare v processe dlitel'nogo hranenija / V. A. Grohovskij, V. I. Volchenko, N. A. Tret'jak / Vestnik AGTU. Serija: Rybnoe hozjajstvo. - 2014. - № 4. - S. 100-111.
5. Hema, K. Processing and storage of restructured surimi stew product in retortable pouches / K. Hema [et al.] / Journal of Food Science and Technology. - 2015. - Vol. 52. - № 3. - P. 1283-1289.
6. Zaharov, A. N. Sostojanie rynka i perspektivy proizvodstva konservirovannyh pashtetov / A. N. Zaharov, L. B. Smetanina, M. L. Cheljakova / Vse o mjase. - 2009. - № 4. - S. 5-8.
7. TU 2245 047 00463800 2009 "Material kombinirovannyj LAMISTER".
8. Guseva, L. B. Formirovanie jemocional'noj cennosti rybnyh pashtetov v processe propekanija myshechnoj tkani / L. B. Guseva, N. L. Kornienko / Vestnik KrasGAU. - 2018. - № 2. - S. 155-161.
9. Kornienko, N. L. Razrabotka tehnologii propechennyh dieticheskih pashtetov iz dal'nevostochnyh ryb / N. L. Kornienko, L. B. Guseva / Vestnik AGTU. Serija: Rybnoe hozjajstvo. - 2018. - № 2. - S. 126-134.
10. Bogdanov, V. D. Obosnovanie rezhima termoobrabotki rybnogo farsha v proizvodstve kulinarnyh produktov / V. D. Bogdanov, L. B. Guseva, A. V. Pankina / Vestnik AGTU. Serija: Rybnoe hozjajstvo. - 2015. - № 2. - S. 98-104.
11. Bogdanov, V. D. Sovershenstvovanie processa termoobrabotki rybnyh farshevyh kulinarnyh produktov / V. D. Bogdanov, L. B. Guseva / Nauchnye trudy Dal'rybvtuza. - 2014. - T. 31. - S. 88-94.
12. Kim, G. N. Sensornyj analiz produktov pererabotki ryby i bespozvonochnyh / G. N Kim [i dr.] / Uchebnoe posobie. - Vladivostok. - 2014. - 512 s.
Authors
Kornienko Nadezhda L., graduate student
Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University,
52B, Lugovaya str., Vladivostok, Russia, 690087



Kondratyev N.B., Kazantcev E.V., Petrova N.A., Osipov M.V., Svyatoslavova I.M.Influence of packaging properties on changes moisture of raw gingerbreads with fruit filling

P. 16-18 Key words
raw gingerbread, polypropylene film, film thickness, moisture transfer processes, moisture content, water activity, shelf life, hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (Е1442)

Abstract
The composition and thickness of packaging materials have a significant impact on the speed of moisture transfer processes of various confectionery products. The influence of the thickness of the polypropylene film on the mass fraction of the moisture of raw gingerbread with fruit filling during storage was studied. For packing gingerbread used polypropylene film with a thickness of from 20 to 40 microns. With an increase in the thickness of the polypropylene film, the rate of moisture transfer processes through the packaging is significantly reduced. Reducing the speed of moisture transfer increases the risk of microbiological changes in the surface of confectionery products. Mold gingerbread occurs when favorable conditions occur during a certain time, characteristic of each type of microorganism. The processes of moisture transfer during storage of gingerbread at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity of ambient air 40 % are investigated. With an increase in the packing thickness, the rate of moisture loss of the gingerbread decreases, the mass fraction of moisture in the outer layer of the baked gingerbread semi-finished product increases. As a result, the risk of microbiological damage increases in the upper layer of the gingerbread. The results of microbiological studies showed that for 2 weeks of storing gingerbread in storage at a temperature of 30 °C and an equilibrium relative humidity of ambient air of 40 %, the amount of CMAFAnM in gingerbreads packed in film with a thickness of 20 ?m decreased from 7x102 to 1.7x102, and the number of KMAFAnM in gingerbread, packaged in a film with a thickness of 40 ?m, increased to 9x102. The obtained patterns can be used in justifying the required thickness of the package and predicting the shelf life of confectionery products, consisting of two or more semi-finished products.

References
1. Aksenova, L. M. Nauchnoe obosnovanie sohrannosti konditerskih izdelij / L. M. Aksenova, N. B. Kondrat'ev / Vestnik Rossijskoj akademii sel'skohozjajstvennyh nauk. - 2014. - № 2. - S. 66-67.
2. Kondrat'ev, N. B. Ocenka kachestva konditerskih izdelij. Povyshenie sohrannosti konditerskih izdelij / N. B. Kondrat'ev. - M.: Pero, 2015. - 250 s.
3. Careva, A. P. Issledovanie processov vlagoperenosa pri hranenii keksov (cbornik nauchnyh trudov XI Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii molodyh uchenyh i specialistov otdelenija sel'skohozjajstvennyh nauk Rossijskoj akademii nauk) / A. P. Careva, I. A. Nikitin. - Izdatel'stvo VNIHI - filial FNC pishhevyh sistem im. V. M. Gorbatova, 2017. - S. 350.
4. Kondrat'ev, N. B. Vlijanie upakovki na skorost' vlagoperenosa pri hranenii saharnogo pechen'ja / N. B. Kondrat'ev, E. V. Kazancev, T. V. Savenkova / Konditerskoe i hlebopekarnoe proizvodstvo. - 2018. - № 5-6. - S. 12-13.
5. Zelke, S. Plastikovaja upakovka (per. s angl. 2 go izd. pod red. A. L. Zagorskogo, P. A. Dmitrikova) / S. Zelke, D. Kutler, R. Hernandes. - SPb: Professija, 2011. - 560 s.
Authors
Kondratyev Nikolay B., Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Kazantcev Egor V.,
Petrova Natalya A.,
Osipov Maxim V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Svyatoslavova Irina M., Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry - Branch of the Federal Science Center of Food Systems V.M. Gorbatov RAS,
Moscow, 20, build. 3, Electrozavodskaya str., Moscow, Russia, 3107023, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Reznichenko I.Yu., Tichonova O.Yu., Selskaya I.L.Correct label - key to successful sales

P. 19-24 Key words
labeling, consumer properties, product promotion, competitiveness, level of labeling quality

Abstract
It has been established that well-executed labeling of goods, informing consumers about its properties, main characteristics and distinctive features, contributes to the success of the sale and increase the competitiveness of the goods. The degree of consumer awareness of the characteristics of the purchased products is the key to the "decency" of the relationship between the manufacturer and the end customer, beneficial to both parties. To date, the problem has become topical not only in the reliability and sufficiency of information, but also in its readability. The consumer is increasingly faced with a situation where there is a label, but it is impossible to read it. In this regard, the labeling plays an important role, which is reflected in the adoption of changes to the TS CU 022 / 2011 "Food products in terms of its labeling". The draft of the new regulations proposes to pay special attention to such indicators of food labeling as font size, as well as the contrast of the main background and font color. It should be noted that the labeling of food products, being its only information indicator, in poor-quality performance significantly reduces the competitiveness of products, and also does not satisfy the consumer's request for obtaining sufficient, reliable and accessible information about goods sold on the market. The article identifies the main commodity characteristics of products represented on the consumer market of Kuzbass, assesses the information component of the labeling. In addition, special attention was paid to the analysis of the quality of labeling performance, the establishment of the level of labeling quality, taking into account the weighting factors identified by the authors in previous studies. Based on the results, a label was developed that meets the requirements of the regulatory documentation regarding the list of information data, as well as the conditions for easy readability and contrast of the text and the main background of the labeling.

References
1. Tehnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo Sojuza TR TS 022 / 2011 "Pishhevaja produkcija v chasti ee markirovki" [Jelektronnyj resurs] - Rezhim dostupa URL: http: // www.vniis.ru / publications / detail / 2279.
2. Nikolaeva, M. A. Sredstva informacii o tovarah / M. A. Nikolaeva, L. V. Kartashova, M. A. Polozhishnikova. - M.: Jekonomika, 1997. - 176 s.
3. Reznichenko, I. Ju. Vlijanie markirovki na konkurentosposobnost' tovara / I. Ju. Reznichenko [i dr.] / Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov. - 2016. - № 2 (37). - S. 113-119.
4. Tihonova, O. Ju. Razrabotka potrebitel'skih kriteriev dlja ocenki kachestva markirovki pishhevyh produktov / O. Ju. Tihonova, I. Ju. Reznichenko / Research Journal of International Studies, Ch. 3. - Ekaterinburg, 2013. - № 8-3 (15). - S. 73-77.
5. Tihonova, O. Ju. Social'naja jeffektivnost' meroprijatij po povysheniju kachestva markirovki pishhevyh produktov / O. Ju. Tihonova, I. Ju. Reznichenko, T. V. Frolova. "Pishhevye innovacii i tehnologii" (materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii). - 2016. - S. 516-518.
6. GOST R 51074-2003 Produkty pishhevye. Informacija dlja potrebitelja. Obshhie trebovanija. Vved. 2005 01 07. - M.: Izdatel'stvo standartov, 2004. - 28 s.
7. Tihonova, O. Ju. Algoritm ocenki konkurentosposobnosti markirovki pishhevoj produkcii / O. Ju. Tihonova, I. Ju. Reznichenko, V. M. Poznjakovskij / Tovaroved prodovol'stvennyh tovarov. - 2013. - № 9. - S. 14-17.
8. Tihonova, O. Ju. Osnovnye trebovanija k markirovochnym shriftam / O. Ju. Tihonova, I. Ju. Reznichenko, I. L. Sel'skaja / Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov. - 2017. - № 6 (47). - S. 56-61.
9. Tihonova, O. Ju. Kontrastnost' markirovki pishhevyh produktov / O. Ju. Tihonova, I. Ju. Reznichenko, S. S. Suslova / Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov. - 2018. - № 4 (51). - S. 102-107.
Authors
Reznichenko Irina Yu., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kemerovo State University,
47, Builders boulevard, Kemerovo, Russia, 650003, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tichonova Olga Yu., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Kemerovo University - Branch of Russian Economic University named after G.V. Plekhanov,
39, Kuznetsky avenue, Kemerovo, Russia, 650992, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Selskaya Irina L., Candidate of Economic Sciences
JSC "Kemerovo TSUM",
37, Kirova str., Kemerovo, Russia, 650993, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Kolonchin K.V., Seregin S.N., Sysoev G.V.State measures to stimulate innovation in the technological and structural transformation of the food subcomplex of Russia. Part I

P. 26-31 Key words
engines of scientific and technological progress, imperative use of benefits, innovative technologies, the development of agro-industrial and fisheries complexes, the speed of implementation

Abstract
The goal of a breakthrough in science, technology and socio-economic development, set by the Russian president, requires a comprehensive macroeconomic policy aimed at stimulating investment activities to increase the productivity of the economy on the principles of expanded reproduction. For high growth, investments in the amount of at least 25 % of GDP are needed, currently 21 %, in industrialized countries this figure is 30 % or more. At the same time, there should be not only and not so much budget money, but also the financial means of a business. Along with the implementation of infrastructure projects, projects for the development of education, science and health care have a significant long-term macroeconomic effect necessary for the growth of the economy of the food complex. Factors causing development deceleration are associated with the low level of technical and technological development of many enterprises operating in the food subcomplex of the country, the lack of modern trawlers and fishing gear for fishing in the convection areas and water areas of the World Ocean, and the lack of modern storage and logistics infrastructure. The growing technological lag, resulting in a low level of investment and innovation activities of business entities, inevitably leads to a decrease in the competitiveness of the Russian agro-industrial and fisheries complexes. The imperative of economic growth in modern conditions is the process of expansion and availability of credit in order to finance investments for the expansion of industrial production. The use of existing resource and scientific and technical potential will ensure the achievement of targets for economic growth and solving problems of improving the welfare of the people only if the state creates integrated incentive measures to implement the achievements of scientific and technological progress in the development of the food subcomplex of Russia.

References
1. Glaz'ev, S.Ju. O neadekvatnosti denezhno-kreditnoj politiki i zadache ryvka v jekonomicheskom razvitii / Trudy Vol'nogo jekonomicheskogo obshhestva. - Moskva, 2018. - № 6. - T. 214.
2. Klepach, A.N. Rossijskaja jekonomika: trudnyj put' naverh / Trudy Vol'nogo jekonomicheskogo obshhestva. - Moskva, 2018. - № 6. - T. 214.
3. Ershov, M.V. O nekotoryh rychagah razvitija jekonomiki / Trudy Vol'nogo jekonomicheskogo obshhestva. - Moskva, 2018. - № 6. - T. 214.
4. Petrikov, A.V. Jekonomicheskij rost v sel'skom hozjajstve Rossii: faktory i problemy / Trudy Vol'nogo jekonomicheskogo obshhestva. - Moskva, 2018. - № 6. - T. 214.
5. Seregin, S.N. Problemy i perspektivy proizvodstva oborudovanija dlja predprijatij pishhevoj i pererabatyvajushhej promyshlennosti Rossii / S.N. Seregin, A.V. Kornienko, N.A. Frolova / Pishhevaja promyshlennost'. 2018. - № 1.
6. Ivanova, V.N. O proekte strategii razvitija APK Rossii na period do 2030 goda / V.N. Ivanova, S.N. Seregin / Jekonomika sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajushhih predprijatij. - 2018. - № 7.
7. Ivanova, V.N. Ustojchivoe razvitie i ukreplenie prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti - kljuchevye prioritety razvitija agropromyshlennogo kompleksa Rossii / V.N. Ivanova, S.N. Seregin / Jekonomika sel'skohozjajstvennyh i pererabatyvajushhih predprijatij. - 2018. - № 10.
8. Saharov, A.G. Investicionnaja politika stran BRIKS cherez prizmu Ramochnoj koncepcii v oblasti investicij OJeSR / A.G. Saharov / Vestnik mezhdunarodnyh organizacij. - 2017. - № 3. - T. 12.
9. Bespahotnyj, G.V. Metody proektnogo upravlenija v realizacii agrarnyh programm / G.V. Bespahotnyj / Jekonomika, trud, upravlenie v sel'skom hozjajstve. - 2018. - № 11.
10. Kolonchin, K.V. Stimulirovanie rossijskogo jeksporta rybnoj produkcii / K.V. Kolonchin, S. N. Seregin, H.N. Gasanova / Jekonomika, trud, upravlenie v sel'skom hozjajstve. - 2018. - № 12.
11. Gosudarstvennaja programma Rossijskoj Federacii "Gosudarstvennaja programma razvitija sel'skogo hozjajstva i regulirovanija rynkov sel'skohozjajstvennoj produkcii, syr'ja i prodovol'stvija" (vneseny izmenenija Pravitel'stvom RF ot 13 dekabrja 2017 g. № 1544).
12. Gosudarstvennaja programma Rossijskoj Federacii "Razvitie rybohozjajstvennogo kompleksa" (utverzhdena rasporjazheniem Pravitel'stva RF ot 07.03.2013 g. № 315 r).
Authors
Kolonchin Kirill V., Candidate of Economic Sciences,
All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,
17, Verkhnyaya Krasnoselskaya str., Moscow, 107140, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Seregin Sergey S., Doctor of Economics Sciences, Professor,
Federal Science Center of Food Systems V.M. Gorbatov RAS,
26, Talalikhin Street, Moscow, Russia, 109316, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Sysoev G., applicant
National Research Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevskogo,
23, Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603950



Lipatova L.P., Kenenbay Sh.Yr., Dikhanbaeva F.T.Market research offers food products in the segment of youth nutrition

P. 32-35 Key words
students' food, assortment of dishes, menu, choice, nutritional value

Abstract
The study of the menu of catering enterprises at the universities of Moscow on the assortment, quantitative and qualitative set of dishes, and their compliance with the requirements for nutrition of students on the balance of basic nutrients was conducted. It has been established that the menu of dining universities is made up identically and corresponds to the classical list of dishes on the menu. At the same time there is a different quantitative ratio of these groups among themselves. For example, cold dishes have quantitative positions from 8 pcs. up to 10 pieces, which in relation to the total number of dishes ranges from 14 to 36 %. And soups are represented by only 2-3 positions and their share in the total number of dishes ranges from 3.5 to 11 %. The largest amount of positions in the menu (from 9 to 12) is occupied by the main dishes. Their share in the menu ranges from 23 to 43 %. The menu has few dairy foods containing calcium, egg dishes that have a beneficial effect on the nervous system and brain activity, fruits that contain substances essential for the body of students. There are also few fish dishes that contain phosphorus (favorably affects the nervous system, increases efficiency) and omega-3 (increases the performance of the body and has a beneficial effect on mental activity). In general, the menu of catering establishments at universities contains few desserts and almost does not have its own sauces. With regard to beverages, food policy is different. Some food establishments include all drinks (hot and cold) in the main menu of the enterprise, while others prefer to make a separate menu of drinks and implement them through vending machines, counters, racks, buffets. In the assortment dominated by coffee, tea, industrial drinks.

References
1. Prokopenko L.A., Denisova V.A. Ocenka pitaniya studentov obshchezhitiya v respublike Saha (Yаkutiya) i puti sovershenstvovaniya ih kul'tury pitaniya [Assessment of nutritional status of students of a hostel in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and ways to improve their food culture], Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya [Modern problems of science and education], 2017. No. 3, pp. 47. (In Russ.).
2. Shepel'kov A.A., Kashaeva O.I., Krizhanauskajte G. A Izuchenie kachestva pitaniya studencheskoj molodezhi [A study of the quality of food student] NovaInfo. Ru. [NovaInfo. Ru.], 2014. No. 24, pp. 3-7. (In Russ.).
3. Regional features of the conditions and quality of medical university students. Esaulenko I.E., Glybochko P.V., Petrova T.N., Popov V.I. / Sechenovskij vestnik. [Sechenovskiy vestnik], 2017. No. 4 (30), pp. 4-11. (In Russ.).
4. Priluckij V.V., Trigub V.V., Vlasova N.I., Dacyuk E. S. Izuchenie kachestva pitaniya studencheskoj molodezhi [The Study of the quality of nutrition of students], Strategiya razvitiya sportivno-massovoj raboty so studentami: materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. 23-25 noyabrya 2016 [Strategy of development of sports and mass work with students: materials of the International Scientific-practical Conference. 23-25 November 2016], Tyumen, 2016. pp. 180-184. (In Russ.).
5. Ocenka vitaminnogo statusa studentov moskovskogo vuza po dannym o postuplenii vitaminov s pishchej i ih urovnyu v krovi. [Estimation of vitamin status of moscow student according to data on vitamins intake and their levels in blood] Beketova N.A., Kodencova V.M., Vrzhesinskaya O.A., Kosheleva O.V., Pereverzeva O.G., Solnceva T.N., Pogozheva A.V., Hanfer'yan R.A., Berketova L.V., Lipatova P. Voprosy pitaniya. [Problems of Nutrition], 2015, T. 84. No. 5. pp. 64-75. (In Russ.).
6. MR 2.3.1.2432-08 Normy fiziologicheskih potrebnostej v ehnergii i pishchevyh veshchestvah dlya razlichnyh grupp naseleniya Rossijskoj Federacii. Metodicheskie rekomendacii: [Norms of physiological needs in energy and nutrients for different groups of the population of the Russian Federation. Methodical recommendations] -Moscow. Federal center of hygiene and epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, 2009. p. 36. (In Russ.).
7. Zil'berman G.R., Kondrat'eva D.A. Antropoocial'naya kul'tura pitaniya studenta [Anthroposociology culture food students], Byulleten' medicinskih internet-konferencij [Bulletin of medical Internet conferences], Saratov, 2017, No. 6 (7), pp. 1145-1146. (In Russ.).
Authors
Lipatova Lyudmila P., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36, Stremyanny Lane, Moscow, Russia, 117997, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kenenbay Shynar Y., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Dikhanbaeva Fatima T., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Almaty Technological University,
100, Tole bi str., Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 4600.050012, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW MATERIALS AND ADDITIVES

Chesnokova N.Yu., Levochkina L.V., Kuznetsova A.A., Saphina A.M.The use of anthocyanin pigment berries of the Far Eastern region in the production of marmalade

P. 36-40 Key words
extracts of anthocyanin pigment of lemongrass and viburnum, agar-agar, marmalade

Abstract
The effect of ultrasound and extraction conditions on the intensity of the extraction of anthocyanin pigment isolated from the berries of schisandra and viburnum was studied. When extracting the berries of lemongrass and viburnum with an aqueous solution at a temperature of 25 °C, the content of anthocyanin pigment was 3.035 and 1.893 mg / ml, respectively. Increasing the temperature of extraction to 65 °C increases the degree of extraction of the anthocyanin pigment with an aqueous solution of all types of berries studied. The content of the pigment isolated from the berries of lemongrass and viburnum with this method of extraction was 3.168 and 2.126 mg / ml, respectively. Ultrasonic extraction at a temperature of 25 °C for 30 minutes contributed to the extraction of anthocyanin pigment from the berries of schizandra and viburnum, allowing to increase its quantity by 4 and 10 %, respectively. Formulations of jelly marmalade with the addition of anthocyanin pigment of lemongrass and viburnum were developed. Defined its organoleptic characteristics. Marmalade samples with the addition of 50 % anthocyanin pigment of lemongrass and viburnum had the best organoleptic characteristics. The marmalade with the addition of anthocyanin pigment, isolated from the berries of schisandra and viburnum, acquired a pleasant bright red color and had, respectively, a pronounced sweet-sour and sweet-and-sour taste with a slight bitterness. All physico-chemical and sanitary-hygienic indicators of the quality of jelly marmalade with 50 % content of anthocyanin pigment of lemongrass and viburnum correspond to the standard values. It is shown that the replacement of the dye and gelling complex in the formulation of marmalade with the anthocyanin pigment-anionic polysaccharide complex can improve the structural and mechanical properties of the gel.

References
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10. Chesnokova, N.Yu. Influence of polysaccharide functional groups on the extraction degree of blackcurrant anthocyanin pigment / N.Yu. Chesnokova / Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. - 2018. - V. 10 (3). - P. 659-661.
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Authors
Chesnokova Natalya Yu., Candidate of Biological Sciences,
Levochkina Lyudmila V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Kuznetsova Alla A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Saphina Alyena M.
Far Eastern Federal University,
8, Sukhanova str., Vladivostok, Russia, 690950, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Chkhan K.V., Moiseyak M.B., Abelyan V.H.Taste profile of sweet minorglycosides of stevia rebaudiana and their modified derivatives

P. 41-45 Key words
stevia, steviol glycosides, non-caloric sweeteners, taste characteristics of RebaudiosideD, RebaudiosideM, RebaudiosideA (RebA), fructosilated RebA (RebA-F), taste profile of stevia, taste characteristics of the derivatives, temporal, adaptive profile

Abstract
Synthetic and natural non-caloric (high-intensity) sweeteners, including steviol glycosides, exhibit a sweet taste that is different from the tastes of carbohydrate sweeteners. The quality and sweetness intensity of the glycosides of stevia depend on their structure and, in particular, the type and amount of carbohydrate units in their structure, as well as the nature and configuration of the bonds. RebaudiosdeD (RebD) and RebaudiosideM (RebM) are more effective with respect to Maximum Sweetness Response, for which the concentration / response factor is 10.1 and 14.2, respectively. Sweetness profile of RebM is very similar to that of aspartame, but RebM has more intense sweet aftertaste. Taste characteristics of fructosylated RebA (RebA-F) are also superior to those of RebA and are comparable to mono- and di-glucosylated derivatives. The temporal and adaptive profile of various sweeteners is also studied. Foreign flavours are the main disadvantages of non-nutritive sweeteners. Pure high-intensity sweeteners without combination with other sweeteners are usually within 4-8 % of sucrose equivalent (ES). Therefore, 6 % ES is an average which we can compare the sweetness of high intensity sweeteners. At this concentration, the sweetness of RebA is 200 times higher than that of sucrose. Sucrose has a sweet taste, and then the sweetness disappears relatively quickly when you swallow food or drink. The sweet taste of almost all high-performance sweeteners reaches its maximum more slowly and the long duration of sweetness is a significant problem with the use of high-intensity sweeteners, including steviol glycosides of stevia. This can be overcome by preparing optimized mixtures and / or modifying the molecule of the glycoside.

References
1. DuBois, G.E. Sweeteners and sweetness modulators: requirements for commercial viability. In: Sweetness and sweeteners: biology, chemistry and psychophysics / G.E. DuBois, D.K. Weerasinghe / American Chemical Society. - 2008. - P. 444-462.
2. Prakash, I. Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener / I. Prakash [et all.] / Food and Chemical Toxicology. - 2008. - V. 46. - P. 75-82.
3. Prakash, I. Methods for purifying steviol glycosides and uses of the same / I. Prakash [et all.] / PCT Patent Application WO 2013 / 096420. - 2013.
4. Prakash, I. Natural high-potency sweetener compositions with improved temporal profile and / or flavor profile, methods for their formulation, and uses / Prakash, I. [et all.] / US Patent Appl. 0128311. - 2007a.
5. Crammer, B. Progress in the chemistry and properties of the rebaudiosides. In: Developments in sweeteners-3 / B. Crammer, R. Ikan. / Elsevier, Applied Science. - London, 1987. - P. 45-64.
6. DuBois, G.E. Validity of early indirect models of taste active sites and advances in new taste technologies enabled by improved models / G.E. DuBois / Flavour and Fragrance Journal. - 2011. - V. 26. - № 4. - P. 239-253.
7. Abelyan, V.H. The Art of Stevia / V.H. Abelyan, L.A. Abelyan / PureCircle. - Kuala Lumpur. - 2012. - 876 p.
Authors
Chkhan Kristina V., graduate student,
Moiseyak Marina B., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, Russia, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Abelyan Varuzhan A., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
HB-Natural Ingredients, Hong Kong
HD Natural Ingredients USA, suite 910, von Karman avenue, 18301, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Balykhin М.G., Skobelskaya Z.G., Ryazantseva V.А., Bessarab А.V.Improving the quality of cocoa-beans and their products of their processing under the impact of the device IVA-1

P. 46-49 Key words
cocoa beans, processed products, IVA-1 device, quality

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to study the possibility of using the domestic device IVA-1 to improve the quality of commercial cocoa beans and their products. The device IVA-1 is a corrector of fluctuations of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the processed object that leads to self-regulation of processes of this system. The research was conducted at the Moscow state University of food production. The objects of the study were lots of commercial and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa nibs, cocoa mass and chocolate. Quality indicators determined for cocoa beans and fried commodity: the mass fraction of moisture, strength, ductility, non-system. The quality of cocoa nibs was determined by two parameters: the mass fraction of moisture and non-systemicity. Cocoa mass and chocolate mass were analyzed according to the following parameters: the mass fraction of moisture, the mass fraction of fat, viscosity, degree of grinding and non-system. The studies found that under the influence of the device IVA-1 in cocoa beans commodity, roasted and cocoa nibs is a decrease in the mass fraction of moisture, plasticity and strength; when processing cocoa mass and chocolate mass, there is a decrease in the mass fraction of moisture, an increase in the mass fraction of fat, a decrease in viscosity, an increase in the quality of the product (indicator "non-system""). This treatment can be the basis for improving the technology of processing cocoa beans into chocolate semi-finished products and used as an internal reserve of the enterprise, which does not require large additional costs.

References
1. Patent RU2183931C2, 27.06.2002. Sposob obrabotki kakao-bobov / Patent № 2183931, 1997 / Z. Bolenc, O. G. Vitctum, M. K. Grosso.
2. A. s. 1324626 SSSR. Ustanovka dlja gidrotermicheskoj obrabotki kakao-bobov / G. A. Marshalkin [i dr.] / zajavitel': Moskovskij tehnologicheskij institut pishhevoj promyshlennosti. № 3902280; zajavl. 30.03.1985; opubl. 22.03.1987.
3. A. s. 695646 SSSR. Sposob poluchenija kakao-krupki / G. A. Marshalkin, Z. G. Klimovceva (Skobel'skaja), O. P. Darmenko / zajavitel': Moskovskij ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni tehnologicheskij institut pishhevoj promyshlennosti. № 2507959; zajavl. 11.07.1977; opubl. 13.07.1979.
4. Informacionno-vosstanovitel'nye applikatory (IVA) [Jelektronnyj resurs] - Rezhim dostupa: http://intehzdrav.ru/produkciya_verguna_vv/informacionno_vosstanovitelnie_applikatori_(iva) - Zaglavie s jekrana. (Data obrashhenija: 19.12.2018).
5. Maksimov, A.S. Reologija pishhevyh produktov. Laboratornyj praktikum / A. S. Maksimov, V. Ja. Chernyh. - M.: Izdatel'skij kompleks MGUPP, 2004. - 160 s.
6. Zenin, S.V. Metodika izmerenija jelektroprovodnosti vodnoj sredy obrazca pod vozdejstviem razlichnyh ob#ektov / S. V. Zenin. - M.: MGU, 2005. - 36 s.
Authors
Balykhin Мikhail G., Doctor of Economic Sciences,
Skobelskaya Zinaida G., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Ryazantseva Vera А.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, Russia, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Bessarab Аnton V.
PAO "RedOctober",
Moscow, 7, building 24, Malaya Krasnoselskaya str., Moscow, Russia, 107140, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zavorokhina N.V., Bogomazova Yu.I., Feofilaktova O.V.Use of the descriptor-profile method of tasting analysis in the development of whey beverages

P. 50-53 Key words
descriptor-profile method, descriptor, whey drinks, whey, tasting analysis

Abstract
One of the methods for analyzing the organoleptic properties of food ingredients and finished products is the descriptor-profile method of tasting analysis. It is characterized as a complex, cost-effective, easy to maintain, giving a rich information base method. Using the descriptor-profile method of tasting analysis in the development of new products will allow you to create a visual model of the taste and aromatic characteristics of this product. This is done by comparing the variations of the created product relative to each other and the subsequent selection of the recipe, which received the highest score in the evaluation by the tasters. The aim of the study was to build a "common sensory profile" that characterizes the appearance, taste, smell and texture of whey drinks, by developing a dictionary of descriptors. Studies carried out according to GOST 34160-2017 and GOST 33609-2015. As a result, four general lists of descriptors for four model samples of whey drinks were formed. Excluded: hedonic terms, quantitative terms, inappropriate terms. Carried out the first reduction of descriptors - received 13 descriptors: D1 - Color intensity, D2 - Sediment, D3 - Orange color, D4 - Homogeneity, D5 - Density of the drink, D6 - Aroma intensity, D7 - The harmony of flavor, D8 - fermented tone, D9 - Sea buckthorn fragrance, D10 - Carrot flavor, D11 - long aftertaste, D12 - Sweetness, D13 - Acidity. Then the descriptors were ranked by geometric mean. Spent the second descriptor reduction. As a result, dexriptors were excluded: D1, D2, D4, since they had a geometric mean of less than 15 %. Further, the final flavor profile of the samples of sea buckthorn-carrot beverages was compiled. Thus, the descriptor-profile method of tasting analysis is very intuitive, simple and allows you to see the shortcomings of model samples in the complex and identify ways to achieve the desired organoleptic properties of the product. It also allows you to select model drinks that best meet the stated requirements.

References
1. GOST ISO 13299-2015. Organolepticheskij analiz. Metodologija. Obshhee rukovodstvo po sostavleniju organolepticheskogo profilja: GOST ISO 13299-2015. Vved. 2016 01 01. - M.: Standartinform, 2016. - 28 s.
2. Chugunova, O.V. Ispol'zovanie metodov degustacionnogo analiza pri modelirovanii receptur pishhevyh produktov s zadannymi potrebitel'skimi svojstvami (monografija) / O.V. Chugunova, N.V. Zavorohina. - Ekaterinburg: Ural'skij gosudarstvennyj jekonomicheskij universitet, 2010. - 148 s.
3. Zavorohina, N.V. Potencial deskriptorno-profil'nogo metoda degustacionnogo analiza / N.V. Zavorohina, O.V. Chugunova / Vestnik Juzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Pishhevye i biotehnologii. - 2014. - T. 2. - № 2. - S. 58-63.
4. Rogers, L. Sensory Panel Management / L. Rogers / Woodhead Publishing. - 2018. - 358 p.
5. Delarue, J. Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques / J. Delarue, B. Lawlor, M. Rogeaux / Woodhead Publishing. - 2015. - 555 p.
6. Chugunova, O.V. Nauchnyj obzor: sensornyj analiz i ego znachenie v ocenke kachestva i bezopasnosti pishhevyh produktov / O.V. Chugunova / Nauchnoe obozrenie. Tehnicheskie nauki. - 2016. - № 3. - S. 118-129.
7. Zavorohina, N.V. Molochnaja syvorotka, prodlevajushhaja zhizn' / N.V. Zavorohina, Ju.I. Bogomazova / Molochnaja promyshlennost'. - 2018. - № 9. - S. 62-64.
8. Methven, L. Ageing and taste. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society / L. Methven, V. J. Allen, C. A. Withers. - 2012. - Vol. 71 (4). - P. 556-565.
9. Bukreev, N.S. Sovremennye issledovanija sfery obonjanija i zapahov / N.S. Bukreev / Uchenye zapiski Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo social'nogo universiteta. - 2016. - T. 15. - № 2 (135). - S. 14-21.
10. ISO 11035: 1994 Sensory analysis - Identification and selection of descriptors for establishing a sensory Profile by a multidimensional approach: ISO 11035:1994. Vved. 1995 01 01 / Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 1995. - 32 s.
11. GOST ISO 5492-2014 Organolepticheskij analiz (slovar'): GOST ISO 5492-2014. Vved. 2016 01 01 / M.: Standartinform, 2016. - 54 s.
Authors
Zavorokhina Nataliya V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Bogomazova Yuliya I., graduate student,
Feofilaktova Olga V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Ural State University of Economics,
62/45, 8 Marta / Narodnoj Voli str., Yekaterinburg, Russia, 620144, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kuvshinova О.А., Berezin M.A.Studying the process of serum processing by nanofiltration method

P. 54-57 Key words
nanofiltration, polymer membranes, regeneration, demineralization, serum

Abstract
According to the Ministry of Agriculture, in 2017, Russia produced 17.86 million tons of milk. About 10 million tons are used to produce cottage cheese and cheese. The whey produced in this case contains significant amounts of harmful mineral impurities and is an environmental problem of dairy production due to the high biological oxygen demand for its utilization. However, after purification from harmful impurities and concentration, the whey can be used to prepare a variety of high-quality products, animal feed and as industrial raw materials for other industries. The purpose of this work was to study the process of concentration of sub-whey by the method of nanofiltration. The work was carried out on the basis of the laboratory "Energy efficient technologies for processing raw materials and materials" of the Institute of Mechanics and Energy (Saransk). Membrane cleaning was carried out on a LabUnit M20 upgraded laboratory membrane unit. The object of the research is cheese whey from LLC Sarmich Cheesecake Plant (Insar). Each stage of the study included a series of five cycles "serum nanofiltration - washing" with an assessment of the effec-tiveness of the washing with the funds of Diversey (USA). It was established that in the process of filtration of the serum, there is a linear decrease in the permeability coefficient, due to the formation and growth of the gel layer on the surface of the membrane elements. The values of the concentration of solutes on average in the starting product are 17.6 %, the filtrate and concentrate are 0.67 % and 17.23 %. Thus, the use of nanofiltration allows the processing of whey with the possibility of creating a fully automated waste-free production with high productivity and low energy costs. The product is not exposed to heat, in which the proteins contained in the serum are denaturated and coagulate.

References
1. Bou-Khabib D. Ot vtorichnogo k tsennomu produktu. Pererabotka syvorotki membrannoy fil'tratsiyey / D. Bou-Khabib, V. Tal'khammer / Molochnaya promyshlennost'. - № 9. - 2009. - р. 64-66.
2. GOST R 53438-2009. Syvorotka molochnaya. Tekhnicheskiye usloviya. - M.: IPK Izdatel'stvo standartov, 2009. - URL: http:/docs.cntd.ru / document / 1200075961. (data obrashcheniya 21.12.18)
3. Varivoda A. A. Molochnaya syvorotka membrannoy obrabotki v tekhnologii plavlenykh syrov / A. A. Varivoda / Mezhdunarod. nauchno-issledovatel'skiy zhurnal. - № 2 (21). - CH. 1. - 2014. - p. 80-84.
4. Khramtsov A. G. Fenomen molochnoy syvorotki / A. G. Khramtsov. - SPb.: Professiya, 2011. - 804 p.
5. Kulichenko A. I. Primeneniye produktov iz molochnoy syvorotki pri proizvodstve konditerskikh izdeliy / Molodoy uchenyy. - 2013. - № 4. - P. 675-677.
6. Membrannaya fil'tratsiya v molochnoy promyshlennosti [Zagl. s ekrana]. - URL: http://sneks.ru / novosti / membrannaya-filtraciya-v-molochnoi-promishlennosti (data obrashcheniya: 21.12.2018).
7. Korotetskaya N. S. Sovremennoye sostoyaniye i perspektivnyye napravleniya pererabotki mo-lochnoy syvorotki / N. S. Korotetskaya / Aktual'nyye problemy gumanitarnykh i yestestvennykh nauk. - 2012. - № 4. - P. 51-54.
8. Home Kerry J. Fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes by natural water / Kerry J. Home, Mark M. Clark / Environ. Sci. Technol. - 2002. - № 36 (2002). - Р. 3571-3576.
9. Svittsov A. A. Vvedeniye v membrannuyu tekhnologiyu / A. A. Svittsev. - M.: DeLi print, 2007. - 208 p.
10. Pechnov V. I. Rekonstruktsiya membrannoy ustanovki "LABUNIT M20" / V. I. Pechnov, V. V. Kuznetsov, V. N. Vodyakov / Energoeffektivnyye i resursosberegayushchiye tekhnologii i sistemy: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh trudov, posvyashchennyy 100 letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya pervogo dekana fakul'teta mekhanizatsii sel'skogo khozyaystva MGU im. N. P. Ogareva dotsenta D. S. Pilipko (1913-1989 gg.). - Saransk, 2013. - P. 164-170. 11. Shabarin A. A. Ochistka pit'yevoy vody ot ftoridov metodom obratnogo osmosa / A. A. Shabarin, V. N. Vodyakov, A. V. Kotin, O. A. Kuvshinova, Yu. I. Matyushkina / Vestnik Mordovskogo universiteta. - 2018. - T. 28. - № 1. - P. 36-47.
12. Programma avtomatizatsii sistemy izmereniya membrannoy ustanovki Alfa Laval LabUnit M20 / V. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuvshinova, V. N. Vodyakov, T. P. Boyarkina. Svidetel'stvo RF № 2018618564 ot 16.07.2018.
13. Kuvshinova O. A. Metodika pererabotki syvorotki na membrannoy ustanovke LABUNIT M20 / O. A. Kuvshinova, A. D. Repin, K. V. Semikov / Energoeffektivnyye i resursosberegayu-shchiye tekhnologii i sistemy: mat-ly Mezhdunar. nauchno-prakt. konf. - Saransk: Izd-vo Mordov. un-ta, 2018. - P. 392-397.
Authors
Kuvshinova Olga A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Berezin Michail A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Mordovian State University named N. P. Ogarev,
68, Bolshevistskaya str., Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Romanova V.A., Pomogova D.A., Kirsch I.A., Beznaeva O.V., Bannikova O.A., Tveritnikova I.S. The intensification of the process of baking bread products with the use of ultrasonic cavitation

P. 58-61 Key words
acoustic cavitation, ultrasound, sonochemistry, dispersion, reference bread, aqueous and salt solutions

Abstract
In the production of food, three methods of energy impact are mainly used - grinding by cutting or deformation, mixing and heat treatment. In addition to the disintegrating effect of ultrasound, completely opposite phenomena are known that accompany the transformation of the vibration energy of the ultrasonic range in a liquid medium. The use of cavitation in the processing and food industry is effective, since it can significantly reduce, and, in some cases, completely eliminate the use of chemical food additives. The use of physical action is considered to be more effective and safe than the use of traditional chemical ingredients. Russian scientists have developed a working model of high-performance flow apparatus of acoustic cavitation type RCU with piezoceramic Converter for the treatment of liquid media on an industrial scale. Liquid media are water, organic solvents, water-based liquid media with a small volume of solid fractions (brines, syrups, milk, etc.). The use of aqueous media can create a regime of developed cavitation at minimal energy costs. The energy of acoustic cavitation crushes starch grains in flour suspension, carries out partial isothermal gelatinization of starch, and hydrolyzes amylose and starch amylopectin to form soluble sugars. Thanks to this technology, the preparation of baking dough on cavitation-activated water, accompanied by the structuring of gluten proteins, can increase the specific volume of bread, increase its elasticity, slow down the hardening and reduce the use of baking improvers.

References
1. Novickij, B.G. Primenenie akusticheskih kolebanij v himiko-tehnologicheskih processah (processy i apparaty himicheskoj i neftehimicheskoj tehnologii) / B.G. Novickij. - M.: Himija, 1983.
2. Polandova, R.D. Sposob aktivacii hlebopekarnyh drozhzhej / R.D. Polandova, S.D. Shestakov, T.P. Volohova. Patent na izobretenie № 2184145.
3. Promtov, M.A. Perspektivy primenenija kavitacionnyh tehnologij dlja intensifikacii himiko-tehnologicheskih processov / M.A. Promtov / Vestnik Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta. - 2008. - T. 14. - № 4. - S. 861-869.
4. Rozenberg L.D. Fizicheskie osnovy ul'trazvukovoj tehnologii / L.D. Rozenberg. - M.: Nauka, 1969. - 689 s.
5. Shestakov, S.D. Mnogopuzyr'kovaja akusticheskaja kavitacija: matematicheskaja model' i fizicheskoe podobie / S.D. Shestakov. - SPb: Krylovskij gosudarstvennyj nauchnyj centr, 2010.
6. Shestakov, S.D. Osnovy tehnologii kavitacionnoj dezintegracii. Teorija kavitacionnogo reaktora i ee prilozhenija v proizvodstve hleboproduktov / S.D. Shestakov. - M.: EVA-press, 2001. - 173 s.
7. Shestakov, S.D. Tehnologija i oborudovanie dlja obrabotki pishhevyh sred s ispol'zovaniem kavitacionnoj dezintegracii (uchebnoe posobie dlja vuzov) / S.D. Shestakov, O.N. Krasulja, V.I. Bogush. - SPb: GIORD, 2013. - 152 s.
Authors
Romanova Valentina A.,
Pomogova Darya A.,
Kirsch Irina A., Doctor of Chemical Sciences,
Beznaeva Olga V., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Bannikova Olga A., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Tveritnikova Izabella S.
Moscow State University оf Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, Russia, 125080, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zhukov V.G., Lukin N.D.The development of the notions of deformation and strength properties of potato tubers flesh

P. 61-66 Key words
potato, tuber, physical and mechanical properties, samples, stresses, strains, compression diagram, modulus of rigidity, rigidity criteria

Abstract
On the basis of publications in recent years, ideas about the deformation and strength properties of the flesh of potato tubers are being developed. The study is based on the analysis of experimental data on compression tests of cylindrical specimens cut from the flesh of potato tubers. The experiments were carried out taking into account the relaxation properties of the flesh. The diagrams of destruction of cylindrical samples by uniaxial compression revealed a number of features that made it possible to form an idea of the deformation-strength properties of potato pulp, taking into account its degree of flabbiness. Additional information is provided by experiments with intermediate unloadings, which start with sigma> 0.1 MPa. A comparison of their graphs with the initial part of the diagram shows the absence of inelastic deformations within the limits of stresses in the samples from zero to values close to 0.1 MPa. Stresses sigma> 0.1 MPa lead to the formation of inelastic deformations in the samples, which makes it necessary in the Hooke formula to abandon the use of the concept of a Young's modulus, which describes only elastic deformation. Instead of the Young's modulus, it was proposed to introduce a more general concept of the modulus of rigidity. Based on the analysis of the previously developed criteria for the rigidity of tubers of various flaccidity, two main ones were selected, which is associated with the simplicity of obtaining data for their calculation and sensitivity to changes in the flaccidity of tubers.

References
1. Andreev, N.R. Proizvodstvo krahmala i krahmaloproduktov dlja importozameshhenija / N.R. Andreev, D.N. Lukin / Pishhevaja promyshlennost'. - 2014. - № 12. - S. 34-36.
2. Beer, F.P. Mecanics of Materials / F.P. Beer. - Sixth Edition: McGraw-Hill, 2012. - 758 p.
3. Zhukov, V.G. Mehanika. Soprotivlenie materialov (uchebnik dlja vuzov). - SPb., M., Krasnodar: Lan', 2012. - 414 s.
4. Judith A. Abbott. Quality measurement of fruits and vegetables / Judith A. Abbott / Postharvest Biology and Technology. - 1999. - № 15. - R. 207-225.
5. Abd el-Maksoud M. A. Rheological constants of the four elements burgers model for potato tubers affected by various fixed loads under different storage conditions / M.A. Abd el-Maksoud, G.R. Gamea, A.M. Abd el-Gawad / Process engineering. Misr Journal of Agricultural Engineering. - 2009. - V. 26. - № 1. - R. 359-384.
6. Savrasova, N.R. Rezul'taty jeksperimental'nogo opredelenija modulja uprugosti i predela prochnosti mjakoti klubnja kartofelja / N. R. Savrasova / Vestnik ChGAA. - 2012. - T. 60. - S. 80-82.
7. Zhukov, V.G. Relaksacionnyj jeffekt pri ispytanii kartofel'nyh obrazcov szhatiem / V.G. Zhukov, N.R. Andreev, D.V. Bezrukov / Dostizhenija nauki i tehniki APK. - 2016. - T. 30. - № 11. - S. 121-122.
8. Zhukov, V.G. Deformacionno-prochnostnye svojstva kartofelja razlichajushhejsja stepeni zhestkosti / V.G. Zhukov [i dr.] / Dostizhenija nauki i tehniki APK. - 2016. - T. 30. - № 12. - S. 101-103.
9. Zhukov, V.G. Mehanizm deformacii szhatiem cilindricheskogo obrazca iz kartofel'nogo klubnja / V.G. Zhukov, N.R. Andreev, D.N. Lukin / Dostizhenija nauki i tehniki APK. - 2017. - T. 31. - № 6. - S. 80-83.
10. Zhukov, V.G. Tri tipa kolichestvennyh pokazatelej stepeni zhestkosti kartofel'nogo klubnja / V.G. Zhukov, N.R. Andreev, V.A. Baku-lin / Dostizhenija nauki i tehniki APK. - 2017. - T. 31. - № 10. - S. 85-88.
11. Bentini, M. Physico-mechanical properties of potato tubers during cold storage / M. Bentini, C. Caprara, R. Martelli / Biosystems Engineering. - 2009. - V. 104. - P. 25-32.
12. Miruna Laza. Mechanical properties affecting slicing performance of potatoes: A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degrtt of MASTER OF SCIENCE / Laza Miruna. - Food Science Departmerit University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. - October 1999. - 143 p.
13. Blahovec, J. Static low-level bruising in pears / J. Blahovec, M. Vlckova, F. Paprstein / Research in Agricultural Engineering. - 2002. - V. 48. - № 2. - R. 41-46.
14. Bentini, M. Evaluation of the physical-mechanical properties of potatoes during conservation / M. Bentini, C. Caprara, R. Martelli / International Conference "Innovation Technology to Empower Safety, Health and Welfare in Agriculture and Agro-food Systems". Ragusa - Italy. - September, 2008. - 7 p.
Authors
Zhukov Valery G., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Lukin Nikolay D., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products - Branch of the Federal Science Center of Food Systems V.M. Gorbatov RAS,
11, Nekrasov str., Kraskovo, Lyubertsy district, Moscow region, Russia, 140051, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Pas'ko O. V., Kulikov D.A., Burakovskaya N.V.Resource-saving technologies for the production of culinary products from serum-free cottage cheese with vegetable components

P. 67-69 Key words
serum free curd, resource-saving technologies, bakery, confectionary, enterprises of the food industry

Abstract
One of the priority directions of development of the modern food industry is production of the full-fledged balanced dishes and products with use of resource-saving technologies, in this regard, a main objective of the conducted researches is development of the production technology of various culinary products on the basis of bessyvorotochny cottage cheese. When carrying out researches the standard mathematical methods of planning of an experiment, methods of mathematical modeling and statistics, microbiological, biochemical and physical and chemical methods were used. Within performance scientific a research process of coagulation and fermentation of dairy composition of a product is studied, the biological value of bessyvorotochny cottage cheese with vegetable components is determined, mathematical modeling of set of experimental data of process of coagulation and fermentation of dairy composition of a product is carried out. As objects of researches in work were used: cow's milk is not lower than the first grade; cream with a mass fraction of fat of 35 %; The DVS cultures of the LLC Hr. Hansen company, molokosvertyvayushchy CHY-MAXTMPowder enzyme of the LLC Hr. Hansen company, a concentrate of PROMILK® Kappa Optimum and PROMILK 802 FB milk protein of the LLC Soyuzopttorg company, buckwheat, the buckwheat flour produced by LLC Solntse yuga, flavoring fillers of Agrana on the existing standard documentation approved in accordance with the established procedure. Work represents the practical value as realization of goals and research problems allows to create technology of bessyvorotochny cottage cheese with use of resource-saving technologies, with the subsequent its use in preparation signature flour and confectionery. The developed product has the high content of the serumal proteins forming the biological value of culinary products of cottage cheese, the used technology provides optimum rheological indicators thanks to what the product has high organoleptic properties.

References
1. About the approval of Strategy of development of the food and processing industry of the Russian Federation (with changes for January 13, 2017) the government of the Russian Federation the Order of April 17, 2012 N 559 p [about the approval of Strategy of development of the food and processing industry of the Russian Federation].
2. Order of the government of the Russian Federation of 19.04.2017 N 738 p "On approval of the action plan for the implementation of the strategy to improve the quality of food products in Russia until 2030, approved. Order of the Government of the Russian Federation from 29.06.2016 g № 1364 p".
3. Galkina S. L. research and development of technology of cottage cheese and cereal bioproduct: diss.... candidate of technical Sciences: 05.18.04 / Galkina Svetlana Leonidovna; [place of defense: Kemer. technol. in-t food industry.] - Kemerovo, 2012. - 185 p.: Il.
4. Pasko O. V. Effective associations of probiotic cultures for fermented products / O. V. Pasko / Dairy industry. - No. 8-2010- Pp. 74-75.
5. Development of technology of cottage cheese bioproduct / O. V. Pasko, N. Ah. Smirnova /Food industry. No. 1-2012. - P. 42-43.
Authors
Pas'ko Olga V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Kulikov Dmitriy A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management,
73, Zemlyanoi Val str., Moscow, Russia, 109004, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Burakovskaya Nina V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Omsk State Technical University,
11, Peace avenue, Omsk, Siberian Federal district, Russia, 644050, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Voskoboynikov V.A., Andreev V.K.About process control vacuum freeze drying on environmental parameters

P. 70-72 Key words
sublimator, desublimator, working chamber, vacuum pump, environmental parameters

Abstract
The process of dewatering frozen materials is usually carried out at various parameters of the environment and material. The quality characteristics of the finished product largely depend on a well-thought-out scheme for monitoring operational parameters that need to be maintained within a certain range (vapor pressure, temperature of different zones of the material, energy supply intensity, condenser surface temperature, etc.). The implementation feature of drying thermolabile moisture-containing pre-frozen materials is temperature control is quite a long drying process. At the same time, control of the temperature of the surface and central layers of the material with the help of compact thermoelements requires professional and hard work. Therefore, production workers often face either the lack of drying of a thermolabile material or its "burnout", which, in general, causes an increased consumption of expensive material and hinders the widespread industrial development of the dehydration method of frozen objects. Controlling the drying process of pre-frozen products according to the parameters of the environment, including vacuum, allows you to avoid these difficulties, reduce material losses and automate the process of obtaining finished products with a given humidity, which is especially important for biomaterials and vitamin-containing thermolabile products. Along with these advantages, the development of the main technological equipment of the new generation allows using this method to reduce the time it takes to dry the material if the equipment is designed to be able to disconnect the desublimator from the drying chamber and thereby increase the moisture concentration gradient at the final stage of the process.

References
1. Semenov, G. V. Vakuumnaja sublimacion-naja sushka / G. V. Semenov. - M: Deli pljus, 2013.
2. Kamovnikov, B. P. Vakuum-sublimacionnaja sushka pishhevyh produktov / B. P. Kamovnikov, L. S. Malkov, V. A. Voskobojnikov. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1985.
3. Gujgo, Je. I. Sublimacionnaja sushka pishhevyh produktov / Je. I. Gujgo, N. K. Zhuravskaja, Je. I. Kauhcheshvili. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1977.
4. Lebedev, D. P. Teplo- i massoobmen v processah sublimacii v vakuume / D. P. Lebedev, T. L. Perel'man. - M.: Jenergija, 1973.
5. Podol'skij, M. V. Issledovanie kinetiki processa sublimacionnogo Vysushivanija preparatov krovi. Avtoreferat kand. disc. MTIPP. - M., 1963.
6. Gerasimov S. V. Nekotorye voprosy upravlenija sublimacionnymi ustanovkami periodicheskogo dejstvija / S. V. Gerasimov [i dr.] / Sbornik nauchnyh trudov. - NPO "Pishhepromavtomatika". - Odessa, 1976. - vyp. 15.
7. Voskobojnikov V. A. Nauchnye osnovy kriotehnologicheskih metodov proizvodstva instant-produktov (issledovanie, tehnicheskie reshenija i vnedrenie) / V. A. Voskobojnikov. - Moskva, 1992.
Authors
Voskoboynikov Vladimir A., Doctor of Technical Sciences
Andreev Vladimir K., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazeva,
49, Timiryazev str., Moscow, Russia, 127550, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY AND SAFETY

Oganesyants L.A., Khurshudyan S.A., Petrov A.N.Falsified Foods Identification. Terms and Definitions

P. 73-76 Key words
identification, counterfeit, food product, term, marker, matrix

Abstract
Food production has always been accompanied by its falsification. In the fight against food products falsification (FPF), two historical aspects can be distinguished, in which either the seller or the manufacturer are responsible for falsification selling. Currently, the problem of effective struggle requires solving the following problems: -?creation of a clear legislative base defining administrative or criminal responsibility for the falsification production; -?creation of a national control system for the FPF turnover; -?Adoption of a national classification system for the FPF. The lack of legalized FPF classification does not allow introducing clear penalties for the production of FPF, which limits the ability to monitor the food market for the presence of FPF. The development of a universal FPF classification system is hampered by the presence of various falsification methods and ways. Most effectively, this problem is solved by using the markers matrix theory, which allows the graduation of FPF to change the composition of the food product. In accordance with this theory, the FPF is divided into three types: substandard, surrogate and fake product. Each of these FPF types is determined by the corresponding matrix (pseudo, false and modified). The introduction of proposed classification requires clarification and adoption of certain terms in order to exclude discrepancies in the distribution of this classification to all food groups. A modern food identification system makes it possible to uniquely identify FPF, but not to classify the falsification degree and its danger to the consumer. The markers matrix allows you to do this, and its structure easily adapts to automated laboratory control.

References
1. Strategija povyshenija kachestva pishhevoj produkcii v Rossijskoj Federacii do 2030 g. Utverzhdena Rasporjazheniem Pravitel'stva RF № 1364 r ot 29.06.2016 g.
2. Oganesjanc, L. A. Monitoring kachestva pishhevyh produktov - bazovyj jelement strategii / L. A. Oganesjanc, S. A. Hurshudjan, A. G. Galstjan / Kontrol' kachestva produkcii. - 2018. - № 4. - S. 56-59.
3. Petrov, A. N. Aktual'nye aspekty protivodejstvija fal'sifikacii pishhevyh produktov / A. N. Petrov, A. G. Galstjan / Voprosy pitanija. - 2016. - № 5. - S. 86-92.
4. Oganesjanc, A. L. Aktual'nye aspekty obespechenija kachestva alkogol'noj produkcii Rossii / A. L. Oganesjanc, S. A. Hurshudjan / Pivo i napitki. - 2015. - № 5. - S. 12-14.
5. Petrov, A. N. Indicators of Quality of Canned Milk: Russian and International Priorities / A. N. Petrov, A. G. Galstyan / Food and Raw Materials. - 2017. - T. 5. - № 2. P. 151-161.
6. Galstjan, A. G. Kontrol' kachestva jemul'sionnyh likerov / A. G. Galstjan, S. A. Hurshudjan / Kontrol' kachestva produkcii. - 2017. - № 8. - S. 14-16.
7. Hurshudjan S. A. Fal'sifikacija pishhevyh produktov v Rossii: istorija i sovremennost' / S. A. Hurshudjan, B. C. Zajchik / Pishhevaja promyshlennost'. - 2009. - № 8. - S. 22-24.
8. Tairov, V. E. Materialy po voprosu fal'sifikacii pishhevyh produktov s prilozheniem zakonoproekta / V. E. Tairov. - Odessa: tipografija E. I. Fesenko, 1901. - 171 s.
9. Holevinskaja, M. M. O fal'sifikcii pishhevyh produktov i napitkov v bol'shih russkih gorodah / M. M. Holevinskaja. - Astrahan': tipografija "Prikaspijskoj gazety", 1902. - 24 s.
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15. Federal'nyj zakon ot 2 janvarja 2000 g. № 29 FZ "O kachestve i bezopasnosti pishhevyh produktov" (s izmenenijami ot 30 dekabrja 2006 g.).
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22. Federal'nyj zakon ot 02.01.2000 g. № 29 FZ "O kachestve i bezopasnosti pishhevyh produktov" (v red. ot 13.07.2015).
23. Hurshudjan, S. A. Matrica markerov - osnova identifikacii natural'nyh produktov / S. A. Hurshudjan / Pishhevaja promyshlennost'. - 2008. - № 5. - S. 13-14.
24. Hurshudjan, S. A. Fal'sifikacija pishhevyh produktov: nauchnye, metodologicheskie i normativno-pravovye osnovy protivodejstvija / S. A. Hurshudjan / Pishhevaja promyshlennost'. - 2008. - № 8. - S. 56-57.
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Authors
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS,
Khurshudyan Sergey A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of the Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries - Branch of the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems,
7, Rossolimo str., Moscow, Russia, 119021
Petrov Andrey N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Preservation Technology - Branch of the Federal Science Center of Food Systems V.M. Gorbatov RAS, Moscow,
78, Shkol'naya str., Vidnoe, Moscow Region, Russia, 142703, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abramova I.M., Medrish M.E., Savel'eva V.B., Gavrilova D.A., Zhirova V.V.The role of mineral substances in the formation of quality and stability in the process of production of alcoholic beverages, obtained with the use of plant materials

P. 77-79 Key words
microelements, alcoholic beverages, quality, stability, plant materials, metals, cations, anions

Abstract
The article presents information about the effect of mineral substances on the formation of the quality and stability of alcoholic beverages obtained with the use of plant materials. To the cloudiness are more sensitive alcoholic beverages with a long exposure time, having high concentrations of dry substances. Precipitation and turbidity of alcoholic beverages obtained with the use of plant raw materials are caused by loss of organic solubility (higher alcohols, esters, proteins, fatty acids, high molecular weight fractions of lignin, lipids, tannins) and mineral substances. Sediments of mineral or mixed origin, with a significant content of mineral substances, the main components of which are cations of calcium, potassium, polysaccharides and nitrogenous compounds are, as a rule, irreversible. The main parameter that determines the stability of strong alcoholic beverages during storage is hardness, however, the whole desalted water adversely affects their organoleptic properties. The analysis of the sources of mineral substances in alcoholic beverages, obtained with the use of plant materials and their impact on product quality. The main sources of microelements in alcoholic beverages are production equipment and process water, as well as plant raw materials (for example, soil type, used pesticides and fungicides affect the content of trace elements in plant raw materials), oak wood used for aging of grain distillate. The trace elements coming from production equipment include Cu and Fe, Ni, Cd, Sn and Mo. The main trace elements coming from process water are Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn.

References
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4. Gray, J.D. Observations on the Flavour and Aroma of Scotch Whisky / J. D. Gray, J. S. Swan / Institute of Brewing (Edinburgh) Conference Proc. - 1977.
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Authors
Medrish Marina E., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Savelyeva Vera B., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Gavrilova Daria A.
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - Branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4В, Samokatnaya str., Moscow, Russia, 111033, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Girova Vera V., Candidate of Technical Sciences
K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of technologies and management,
73, Zemlyanoi Val str., Moscow, Russia, 109004



EVENTS AND FACTS

Traditions glorious to live

XXI Specialized Exhibition "Food. Drinks - 2019"

NEWS FROM PROFESSIONAL INDUSTRIAL BRANCH UNIONS

NEWS FROM R&D INSTITUTES AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS