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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №1/2021



INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-December, 2020

Oganesyants L.A., Panasiuk A.L.About World Winemaking on the Third Millennium Threshold

P. 6-8
Authors
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Panasiuk Aleksandr L., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: QUALITY RAW MATERIALS ARE THE BASIS OF PRODUCT SAFETY

Ermolaeva G.A., Skomorokhov N.S., Koltsova K.O.Honey Drink Using Non-traditional Raw Materials

P. 10-15 Key words
amino acids; pineapple; antioxidant activity; vitamins; yeast; kiwi; lime; passion fruit; honey; honey drink.

Abstract
Fermented honey drinks have been developed using subtropical raw materials unconventional for national drinks and possessing antioxidant properties (passion fruit, pineapple, lime, kiwi). The physical and chemical characteristics of the drinks have been determined. It was found that the highest antioxidant activity was found in the drink with kiwi, slightly lower in the drink with pineapple, lower in the drink with lime and the lowest in the honey drink with passion fruit. The pH of drinks with subtropical raw materials was 2.7-2.9 (in the control 3.1). The study of the influence of a variety of yeast on the fermentation rate of honey wort and the organoleptic characteristics of the drink showed that the most harmonious organoleptic properties were found in the drink, for which the wort was fermented with yeast for mead, and the higher fermentation rate, when using yeast for ale. The introduction of subtropical fruit raw materials accelerated the fermentation process by one day - up to 4 days. The drinks have a high content of vitamins B5 (1.11 mg/100 g), PP (0.43) and C (0.18 mg/100 g). Amino acid content in drinks (descending valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, glutamic acid, tryptophan). Formulations of four drinks have been developed, their flavor profiles have been determined.

References
1. Itogi raboty predprijatij RF po proizvodstvu piva, bezalkogol'nyh i alkogol'nyh napitkov, sokov, vinodel'cheskoj produkcii i spirta za janvar'-dekabr' 2019 g. [Results of the work of enterprises of the Russian Federation for the production of beer, soft and alcoholic beverages, juices, wine products and alcohol for January-December 2019]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:4-5. (In Russ.)
2. Itogi raboty predprijatij RF po proizvodstvu piva, bezalkogol'nyh i alkogol'nyh napitkov, sokov, vinodel'cheskoj produkcii i spirta za janvar'-ijun' 2020 g. [Results of the work of enterprises of the Russian Federation for the production of beer, soft and alcoholic beverages, juices, wine products and alcohol for January-June 2020]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;3:4-5. (In Russ.)
3. Pomozova VA. Tehnologija slaboalkogol'nyh napitkov: teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty [Low alcohol beverage technology: theoretical and practical aspects]. Dr. techn. sci. diss. Kemerovo; 2002. 391 p. (In Russ.)
4. GOST R 57594-2017. Medovuhi. Obshhie tehnicheskie uslovija [State Standard 57594-2017. Mead. General specifications]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2018. 13 p. (In Russ.)
5. Ermolaeva GA, Shagiev MJu. Napitok s antioksidantnymi svojstvami na osnove Clitoria ternatea, gibiskusa i lichi [A drink with antioxidant properties based on Clitoria ternatea, hibiscus and lychee]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;2:50-54. (In Russ.)
6. GOST 6687.4-86. Napitki bezalkogol'nye, kvasy i siropy. Metod opredelenija kislotnosti [State Standard 6687.4-86. Non-alcoholic drinks, kvasses and syrups. Method of acidity determination]. Moscow: IPK Izdatel'stvo standartov; 1998. 4 p. (In Russ.)
7. Ermolaeva GA. Spravochnik rabotnika laboratorii pivovarennogo predprijatija [Brewery Lab Handbook]. Saint-Petersburg: Izd-vo Professija; 2004. 535 p. (In Russ.)
8. Ovcharenko AS, Velichko NA, Ivanova OV. Funkcional'nyj napitok na osnove plodoovoshhnogo i jagodnogo syr'ja Vostochnoj Sibiri [Functional drink based on fruits and vegetables and berries from Eastern Siberia]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2019;3:38-42. (In Russ.)
9. Frolova OV, Danilovceva AB. Obosnovanie razrabotki novyh napravlenij v tehnologii pivnyh napitkov [Rationale for the development of new directions in technology beer drinks]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2012;6:35-39. (In Russ.)
10. Nikolaeva Ju. Med, propolis, perga i drugie produkty pchelovodstva ot vseh boleznej [Honey, Propolis, Bee Bread and other Beekeeping Products for all Diseases]. Moscow: RIPOL klassik; 2011. 191 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Ermolaeva Galina A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
LLC "BAS Group",
Povarskaya Str. 31/29 P, VI, 9, office 35, Moscow, Russia, 121069, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Skomorokhov Nikita S., Post graduated;
Koltsova Kristina O.
Moscow State University of Food Production
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, Russia, 125080



Andryevskaya D.V., Zakharov M.A., Ulyanova E.V., Trofimchenko V.A.The Influence Investigation of Sugar-containing Raw Materials on the Rest (Aging) Process of Alcoholic Beverages Blends

P. 16-20 Key words
glucose-fructose syrups; cognacs; organoleptic characteristics; bottling resistance; alcoholic beverages; physicochemical indicators.

Abstract
The criteria for assessing the quality of alcoholic beverages, including cognacs, is a set of physicochemical and organoleptic indicators, which, as you know, depend on the composition of the materials included in the blend. One of the reasons for the formation of sediment in the finished product is the increased content of minerals in white sugar, introduced into the blend in the form of sugar syrup. In this regard, the purpose of this work was to study the effect of various sugar-containing raw materials on the processes occurring during rest (aging) of cognac blends. The objects of research are cognac blends prepared using glucose-fructose syrups (GFS) of various trade marks. Comparative samples are blends prepared using sugar syrup. The finished blends were retained to rest, during which they were monitored for their physicochemical parameters, bottling resistance and organoleptic characteristics. It was found that the use of glucose-fructose syrups in alcoholic beverages blends as a sugar-containing raw material did not have a negative effect on the formation of the finished product's typical consumer properties. During rest the concentration of intermediate esters in blends containing GFS from wheat starch, in comparison with other samples slightly increased. In organoleptic evaluation, cognac blends prepared using GFS from wheat starch had a higher tasting score than samples containing GFS from corn starch and sugar syrup (control). It is shown that the use of GFS in the composition of blends of cognacs can reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the finished product by an average of 30%. The results obtained allow us to consider glucose-fructose syrups as an additional raw material in the production of cognacs.

References
1. Oganesyants LA, Lineczkaya AE, Danilyan AV. Problema stabilizatsii kon'yakov [The problem of stabilizing cognacs]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Winemaking and viticulture]. 2005;1:24-25. (In Russ.)
2. Khristiuk VT, Berezhnaya AV, Ageeva NM. Sostav osadkov kon'yakov i prichiny ih obrazovaniya [The composition of cognac sediments and the reasons for their formation]. [Proceedings of universities. Food technology]. 2003;5-6:129. (In Russ.)
3. Ageeva NM, Popandopulo VG, Kozhanova TS, [et al.]. Vliyanie kachestva sakhara na ustoichivost' vinodel'cheskoi produktsii k pomutneniyam (Na primere sostavleniya i otsenki rozlivostoikosti kupazhei kon'yakov) [Effect of sugar quality on the resistance of wine products to haze (Using the example of compiling and evaluating the bottling resistance of cognac blends)]. Sbornik trudov konf.: Novatsii i effektivnost' proizvodstvennykh protsessov v vinogradarstve i vinodelii [Proceedings of the conference: Innovations and efficiency of production processes in viticulture and winemaking]. 2005 (2):147-150. (In Russ.)
4. Chernyavskaya LM, Mokanyuk YuA, Kuxar VI, [et al.]. Soderzhanie zol'nykh elementov v belom sakhare, metody ikh kontrolya i snizheniya [Content of ash elements in white sugar, methods of their control and reduction]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2017;11:40-47. (In Russ.)
5. Chugunova LS, Kazakova SI. Kachestvo sakhara-peska, proizvodimogo sakharnymi zavodami Rossii [Quality of sand sugar produced by Russian sugar plants]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2006;2:42-43. (In Russ.)
6. Gol'dshtein VG, Kulikov DS, Strakhova SA. Perspektivy glubokoi pererabotki zerna pshenitsy [Prospects for deep processing of wheat grains]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018;7:14-19. (In Russ.)
7. Aksenov VV. Vnedrenie innovatsionnykh tekhnologii v pererabotku zernovogo syr'ya [Introduction of innovative technologies in processing of grain raw materials]. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin KrasGAU]. 2012;2: 208-212. (In Russ.)
8. Xuzin FK, Yamashev TA, Kanarskaya ZA, [et al.]. Vliyanie razlichnykh podslashchivayushchikh veshchestv na brodil'nuyu aktivnost' drozhzhei [Effect of various sweeteners on yeast fermentation activity]. Khleboprodukty [Bakery products]. 2013;8:36-338. (In Russ.)
9. Gnezdilova AI, Muzykantova AV, Vinogradov YuV. Molochnyj koncentrirovannyj sladkij produkt [Concentrated Sweet Product]. Molochnokhozyaistvennyi vestnik [Dairy Bulletin]. 2017;1 (25), I quarter:84-90. (In Russ.)
10. Starovoitova OV, Mukhametzyanova EYu, Reshetnik OA. Glyukozko-fruktoznyj sirop v proizvodstve muchnogo konditerskogo izdeliya [Glucose-fructose syrup in the production of flour confectionery]. Vestnik tekhnolo­gicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Technological University]. 2017;20 (22):131-134. (In Russ.)
11. Chusova AE, Romanyuk TI, Agafonov GV, [et al.]. Napitok dlya diabetikov [A drink for diabetics]. Innovats. resheniya pri pr-ve produktov pitaniya iz rastit. syr'ya: materialy mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. [Innovats. solutions for the production of food from grows. raw materials: Proceedings of the int. scientific-practical conf.]; 2014; Voronezh. Voronezh: Voronezh. state un-t engineer. Technologies; 2014. p. 129-134. (In Russ.)
12. Zajnullin RA, Kunakova RV, Kirsanov VYu. Vliyanie glyukozno-fruktoznogo siropa na osobennosti brozheniya drozhzhej Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Effect of glucose-fructose syrup on yeast fermentation features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. [Beer and beverages]. 2013;6:46-48. (In Russ.)
13. GOST 31732-2014. Kon'yak. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standart 31732-2014. Cognac. General technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2015. 5 p. (In Russ.)
14. GOST 31728-2014. Distillyaty kon'yachnye. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standart 31728-2014. Cognac distillates. Technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2015. 5 p. (In Russ.)
15. GOST 32051-2013. Produkciya vinodel'cheskaya. Metody organolepticheskogo analiza [State Standart 32051-2013. Wine products. Organoleptic analysis methods]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2013. 13 p. (In Russ.)
16. Sbornik mezhdunarodnyh metodov analiza i ocenki vin i susel. [Collection of international methods of analysis and evaluation of wines and musts]. Moscow: Food industry; 1993. 166-180 p. (In Russ.)
17. GOST 33407-2015. Kon'yaki, distillyaty kon'yachnye, brendi. Opredelenie soderzha­niya fenol'nyh i furanovyh soedinenij metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj hromatografii [State Standart 33407-2015. Cognacs, cognac distillates, brandy. Determination of the content of phenolic and furan compounds by high performance liquid chromatography]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 11 p. (In Russ.)
18. GOST 33834-2016. Produkciya vinodel'cheskaya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazohromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii letuchih komponentov. [State Standart 33834-2016. Wine products and raw materials for their production. Gas chromatographic method for determining the mass concentration of volatile components]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 11 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Andryevskaya Darya V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Zakharov Maksim A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Ulyanova Ekaterina V., Candidate of Chemical Science;
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Eliseev M.N., Belkin Y. D., Lokutina O.V., Kosareva O.A.The Light Rum - Quality and Consumer Properties

P. 21-25 Key words
aldehydes; higher alcohols; taste and aroma descriptors; light rum.

Abstract
Currently, there is a wide variety of rums, which are distinguished by color (light, golden and dark), strength (heavy and light), aging, aromatic additives, manufacturer, etc. However, despite the growing popularity of rum in the Russian alcohol market, there is not enough information about this drink for both the consumer and the regulatory documentation. It causes difficulties with identifying and control its quality. The article presents study of varieties of light rum on organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters. In order to visualize the reached results, circular diagrams of aroma and taste have been build for a graphical representation of the sensory profile. The study revealed that all samples of light rums meet the requirements of the standard for the mass concentration of aldehydes. The composition of the studied higher alcohols is dominated by 1?propanol, isobutanol, 2?methylbutanol and 3?methylbutanol. The ratio of these compounds directly depends on the raw material composition. In small quantities, these compounds are involved in the formation of the taste and aroma of the drink. According to the results of the organoleptic analysis, the sample with the highest concentration of complex esters has the sharpest aroma in comparison with other samples of rums. It has an aroma that is reflected in the aroma profilogram by the values of the following descriptors: spicy and woody. The presence of toxic methyl alcohol in all samples of rum did not exceed the requirements of the standard value equal 0.05%. The maximum was 0.006%, which is almost an order of magnitude lower than the limit of the safe value. The authors consider that the consumer properties of rum directly depend on the composition and amount of aldehydes and higher alcohols in a drink.

References
1. Eliseev MN, Eliseeva LG (ed.). Tovarovedenie odnorodnykh grupp prodovol'stvennykh tovarov: Uchebnik [Commodity research of homogeneous groups of food products: Textbook]. Moscow: Dashkov & Co; 2019. 251-367 pp. (In Russ.)
2. Eliseev MN, Emelyanova LK, Kuzichkina TI, [et al.]. Tovarovednye svoistva svetlykh romov [Commodity properties of light Rums]. Industriya napitkov [Beverage Industry]. 2015;4:34-39. (In Russ.)
3. Eliseev MN, Emelyanova LK, Kuzichkina TI, [et al.]. Tovarovednye svoistva temnykh romov [Commodity research the properties of dark Rums]. Industriya napitkov [Beverage Industry]. 2015;6:56-60. (In Russ.)
4. Obzor rossiiskogo rynka alkogol'noi produktsii, IV kvartal 2019. Analiticheskii tsentr pri pravitel'stve Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Review of the Russian market of alcohol products, IV quarter 2019. Analytical center for the government of the Russian Federation]. [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: https://ac.gov.ru/uploads/2-Publications/_4_êâ_19_web.pdf.
5. GOST 33458-2015. Rom. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [State Standart 33458-2015. Rom. Technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2015. 5 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Eliseev Mikhail N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Belkin Yurii D., Candidate of Technical Science;
Lokutina Ol'ga V.
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36 Stremyanny Lane, Moscow, 117997, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kosareva Ol'ga A., Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow University of Industry and Finance "Synergy".
9/14, p. 1, Meshchanskaya Str., Moscow, 129090, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Fedorenko B.N., Zhitkov V.V., Ermolaev S.V.Influence of Temperature on the Synthesis of Biogas During Disposal of Beer Spent Grain

P. 26-29 Key words
biotechnology; conversion; metangenesis; temperature; energy; efficiency.

Abstract
This article is based on research results: the influence of temperature on the efficiency of biogas production in a single-phase laboratory anaerobic bioreactor for fermenting beer grains of bacterial complexes of anaerobic methanogenetic bacteria (Methanobacteriales). The results show that biogas production in the methanogenic phase occurs at higher levels at a temperature of 20…40 °C. At temperatures above 20 °C, but below 60 °C. At these temperatures, it is obvious that microbial activity is inhibited by lowering the temperature to 20 °C. Accordingly, such a lowered temperature is unfavorable for operation under conditions of acidogenic and methanogenic phases, while at moderate temperatures above 25 °C they are more favorable for increasing the efficiency of biogas production.

References
1. Abbasi T, Tauseef SM, Abbasi SA. Anaerobic digestion for global warming control and energy generation. An overview. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2012;16: 3228-3242. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.046.
2. Albertson ML, Pruden A, Oliver RT. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of biomass waste for optimized production of renewable energy and so­lids for compost. Int. Congr. Sci. 2006;1293:221-229. (In Eng.)
3. Panckhava ES, Berengarten MG, Vajnshtejn SI. Biogazovye tekhnologii. Problemy ekologii, energetiki, sel'skohozyajstvennogo proizvodstva [Biogas technology. Problems of ecology, energy, and agricultural production]. Moscow: Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj universitet inzhenernoj ekologii, ZAO "Centr "Ekoros"; 2008. 217 p. (In Russ.)
4. Pekher K. Teplovaya utilizacii pivnoj drobiny - ekonomicheski vygodnoe ispol'zovanie ekologicheski chistogo istochnika energii [Thermal utilization of brewer's grain - economically beneficial use of an environmentally friendly source of energy]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2006;5:64-65. (In Russ.)
5. Tihonravov VS. Resursosberegayushchie biotekhnologii proizvodstva al'ternativnyh vidov topliva v zhivotnovodstve: nauch. analit. Obzor [Resource-saving biotechnologies of alternative fuel production in animal husbandry: scientific analysis. review]. Moscow: FGBNU "Rosinformagrotekh"; 2011. 52 p. (In Russ.)
6. Barbanti L, Di Girolamo G, Grigatti M, [et al.]. Anaerobic digestion of annual and multi-annual biomass crops. Ind. Crops Prod. 2014;56:137-144. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.03.002.
7. Orsik LS, Sorokin NT, Fedorenko VF, [et al.]. Bioenergetika: mirovoj opyt i prognozy razvitiya [Bioenergy: global experience and development forecasts]. Moscow: Rosinformagrotekh; 2008. 403 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Fedorenko Boris N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Zhitkov Vladimir V.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ermolaev Sergey V., Candidate of Technical Science
LLC "BAS Group",
31/29 P, VI, 9, office 35, Povarskaya Str., Moscow, 121069, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Gribkova I.N., Borisenko O.A.The Hop Compounds Influence on the Beer Organoleptic Characteristics Formation During the "Cold" Hopping Method

P. 30-35 Key words
fermentation; yeast; hop compounds; hop products; cold hopping.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the organoleptic indicators formation due to water-soluble compounds of hop products. The article establishes the importance of plant raw materials in terms of their influence on the quality of beer due to the extraction and transformation of plant raw material compounds, in particular hop products. It is noted that hops have many different compounds (bitter hop acids, essential oils, polyphenols, etc.) with flavoring properties. It has been established that various methods of hopping contribute to the accumulation of various sensory nuances in taste and aroma, due to the transformation of bitter, aromatic, and other compounds under various technological conditions. The article touches upon the issues of the hop compounds conversion chemistry in the classical and "cold" type of hopping, analyzes modern scientific research devoted to the hop compounds influence on the beer quality. It is noted that the pH medium and the dissociation constant are important for the dissolution of bitter alfa- and beta-acids, as well as their isomers; a shift in pH to an alkaline zone and a decrease in the dissociation constant of acids entails a greater solubility of both bitter acids and their isomers, which affects the value and nature of the finished beer bitterness. The ether compounds migration at different intensities is shown depending on the hopping method. It is noted that the dissolution rate is influenced by the aromatic compound polarity, temperature and environment, as in the case of polyphenols, as well as the yeast presence with their ability to adsorb.

References
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2. Keukeleire D. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry. DIVULGACAO. 2020;23 (1):108-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422000000100019.
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4. Lafontaine SR. Investigating the Quality Dynamics of American Aroma Hops Intended for Dry-Hopping Beer: thesis for PhD in Food Science and Technology in Food Science and Technology. USA, 2019. 245 p. (In Eng.)
5. Takoi K, Koie K, Itoga Y, [et al.]. Biotransformation of Hop-Derived Monoterpene Alcohols by Lager Yeast and Their Contribution to the Flavor of Hopped Beer. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58:5050-5058. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1000524.
6. Yang X, Deinzer ML. Hydrolysis and reversible isomerization of humulene epoxides II and III. J. Org. Chem. 1992;57:4717-4722. (In Eng.)
7. Gernet ÌV, Gribkova IN. Vlijanije soedineniy hmelya I hmeleproduktov na sensorniy profil gotovogo piva [The hop and hop product compounds influence on the finished beer sensory profile]. XXI vek: itogi proshlogo, problem nastoyaschego plus [XXI century: results of the past, problems of the present plus]. 2020;1 (45):93-99. (In Russ.)
8. Krottenthaler M. Factors influencing the transfer of hop aroma compounds during dry hopping of lager beers. Proceedings of the 33rd EBC Congress. Glasgow, 2011. 15 p. (In Eng.)
9. Noro Y, Murakami A, Furukawa J, [et al.]. Selective adsorption of hop derived aroma substances by nonviable dry brewing yeast. Proceedings of the ASBC Annual Meeting. California, 2015. P. 255-259. (In Eng.)
10. King AJ, Dickinson JR. Biotransformation of hop aroma terpenoids by ale and lager yeasts. FEMS Yeast Research. 2003;3:53-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1567-1356(02)00141-1.
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19. McLaughlin IR, Lederer C, Shellhammer TH. Bitterness-Modifying Properties of Hop Polyphenols Extracted from Spent Hop Material. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 2008;66:174-183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/ASBCJ-2008-0619-01.
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Authors
Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Science;
Borisenko Olga A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Egorova O.S., Akbulatova D.R., Kaukhcheschvili N.E., Gryzunov A.A.Juices and Wines Biochemical Composition Features Made from Frozen Fruit Raw Materials

P. 36-41 Key words
frozen fruit raw materials; biochemical composition; cherry; defrosting methods; fruit wines.

Abstract
Cherry is the most common stone fruit crop in Russia, which is due to its biological characteristics, biochemical composition and taste of the fruit. In many countries of the world where this fruit crop is widespread, various alcoholic beverages are made from cherries: liqueurs, cordials (nalivka), tincture (nastoyka), brandy, vodkas. The most popular cherry alcoholic beverage is wine. For the wines production, in accordance with the normative and technical documentation, in addition to fresh fruits and berries, quick-frozen fruits and berries are also allowed to be used. In the process of freezing, storage at negative temperatures and defrosting, changes in the chemical composition of berries occur, which in turn affects the quality of the final product obtained from defrosted berry raw materials. The aim of this research was to study the biochemical composition of fruit wine materials produced from fresh and frozen cherry fruits. The berries were frozen at temperatures: -12 °Ñ; -18 °Ñ; -35 °Ñ. To obtain wine materials after 1 month of storage at -18 °Ñ, the fruits were defrosting in the following ways: in a room at room temperature; in the refrigerator chamber; in a microwave oven. The article presents results of studies of the physicochemical and biochemical composition of juices and wine materials obtained from fresh and thawed cherries. It has been established that the use of the studied methods of defrosting ensures the production of raw materials suitable for the production of fruit wine materials. However, no significant differences and direct stable dependences of different freezing temperatures and defrosting methods influence on changes in the biochemical composition of the studied fruit wine materials were revealed. Subject to obtaining raw materials similar in quality and biochemical composition, freezing cherries at a temperature of -35?°Ñ, as well as defrosting in a microwave oven have been recognized as economically and technologically unreasonable methods of storing and preparing raw materials for processing in order to obtain wine products, since they require additional equipment and electricity costs.

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Authors
Egorova Olesya S.;
Akbulatova Dilyara R.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kaukhcheschvili Nikolay E., Candidate of Technical Science;
Gryzunov Aleksey A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Refrigeration Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
12, Kostyakova Str., Moscow, 127422, Russia



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