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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №4/2020



INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-September, 2020

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR QUALITY PRODUCTS

Gernet M.V., Gribkova I.N.The Brewer Spent Grain Polyphenolic Compound Complex Influence on the Plant Raw Materials Fermented Beverages Storage Duration

P. 6-9 Key words
acidity; organoleptic characteristics; brewеr spent grain; polyphenolic compounds; continued storage.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the problem of preserving nutritive substances in the composition of fermented beverages based on plant raw materials through the use of extracts based on the waste of brewing production - brewer spent grain, containing a polyphenolic compound complex. The relevance of this study is given, since in the developing fermented beverages market, on the one hand, high shelf life is required, on the other hand, the safety of product biologically valuable components during the entire shelf life. Possible methods of increasing the fermented beverages shelf life are considered, their influence on the finished beverages composition is assessed. The processing secondary raw materials of brewing products studies results on the basis of previously conducted experiments are presented, a wide composition of various molecular weight polyphenols is shown, which was obtained using the previously developed technology from malt grains. Issues of fermented beverages various compounds responsible for the anti-radical properties synergism and antagonism based on plant raw materials are highlighted. As a result of the processing brewer spent grain technology, developed by the authors, it was possible to achieve enrichment of the extract by 42% rutin, by 16% phenolic acids and their derivatives; to achieve a 4-fold increase in the output of anthocyanogens in comparison with the control. The authors studied the brewer spent grains dried extract use effect on the fermented drink with the use of malt and tea raw material storage duration. On the basis of organoleptic parameters changes and acidity accumulation dynamics associated with the oxidation processes of finished drinks during storage, which, on the other hand, is controlled by polyphenols as antioxidants, it has been shown that the drink shelf life is increased by 50-60% in relation to the control due to the contained polyphenolic compounds with different molecular weights in the introduced concentrates from brewer spent grain extracts. Thus, the authors were able to substantiate an increase in the fermented beverages shelf life when the dried brewer spent grain extract was added at the blending stage without the use of heat treatment, which made it possible to preserve the nutritional properties of this beverage group.

References
1. Gernet M.V., Gribkova I.N., Kobelev K.V., [et al.]. Biotekhnologicheskie aspekty proizvodstva napitkov brozheniya s primeneniem rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Biotechnological aspects of fermented drinks production on vegetable raw materials]. Izvestiya NAN respubliki Kazahstan. Seriya geologicheskie i tekhnicheskie nauki [Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the republic of kazakhstan. Series of geology and technical sciences]. 2019;1:223-230. DOI: 10.32014/2019.2518-170X.27.
2. Osipova LA, Kaprel'yanc LV. Pasterizaciya funkcional'nyh bezalkogol'nyh i slabo­alkogol'nyh napitkov. Nauchnoe obosnovanie parametrov [Pasteurization of functional soft and low alcohol drinks. Scientific justification of parameters]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2007;4:38-39. (In Russ.)
3. Gernet MV, Hashukaeva BR, Gribkova IN, [et al.]. Vliyanie temperatury, pH i kisloroda na obrazovanie vtorichnyh produktov brozheniya pri poluchenii napitkov na osnove chaya [The temperature, pH and oxygen influence on the tea-based drinks production secondary fermentation products formation]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2017;2:10-13. (In Russ.)
4. Khashukaeva BR, Gernet MV. Osnovnye etapy tekhnologii funkcional'nyh napitkov brozheniya s ispol'zovaniem chaya [The main stages of the technology of functional fermentation drinks using tea]. Sbornik dokladov na II Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno - prakticheskoj konferencii: Inovacionnye resheniya pri proizvodstve produktov pitaniya iz rastitel'nogo syr'ya; 2016; Voronezh. PPC "Scientific book", 2016. p. 25-28. (In Russ.)
5. Omasheva ACh, Beisenbaev AYu, Urazbayeva KA, [et al.]. Issledovanie vliyanie rastitel'nyh dobavok na kachestvo lechebnogo kvasa [Study of the herbal supplements influence on the medicinal kvass quality]. Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya [Advances in modern natural science]. 2015;1:822-826. (In Russ.)
6. TR TS 029/2012. Tekhnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza "Trebovaniya bezopasnosti pishchevyh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tekhnologicheskih vspomogatel'nyh sredstv". [TR TS 029/2012. Technical regulations of the Customs Union "Safety requirements for food additives, flavorings and technological aids"]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sept 15]. Available from: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902359401. (In Russ.)
7. Gernet MV, Zakharov MA, Gribkova IN. Тhe antioxidant compounds determination of various brewer"s spent grain extracts. Scientific Study & Research: Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry. 2020;21 (2):263-270. (In Eng.)
8. Gernet MV, Gribkova IN. Vliyanie fiziko-himicheskih metodov obrabotki rastitel'nogo syr'ya na izvlechenie fenol'nyh soedinenij [The processing of plant raw materials physical and chemical methods influence on the phenolic compounds extraction]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2020;7:44-47. (In Russ.)
9. Sorokina IV, Krysin AP, Khlebnikov TB, [et al.]. Rol' fenol'nyh antioksidantov v povyshenii ustojchivosti organicheskih sistem k svobodno-radikal'nomu okisleniyu: Analit. obzor [The role of phenolic antioxidants in increasing the resistance of organic systems to free radical oxidation: Analyte. Review]. Novosibirsk: SO RAN; GPNTB, Novosib. in-t organ. Himii; 1997. 68 p. (In Russ.)
10. Kong J-M, Chia L-S, Goh N-K, [et al.]. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:923-933. (In Eng.)
11. Zemtsova AYa, Zubarev YuA, Gunin AV, [et al.]. Obshchee soderzhanie fenol'nyh veshchestv v plodah sortoobrazcov oblepihi (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) razlichnogo ekologo-geograficheskogo proiskhozhdeniya. [The phenolic substances total content in the fruits of sea buckthorn varieties (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) of various ecological and geographical origin]. Problemy botaniki Yuzhnoj Sibiri i Mongolii [Problems of botany in southern Siberia and Mongolia]. 2015;15:477-479. (In Russ.)
12. Freeman BL, Eggett DL, Parker TL. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of phenolic compounds found in navel oranges. J. Food Sci. 2010;75 (6):570-576. (In Eng.)
13. Goszcz K, Duthie GG, Stewart D., [et al.]. Bioactive polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: chemical antagonists, pharmacological agents or xenobiotics that drive an adaptive response? British Journal of Pharmacology. 2017;174:1209-1225. (In Eng.)
14. Maltsev PM, Velikaya EI, Zazirnaya MV. Tekhno-himicheskij kontrol' proizvodstva soloda i piva [Techno-chemical control of malt and beer production]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost'; 1976. 447 p. (In Russ.).
15. GOST R 55488-2013. Propolis. Metod opredeleniya polifenolov [State Standard 55488-2013. Propolis. Method for determination of polyphenols]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2014. 12 p. (In Russ.)
16. Grinev VS, Shirokov AA, Navolokin NA. Polifenol'nye soedineniya novoj biologicheski aktivnoj kompozicii iz cvetkov bessmertnika peschanogo [Polyphenolic compounds of a new biologically active composition from sandy immortelle flowers]. Himiya rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Chemistry of plant raw materials]. 2015;2:177-185. (In Russ.)
17. Tutelyan VA, Eller KI. Metody analiza minornyh biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv pishchi [Methods for the analysis of minor biologically active substances of food]. Moscow: Izd-vo "Dinastiya"; 2010. 160 p. (In Russ.)
18. Macheiner D, Adamitsch BF, Karrer F. Pretreatment and hydrolysis of BSG. Eng. Life Sci. 2003;3:401-405.
Authors
Gernet Marina V., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Gribkova Irina N., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Nikitina S.Yu., Shahov S.V., Gordienko A.S.Experience in Implementing a New Technology for the Joint Production of Rectified Ethyl Alcohol and Alcohol Distillate from Fermented Grain Raw Materials

P. 10-15 Key words
rectification installations; grain distillate; rectified alcohol.

Abstract
The analysis of patent documents and original articles dealing with the production of alcoholic distillates was carried out in the work. The peculiarities, possibilities and limitations of various methods application were discussed as well. A pilot production unit for the combined obtaining of rectified and distilled ethanol in the brew rectification system of JSC "Vitebsk distillery "Pridvinye" "OSP "Bogushevsky distillery" was described. Comprehensive experimental studies of the distillation process in the wash column apparatus were carried out. Optimal intervals for changing the main technological parameters to obtain target products with perfect organoleptic characteristics, such as pressure in the lower part of the wash column apparatus; fraction flow rate from the wash column condenser; the flow rate of reflux returned to the wash column irrigation were selected. The individual peculiarities of the distillate samples obtained and the relationship between their quality characteristics and technological parameters were identified with the sensor profile method. The sensory profiles of aroma, taste and aftertaste of three samples of distillates obtained by varying the operation modes of the wash column, as well as by the number of fractions taken from different zones of the pilot production unit and the reference sample were given. The proposed technology is proved to allow obtaining of distillates with a variety of taste and aromatic qualities in standard indirect distillation units.

References
1. Buglass AJ. Handbook of Alcoholic Beverages: Technical, Analytical and Nutritional Aspects. Chichester, U. K.: John Wiley&Sons, Ltd; 2011. 1204 p. DOI: 10.1002/9780470976524.
2. Nikitina SYu. Skhemotekhnika i metodiki rascheta bragorektifikatsionnykh ustanovok. [Circuitry and the rectification installations calculations methods]. Voronezh: VGASU; 2013. 208 p. (In Russ.)
3. Makarov SYu. Osnovy tekhnologii viski [Fundamentals of whiskey technology]. Moscow: PROBEL-2000; 2011. 196 p. (In Russ.)
4. Nikitina SYu, [et al.]. Analiticheskij kontrol' kachestva rektifikovannogo spirta, vodok i spirtovyh distillyatov [Analytical control of the quality of the rectated ethanol, water and alcohol distillates]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018;6:40-43. (In Russ.)
5. Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Sravnitel'naya harakteristika sposobov proizvodstva zernovyh distillyatov [Comparative characteristics of methods of grain distillates production]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2015;6:40-43. (In Russ.)
6. Kirillov EA. Proizvodstvo zernovogo distillyata na bragorektifikacionnyh ustanovkah iz krahmalsoderzhashchego syr'ya [Рroduction of grain distillates of starch-containing raw material at the rectification installation]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2016;3:22-24. (In Russ.)
7. Kirillov EA, [et al.]. Sposoby proizvodstva zernovogo distillyata na bragorektifikacionnyh ustanovkah nepreryvnogo dejstviya [Methods of production of grain distillate on bragorectification installations of continuous operation]. Sovremennye biotekhnologicheskie processy, oborudovanie i metody kontrolya v proizvodstve spirta i spirtnyh napitkov: Sbornik trudov [Modern biotechnological processes, equipment and control methods in the production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages: Proceedings of the conference]. Moscow, 2017, pp. 80-86. (In Russ.)
8. Nikitina SYu. Sposob sovmestnogo polucheniya rektifikovannogo etilovogo spirta i zernovogo distillyata [A method for joint production of rectified ethyl alcohol and grain distillate]. Russia patent RU 2666912. 2018.
Authors
Nikitina Svetlana Yu., Doctor of Technical Science;
Shahov Sergey V., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19 Revolution Avenue, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gordienko Aleksandr S.
JSC "Vitebsk distillery "Pridvinye",
45 Revolyutsionnaya Str., Vitebsk, 210001, Belarus Republic, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tochilina R.?P., Sklepovich T.S., Saryan A.Sh., Samoilova E.Yu., Pashkova I.N.Metrological Characteristics of the Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic acids in Non-alcoholic and Low-alcohol Products

P. 16-20 Key words
certified mixtures; non-alcoholic products; benzoic acid; calibration characteristic; mass concentration; metrological characteristics; low-alcohol products; sorbic acid; spectrophotometric method.

Abstract
In the technology of production of non-alcoholic and low-alcohol products in accordance with TR TC 029/2012 "Requirements for the safety of food additives, flavorings and technological aids" to increase microbiological stability, it is allowed to use food additives: preservative E220 (sorbic acid, SA) and soluble salts of sorbic acid, and preservative E210 (benzoic acid, BA) and its soluble salts. The concentration of SA, BA and their salts introduced into the products is limited. To control the content of SA and BA, standard methods are currently used on the territory of the Russian Federation, using the method of capillary electrophoresis (SCEP) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The use of SCEP and HPLC requires rather expensive special equipment and consumables, and specially trained personnel to operate these devices. Analysis of the current methods for determining SA and BA in beverages showed that the determination of the above food additives in samples of non-alcoholic products (BAP) and low-alcohol products (SAP) using spectrophotometry does not require special consumables and expensive equipment; therefore, a spectrophotometric method for the determination of these preservatives was chosen. The metrological characteristics of the developed spectrophotometric method for determining the mass concentration of sorbic acid and benzoic acid in low-alcohol and non-alcoholic products, including the metrological characteristics of certified mixtures of SC and BA of various concentrations, are presented. The developed technique is registered in the Federal Information Fund for Ensuring the Uniformity of Measurements.

References
1. GOST 28188-2014. Napitki bezalkogol'nyye. Obshchiye tekhnicheskiye usloviya. [State Standard 28188-2014. Non-alcoholic drinks. General technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2015. 7 p. (In Russ.)
2. GOST R 52700-2018. Napitki slabo­alkogol'nyye. Obshchiye tekhnicheskiye usloviya. [State Standard R 52700-2018. Low alcohol drinks. General technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2018. 6 p. (In Russ.)
3. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Gernet MV, [et al.]. Tekhnologiya bezalkogol'nykh napitkov: ucheb. dlya vuzov [Soft drink technology: textbook. for universities]. Saint-Petersburg: GIORD; 2012. 344 p. (In Russ.)
4. Rodionova LYa, Ol'khovatov YeA, Stepovoy AV. Tekhnologiya bezalkogol'nykh i alkogol'nykh napitkov: uchebnik [Technology of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages: textbook]. Saint-Petersburg: Lan; 2020. 344 p. (In Russ.)
5. TR TS 029/2012. Tekhnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza "Trebovaniya bezopasnosti pishchevyh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tekhnologicheskih vspomogatel'nyh sredstv". [TR TS 029/2012. Technical regulations of the Customs Union "Safety requirements for food additives, flavorings and technological aids"]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sept 15]. Available from: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902359401. (In Russ.) 6. Tochilina RP, Sklepovich TS. K voprosu opredeleniya konservantov v obraztsakh bezalkogol'noy i slaboalkogol'noy produktsii [To the question of determining preservatives in samples of non-alcoholic and low-alcohol products]. Aktual'nyye voprosy industrii napitkov [Actual issues of the beverage industry]. 2019;3:219-224. DOI: 10.21323/978-5-6043128-4-1-2019-3-219-224. (In Russ.)
7. FR. 1.31.2018.32353. Metodika izmereniy massovoy kontsentratsii sorbinovoy kisloty v vinodel'cheskoy produktsii spektrofotometricheskim metodom Svidetel'stvo ob attestatsii № 205-19/RA/RU/311787/2016/2018 [FR. 1.31.2018.32353. Methods for measuring the mass concentration of sorbic acid in wine products by the spectrophotometric method Certificate of Attestation No. 205-19/RA/RU/311787/2016/2018]. (In Russ.)
8. GOST 32001-2012. Produktsiya alkogol'naya i syr'ye dlya yeye proizvodstva. Metod opredeleniya massovoy kontsentratsii letuchikh kislot [State Standard 32001-2012. Alcoholic products and raw materials for their production. Method for determining the mass concentration of volatile acids]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2014. 6 p. (In Russ.)
9. Gibertini [Internet]. [cited 2020 Oct 15]. Available from: https://www.gibertini.com/en/product/super-dee/.
10. Tochilina RP, Sklepovich TS. Primeneniye spektrofotometrii pri opredelenii konservantov v slaboalkogol'noy i bezalkogol'noy produktsii [The use of spectrophotometry in the determination of preservatives in low-alcohol and non-alcoholic products]. Aktual'nyye voprosy industrii napitkov [Actual issues of the beverage industry]. 2019;3:225-228. (In Russ.)
11. Braun D, Floyd A, Seynzberi M. Spektroskopiya organicheskikh veshchestv [Spectroscopy of organic substances]. Moscow: Mir; 1992. 300 p. (In Russ.)
12. Tochilina RP, Sklepovich TS, Zakharov MA. Opredeleniye massovoy kontsentratsii benzoynoy kisloty v bezalkogol'noy i slaboalkogol'noy produktsii spektrofotometricheskim metodom [Determination of the mass concentration of benzoic acid in non-alcoholic and low-alcohol products by the spectrophotometric method]. Vestnik VGUIT [Proceedings of VSUET]. 2020;82 (3):117-122. DOI:10.20914/2310-1202-2020-3-117-122. (In Russ.)
13. RMG 60-2003. Gosudarstvennaya sistema obespecheniya yedinstva izmereniy. Smesi attestovannyye. Obshchiye trebovaniya k razrabotke [RMG 60-2003. State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Mixtures are certified. General requirements for development]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2007. (In Russ.)
Authors
Tochilina Regina P., Сandidate of Тechnical Science;
Sklepovich Tatyana S.;
Saryan Anaida Sh.;
Samoilova Elena Yu.;
Pashkova Irina N.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Dubinina E.V., Trofimchenko V.A., Zakharov M.A., Zakharova V.A.Regulation of the Methanol Concentration in Distillate from Cornel Fruits

P. 21-24 Key words
distillation; methanol; operating parameters; fermented cornel fruits pulp; physical and chemical composition.

Abstract
The concentration of methanol in alcoholic beverages based on fruit distillates is significantly higher than in cognac, whiskey or rum. It depends both on the type of fruit raw materials and on the features of the adopted technology. This work is devoted to study the influence of physico-chemical composition of fermented cornel fruits pulp on the dynamics of changes in the concentration of methanol at its distillation and identification of the operating parameters of distillation, providing the minimum methanol content in the distillate. The objects of research were samples of fermented cornel fruits pulp alcoholized with ethyl alcohol-rectification to various strengths, fermented pulp alcoholized with cornel fruits distillate, as well as samples of distillate fractions. It was found that during the distillation of cornel fruits pulp, the concentration of methanol decreases in the initial period and increases sharply at the end of distillation - in the tail fraction. The minimum concentration of methanol during the entire process was recorded during the distillation of pulp alcoholized with ethyl alcohol to 18-24% vol. Adding cornel fruits distillate from the previous distillation to the pulp before distillation led to a change in the nature of the methanol accumulation curve. In this case, it was concentrated to a greater extent in the middle fraction. The positive effect of phlegm delay and reduction of the distillation rate on the dynamics of changes in the methanol concentration in the average distillate fraction is shown. The following operating parameters of distillation were determined to ensure the minimum content of methanol in the product: distillation with phlegm delay on the lower plate of the reinforcing column at a speed of 5.5-3.4 cm3/min.

References
1. Jarovenko VL, [et al]. Tehnologija spirta [Alcohol technology]. Pod red. prof. V.L. Jarovenko. - M.: Kolos, "Kolos-Press", 2002, 464 p. (In Russ.)
2. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaja VA, Dubinina EV, Trofimchenko VA. Ocenka tehnologicheskih svojstv rjabiny obyknovennoj v kachestve syr'ja dlja plodovoj vodka [Evaluation of technological properties of mountain ash as a raw material for fruit vodka]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2016;9:19-22. (In Russ.)
3. Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Razrabotka tehnologii spirtnogo napitka na osnove vishnevogo distilljata [Development of technology for alcoholic beverages based on cherry distillate]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2017;4:25-28. (In Russ.)
4. Dubinina EV, Osipova VP, Trofimchenko VA. Vlijanie sposoba podgotovki syr'ja na sostav letuchih komponentov i vyhod distilljatov iz maliny [Influence of the raw material preparation method on the composition of volatile components and the yield of distillates from raspberries]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018;1:28-32. (In Russ.)
5. Oganesyants LA, Lorjan GV. Izuchenie letuchih komponentov shelkovichnyh distilljatov [Study of the volatile components of silkworm distillates]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Winemaking and viticulture]. 2015;2:17-20. (In Russ.)
6. Li Je, Piggott Dzh. Fermented beverade production New York [etc.]: Kluwer acad.: Plenum publ., cop. 2003 (Russ. ed. Panasjuk AL. Spirtnye napitki: Osobennosti brozhenija i proizvodstva. Saint Petersburg: Professija, 2006. 552 p.) (In Russ.)
7. GOST 32160-2013. Distilljat fruktovyj (plodovyj). Tehnicheskie uslovija [State Standart 32160-2013. Fruit distillate. Speci­fications]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2014. 4 p. (In Russ.)
8. Donchenko LV, Edygova SN, Kolotij TB., [et al.]. Frakcionnyj sostav pektinovyh veshhestv ajvy i dikorastushhego syr'ja [Fractional composition of pectin substances of quince and wild-growing raw materials]. Izvestija VUZOV. Pishhevaja tehnologija [News UNIVERSITIES. Food technology]. 2008;2-3:118-119. (In Russ.)
9. Sochor J, Jurikova T, Ercisli S, [et al.]. Characterization of Cornelian Cherry (Conus mas L.) genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic. Genetika. 2014;46 (3):915-924. DOI: 10.2298/GENSR1403915S.
10. Oganesyants LA, Panasjuk AL, Rejtblat BB. Teorija i praktika plodovogo vinodelija [Theory and practice of fruit winemaking]. Moscow: Promyshlenno-konsaltingovaya gruppa "Razvitie", 2012. 396 p. (In Russ.)
11. Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN, Trofimchenko VA, [et al.]. Sravnitel'naja ocenka sposobov sbrazhivanija kizila pri proizvodstve distilljatov [Comparative evaluation of the cornel berry fermentation methods in the production of distillates]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;2:45-49. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650-2020-10020 (In Russ.)
12. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaja VA, Alieva GA, [et al.]. Resursosberegajushhaja tehnologija distilljata iz vishnevoj mezgi [Resource-saving technology of distillate from cherry pulp]. Pishhevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2013;7:29-31. (In Russ.)
13. Oganesyants LA, Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV, [et al.]. Ocenka perspektiv primenenija aktivatorov brozhenija v tehnologii distilljatov iz plodov kizila [Evaluation of the fermentation activators use prospects in the technology of cornelian cherries distillates]. Polzunovskij vestnik [Polzunovsky Bulletin]. 2020;3:24-30. DOI: 10.25712/ASTU.2072-8921.2020.03.004. (In Russ.)
Authors
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Zakharov Maksim A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Zakharova Varvara A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zhitkov V.V., Ermolaev S.V.Energy Efficient Processing of Brewer Grains into Biogas

P. 25-28 Key words
biogas; beer spent grains; methane; methanobacteria; technological scheme; ultrasound.

Abstract
Beer spent grains are traditionally processed into feed products, rarely - as an energy source. In this work, studies have been carried out to intensify the production of biogas from spent grain of brewing production through the use of ultrasound for processing spent grain during the fermentation of the substrate by bacteria Methanobacteriales. The methane yield increases by 85% compared to the control (without ultrasound), the methane content in biogas is up to 60%. A technological production of biogas from spent grain by means of fermentation of its substances by methanobacteria with simultaneous sonication with the aim of increasing the yield of extractive substances from the grain and increasing the yield of biogas and methane has been developed and presented.

References
1. GOST R 54098-2010 Resursosberezhenie. Vtorichnye material'nye resursy. Terminy i opredelenija [State Standard R 54098-2010. Resources saving. Secondary material resources. Terms and definitions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2011. 13 p.
2. Haev OV, Kachmazov GS, Tuaeva AY. Vtorichnye material'nye resursy pri prigotovlenii piva po sposobu sovmeshhennogo zatiranija-fil'trovanija [Secondary material resources when brewing beer using the combined mashing-filtering method]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;3:32-36. (In Russ.)
3. Zhitkov VV, Fedorenko BN. Vlijanie ul'tra­zvuka na obrazovanie biogaza pri utilizacii pivnoj drobiny [Influence of ultrasound on biogas formation during utilization of brewer's grain]. Pishhevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2020;1:18-21 (In Russ.)
4. Zhitkov VV, Fedorenko BN. Primenenie pivnoj drobiny v kachestve istochnika al'ternativnoj jenergii [Use of brewer's grains as a source of alternative energy]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020; 2:30-33. (In Russ.)
5. Zhitkov VV, Ermolaeva GA. Pivnaja drobina. BTE* = beer-to-energy [Beer grains. BTE * = beer-to-energy]. Industrija napitkov [Beverage industry]. 2013;1:18-21 (In Russ.)
Authors
Zhitkov Vladimir V.;
Ermolaev Sergey V., Candidate of Technical Science
LLC "BAS Group",
31/29, P, VI, 9, office 35, Povarskaya Str., Moscow, 121069, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Mitin S.G., Sysoev G.V., Oganesyants L.A., Sevostyanova E.M.Packaged Water Production. Status, Problems and Solutions

P. 29-32 Key words
identification; National system; packaged water; technical regulation; counterfeit.

Abstract
All over the world, drinking water is becoming an increasingly scarce resource due to overuse and environmental pollution. Access to clean and safe drinking water, according to the UN, is one of the basic human rights. In 2019, the consumption of packaged water in Russia was 50.7 liters per person per year, compared to 100 liters in European countries. On January 1, 2019, in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, the technical regulation "On the safety of packaged drinking water, including natural mineral waters" TR EAEU 044/2017 came into effect. During the transitional period, a number of positions were identified in the Regulation that need clarification and adjustment. The article discusses certain issues on mineral waters: the content of manganese and natural radionuclides in medicinal-table and medicinal mineral waters, the absence of the therapeutic effect of new groups (fluoride and slightly siliceous) of medicinal-table mineral waters. The problem of identifying falsified packaged mineral and drinking waters is considered. The proposed way to solve the problem of falsification on the market is to create a National Identification System, which includes the development of digital profiles of natural mineral and drinking waters and the introduction of a set of evaluation criteria that allow to be identified with a high degree of reliability. The work on creating a register and a database involves a large array of water quality monitoring for more than 50 indicators. The obtained results will form the basis for creating a digital profile of the source and finished product. The National Identification System will make it possible to systematize all packaged natural, both mineral and drinking water, and, most importantly, create conditions for protecting consumer rights and providing the Russian population with high-quality and safe packaged drinking water.

References
1. Uluchshenie sanitarnyh uslovij i kachestva pit'evoj vody: Obnovlenie 2015 g. i ocenka dostizhenija CRT [Improving Sanitation and Drinking Water Quality: 2015 Update and Assessment of the MDGs]. Zheneva: VOZ/UNICEF; 2015. 90 p. (In Russ.)
2. Rukovodstvo po obespecheniju kachestva pit'evoj vody, chetvertoe izdanie [Drinking water quality guidelines, fourth edition]. Zheneva: Vsemirnaja Organizacija Zdravoohranenija; 2017. 628 p. (In Russ.)
3. O sanitarno-jepidemiologicheskoj obstanovke v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2019 godu: Gosudarstvennyj doklad [On the sanitary and epidemiological situation in the Russian Federation in 2019: State report]. Moscow: Federal'naja sluzhba po nadzoru v sfere zashhity prav potrebitelej i blagopoluchija cheloveka, 2020. 299 p. (In Russ.)
4. Rahmanin Ju.A., Mihajlova R.I., Kir'janova L.F., [et al.]. Aktual"nye problemy obespechenija naselenija dobrokachestvennoj pit'evoj vodoj i puti ih reshenija [Actual problems of providing the population with good-quality drinking water and ways to solve them]. Vestnik RAMN [Bulletin of the RAMS]. 2006;4:9-17. (In Russ.)
5. TR EAJeS 044/2017. Tehnicheskij reglament Evrazijskogo jekonomicheskogo sojuza "O bezopasnosti upakovannoj pit'evoj vody, vkljuchaja prirodnuju mineral'nuju vodu" [TR EAEU 044/2017. Technical Regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union "On the safety of packaged drinking water, including natural mineral water"]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sept 10]. Available from: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/456090353. (In Russ.)
Authors
Mitin Sergey G., Doctor of Economical Science;
Sysoev Georgiy V. Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,
26, Bolshaya Dmitrovka Str., Moscow, 103426, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS;
Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Harlamova L.N., Dubinina E.V., Trofimchenko V.A., Rotaru I.A., Chistova A.A.Influence of Individual Indicators of The Physical And Chemical Composition of Red Wine Materials on The Secondary Fermentation Process

P. 33-37 Key words
nitrogenous compounds; wine materials; secondary fermentation; red sparkling wines, phenolic substances; physical and chemical composition.

Abstract
The aim of the work was to scientifically substantiate the development of additional criteria for assessing the quality of red wine materials for sparkling wines based on a comparative assessment of the effect of the physical and chemical composition of the original batch mixture on the secondary fermentation process. As objects of research, we used four samples of the circulation mixture prepared from red and pink dry table wine materials produced at the enterprises of the Russian Federation. The preparation of the batch mix and secondary fermentation in bottles was carried out in accordance with the current regulatory documentation. In the process of secondary fermentation, the pressure of carbon dioxide in the bottle was monitored, as well as the change in strength, mass concentration of sugars, amine and ammonia nitrogen, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, dynamic stability of the double-sided film of champagne wine. It was found that the most intense secondary fermentation took place in samples with a mass concentration of phenolic substances in the initial blend in the range from 1129 to 1635 mg/dm3 and a total concentration of nitrogenous compounds in the range of 730-750 mg/dm3, which made it possible to obtain sparkling wine with high organoleptic characteristics. The results of the study showed that the processes of secondary fermentation in the production of red sparkling wines are most influenced by the mass concentration of phenolic and nitrogenous compounds present in the original wine materials and the circulation mixture. The data obtained showed the need for more in-depth studies aimed at determining the limits of variation of such additional indicators of the quality of the original red wine materials as the mass concentration of phenolic substances, amine and ammonia nitrogen and the amount of free amino acids.

References
1. Makarov AS, [et al.]. Fiziko-himicheskie pokazateli vinograda krasnyh introducirovannyh sortov [Physicochemical indicators of grapes of red introduced varieties]. Plodovodstvo i vinogradarstvo Yuga Rossii [Fruit growing and viticulture of the South of Russia]. 2015;33 (03). [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sept 29]. Available from: http://journal.kubansad.ru/pdf/15/03/10.pdf. (In Russ.)
2. Makarov AS, [et al.]. Vliyanie sposoba pererabotki vinograda po-krasnomu na fiziko-himicheskie i organolepticheskie pokazateli vinomaterialov i igristyh vin [The influence of the method of processing grapes in red on the physicochemical and organoleptic indicators of wine materials and sparkling wines]. "Magarach". Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie ["Magarach". Viticulture and winemaking]. 2013;4:25-27. (In Russ.)
3. Makarov AS, [et al.]. Tekhnologicheskaya ocenka krasnyh sortov vinograda dlya proizvodstva igristyh vinomaterialov [Technological assessment of red grape varieties for the production of sparkling wine materials]. "Magarach". Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie ["Magarach". Viticulture and winemaking]. 2015;1:24-26. (In Russ.)
4. Ageeva NM, Guguchkina TI, Kashkara KE, Kashkara GG, Burda VE. Sposob proizvodstva krasnogo molodogo igristogo vina [Method for the production of red young sparkling wine]. Russia patent RU 2662961. 2018.
5. Oganesyants LA, Rejtblat BB, Chaplikene VI. Sposob proizvodstva krasnyh i(ili) rozovyh igristyh vin [Method for the production of red and / or rose sparkling wines.]. Russia patent RU 2188860. 2002.
6. Makarov AS, [et al.]. Osobennosti proizvodstva krasnyh i rozovyh igristyh vin [Features of the production of red and ros? sparkling wines]. "Magarach". Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie ["Magarach". Viticulture and winemaking]. 2014;3:23-25. (In Russ.)
7. Makarov AS, [et al.]. Kombinirovannoe vozdejstvie na mezgu nagrevaniya i vakuuma pri proizvodstve vinomaterialov dlya krasnyh igristyh vin [The combined effect of heating and vacuum on the pulp in the production of wine materials for red sparkling wines]. Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2012;42:71-73. (In Russ.)
8. Vinogradov VA, [et al.]. Vliyanie sposoba pererabotki vinograda na penistye i igristye svojstva vin [The influence of the method of processing grapes on the foamy and sparkling properties of wines]. Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie [Viticulture and winemaking]. 2003;34:95-100. (In Russ.)
9. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Sovershenstvovanie ocenki kachestva stolovyh vinomaterialov dlya igristyh vin [Improving the assessment of the quality of table wine materials for sparkling wines]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2018;3:72-75. (In Russ.)
10. Peschanskaya VA, [et al.]. Ocenka kachestva belyh suhih stolovyh vinomaterialov dlya proizvodstva igristyh vin [Assessment of the quality of white dry table wine materials for the production of sparkling wines]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2019;2:52-56. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650-2019-00019. (In Russ.)
11. Dubinina EV, [et al.]. Prognozirovanie kachestva igristogo vina na osnove opredeleniya znachimyh pokazatelej fiziko-himicheskogo sostava iskhodnogo vinomateriala [Predicting the quality of sparkling wine based on the determination of significant indicators of the physical and chemical composition of the original wine material]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:9-13. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650-2020-10010. (In Russ.)
12. GOST 33336-2015. Vina igristye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya. [State standart 33336-2015. Sparkling wines. General technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 12 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Harlamova Larisa N., Candidate of Technical Science;
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Rotaru Irina A.;
Chistova Aleksandra A.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kuzmina E.I., Egorova O.S., Akbulatova D.R., Rozina L.I.Changes in the Organic Acids Composition in Frozen Strawberry Wines Production

P. 38-42 Key words
frozen fruit raw materials; garden strawberries; defrosting methods; organic acids; fruit wine materials.

Abstract
Garden strawberry is one of the most profitable and economically viable berry crop in the world. In addition to fresh consumption, this crop is widely used as a raw material for processing, canning and freezing. The reason for the variety of strawberry uses lies in their chemical composition. The fruits of rapid freezing after defrosting are used in the canning industry, in wine drinks, fruit vodkas, and sweet tinctures production. The use of frozen fruits after defrosting is also possible for the high-quality fruit wines and ciders production. Organic acids influence the formation of the wine taste, participate in the creation of its bouquet, impart pleasant freshness and protect against various kinds of diseases. The aim of this research was to study the change in the organic acids composition in fruit juices and wine materials obtained from garden strawberry frozen at three different temperatures: -12, -18, -35 °С. After freezing, all berries were stored for 1 month at a temperature of -18 °С. Frozen fruits were defrosting in three ways: in air; in the refrigerating chamber; in a microwave oven. As a result of the studies, it was found that the qualitative composition of organic acids in all samples of wine materials from fresh and defrosted berries of garden strawberry differs slightly and is mainly represented by citric, malic, succinic and oxalic acids. The quantitative content of organic acids differs by the accumulation of malic acid in the wine materials as a result of the wort from defrosted berries fermentation, while during the wort from fresh berries fermentation, the content of malic acid decreases. There were also significant differences in the succinic acid synthesis, its concentration in the control wine material was on average 2 times higher than in wine materials from defrosted berries. On average, the total content of organic acids in wine materials from fresh berries is 2.2 g/dm3 lower than in experimental samples from defrosted strawberry. Probably, such differences in the accumulation of organic acids are caused by the enzymes activation, the metabolic processes specificity, the intensification and change in the sequence of biochemical reactions as a result of freezing and subsequent strawberries defrosting.

References
1. Ministerstvo sel'skogo khozyaistva Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Ministry of agriculture of the Russian Federation] [Internet]. [cited 2020 Oct 9]. Available from: https://mcx.gov.ru/press-service/news/v-rossii-k-nachalu-leta-sobrano-bolee-750-tonn-klubniki/.
2. Osnovy tekhnologii promyshlennogo proizvodstva zemlyaniki sadovoi [The basic technology of industrial production of the strawberries] [Internet]. [cited 2020 Oct 14]. Available from: https://agrarnyisector.ru/sadovodstvo/pro-zemlyaniku-sadovuyu/osnovy-tekhnologii-promyshlennogo-proizvodstva-zemlyaniki-sadovojj.html.
3. Bystroe zamorazhivanie plodov i yagod [Fast freezing of fruits and berries] [Internet]. [cited 2020 Oct 14]. Available from: http://konservirovanie.su/books/item/f00/s00/z0000001/st021.shtml.
4. Khapova CA, Molyakova TA. Sortovye resursy fragaria ananassa posle defrostatsii [Varietal resources of fragaria ananassa after defrosting]. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii [Fruit and berry growing in Russia]. 2012:31 (2):292-298. (In Russ.)
5. Mukailov MD, Ulchibekova NA, Kurbanov MS. Izmenenie khimicheskogo sostava yagod zemlyaniki (fragaria ananassa l.) pri nizkotemperaturnom zamorazhivanii i khranenii [Changes in the chemical composition of strawberry berries (fragaria ananassa l.) during low-temperature freezing and storage]. Izvestiya Timiryazevskoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi akademii [News of the Timiryazev agricultural Academy]. 2017;2:118-125. (In Russ.)
6. Kazantseva MA, Yarushin AM. Primenenie zamorozhennykh yagod v proizvodstve kupazhirovannykh sokov [Use frozen berries in the production of blended juices]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2009;2:36-37. (In Russ.)
7. Ulchibekova NA. Proizvodstvo bystrozamorozhennykh produktov iz zemlyaniki: monografiya [The production of frozen products of wild strawberries: monography]. Makhachkala: IP "Magome­dalieva S.?A."; 2016. 156 p. (In Russ.)
8. Muchkin EV, Kaukhcheshvili NE, Gryzu­nov AA. Bezopasnoe sokhranenie plodoovoshchnogo syr'ya v zamorozhennom sostoyanii, gotovogo k upotrebleniyu bez obyazatel'noi teplovoi obrabotki [Safe preservation of fruit and vegetable raw materials in a frozen state, ready for use without mandatory heat treatment]. Prakticheskie aspekty sezonnogo proizvodstva morozhenogo i zamorozhennoi produktsii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Practical aspects of seasonal production of ice cream and frozen products: Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference]; 2008; Moscow. Moscow, 2008. P. 22-23. (In Russ.)
9. Shirshova AA, Filimonov MV. Ispol'zovanie plodov i yagod dikorastushchikh i kul'turnykh rastenii v kachestve syr'ya dlya vinodeliya [Use of fruits and berries of wild and cultivated plants as raw materials for winemaking]. Plodovodstvo i vinogradarstvo Yuga Rossii [Fruit and viticulture in the South of Russia]. 2015;31 (1):139-152. (In Russ.)
10. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz chernoi smorodiny [Method of production of distillate from black currant]. Russia patent RU 2609659 C1. 2017.
11. Oganesyants LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, [et al.] Otsenka tekhnologicheskikh svoistv ryabiny obyknovennoi dlya proizvodstva spirtnykh napitkov [Evaluation of technological properties of mountain ash for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of agricultural raw materials]. 2016;9:19-22. (In Russ.)
12. Sharoglazova LP, Velichko NA. Razrabotka retseptur sladkikh nastoek s ehkstraktom i sokom iz plodov moroshki [Development of recipes for sweet tinctures with extract and juice from cloudberry fruits]. Vestnik KRASGAU [KRASGAU Bulletin]. 2016;6 (117):99-104. (In Russ.)
13. Rozina LI, Egorova OS, Akbulatova DR, Pelikh LA. Osobennosti biokhimicheskogo sostava vin iz zamorozhennoi zemlyaniki [Features of the biochemical composition of wines from frozen strawberry]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;3:54-58. (In Russ.)
14. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Reitblat BB. Teoriya i praktika plodovogo vinodeliya [Theory and practice of fruit winemaking]. Moscow: Promyshlenno-konsaltingovaya gruppa "Razvitie"; 2011. 396 p. (In Russ.)
15. Panasyuk AL, Kuzmina EI, Egorova OS. Izmenenie soderzhaniya organicheskikh kislot pri proizvodstve plodovykh napitkov i vin [Changes in the content of organic acids in the production of fruit drinks and wines]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2014;2:36-38. (In Russ.)
16. Panasyuk AL, Kuzmina EI, Egorova OS. Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya zamorozhennogo plodovogo syr'ya dlya proizvodstva vinodel'cheskoi produktsii [Prospects of the frozen fruit raw materials use for the wine products production]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food Industry]. 2020:9:58-63. (In Russ.)
17. Filatova TA. Khimiko-tekhnologicheskie pokazateli prigodnosti sortov yagod zemlyaniki sadovoi k zamorazhivaniyu i khraneniyu [Chemical and technological indicators of suitability of strawberry varieties for freezing and storage]. Cand. tekhn. sci diss. Saint-Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of low-temperature and food technologies, 2005. 172 p. (In Russ.)
18. Ulchibekova NA. Vliyanie zamorazhivaniya i nizkotemperaturnogo khraneniya na soderzhanie sakharov i kislot v yagodakh zemlyaniki [The influence of freezing and low temperature storage on the content of sugars and acids in strawberries]. Nauchno-metodicheskii ehlektronnyi zhurnal "Kontsept" [Scientific and methodological electronic journal "Concept"]. 2015;13:2026-2030. (In Russ.)
19. Prichko TG, Yakovenko VV, Germanova MG. Sortovye razlichiya khimicheskogo sostava yagod zemlyaniki krasnodarskogo kraya [Varietal differences in the chemical composition of strawberries in the Krasnodar region]. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii [Fruit and berry growing in Russia]. 2011; (27):209-219. (In Russ.)
20. Egorova OS, Tochilina RP, Kharlamova LN. Vliyanie uslovii sbrazhivaniya plodovykh sokov na soderzhanie sakharov, glitserina i kislot [Influence of fruit juice fermentation conditions on the content of sugars, glycerol and acids]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2014;5: 54-56. (In Russ.)
Authors
Kuzmina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Egorova Olesya S.;
Akbulatova Dilyara R.;
Rozina Larisa I., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION

XХIX International Forum "BEER" in Sochi

Presniakova O. P., Ermolaeva G. A. The winners of the contest brewing products "ROSGLAVPIVO® - Main Beer Of Russia 2020"