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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №3/2020

INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-June, 2020

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BEER AND BEVERAGES

Kobelev K. V., Volkova T. N., Selina I. V., Sosinova M. S.Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Low Alcohol Beer Production

P. 6-12 Key words
nonalcoholic beer; dealcoholization; non-Saccharomyces yeasts; limited fermentation; sensory; low alcohol beer.

Abstract
The interest in nonalcoholic and low alcohol beer is rapidly growing in last decade due to a number of reasons. The market share of it in the global beer industry is increasing. However, these beers, dealcoholized by physical or biological methods, both significantly differ in their organoleptic properties from standard strength beer. The main defect they have among others: decreasing in the aromatic secondary metabolites and decreasing of "body" which are result of dealcoholization processes. Attempts to improve the taste and aroma of the product led to the use of unconventional, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, due to their limited abilities to ferment wort sugars, ability to reduce the alcohol during fermentation and at the same time to form a range of flavors with a new flavor profile. In addition to the strain of Saccharomycodes ludwigii, that has been applied commercially for many years, but without best results, strains of Candida, Cyberlindnera, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Torulaspora, Zygosaccharomyces were tested, many of which were mostly known as spoilage yeasts for beer. Also, various species of yeasts isolated from Kombucha draw attention. Some of them (Lachancea fermentati, L. thermotolerans) were able to form large amounts of lactic acid during alcoholic fermentation, what is already used in winemaking. Further detailed studies of the physiological and cultural properties of new, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as chemical and sensory analysis of the beer its produce, are considered potentially extremely perspective, and will hopefully lead to creation of new drinks that satisfy the consumer demands in all respects.

References
1. Bellut K, Arendt EK. Chance and Challenge: Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Nonalcoholic and Low Alcohol Beer Brewing - A Review. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 2019;77 (2):77-91. DOI: 10.1080/03610470.2019.1569452. (In Eng.)
2. Kobelev KV, Volkova TN, Selina IV, Sozinova MS. Metody polucheniya bezalkogol'nogo i slaboalkogol'nogo piva. [Methods of alcohol-free and low alcohol beer production]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;2:24-30. (In Russ.)
3. Bellut K, Michel M, Zarnkow M, Hutzler M, Jacob F, De Schutter DP, [et al]. Application of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Isolated from Kombucha in the Production of Alcohol-Free Beer. Fermentation. 2018;4 (66):1-19. DOI: 10.3390/fermentation4030066. (In Eng.)
4. GOST 31711-2012. Pivo. Obshchije uslovija. [State Standard 31711-2012. Beer. General specifications]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2013. 12 p. (In Russ.)
5. Branyik T, Silva DP, Baszczy?ski M, Lehnert R, Almeida E, Silva JB. A review of methods of low alcohol and alcohol-free beer production. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012;108 (4):493-506. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.09.020 (In Eng.)
6. Muller M, Bellut K, Tippmann J, Becker T. Physical Methods of Dealcoholization of Beverage Matrices and Their Impact on Quality Attributes. ChemBioEng Rev. 2017;4:310-326. DOI: 10.1002/cben.201700010. (In Eng.)
7. Mangindaan D, Khoiruddin K,.Wenten IG. Beverage dealcoholization processes: Past, present, and future. Review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2018;71:36-45. DOI: 10.1016/ j.tifs.2017.10.018. (In Eng.)
8. Blanco CA, Andres-Iglesias C, Montero O. Low alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2016; 56 (8):1379-1388. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.733979. (In Eng.)
9. Non-Alcoholic Or Low Alcohol Beer Production [Internet]. [cited 2020 March 20]. Available from: https://www.whitelabs.com/news/non-alcoholic-or-low-alcohol-beer-production.
10. Kunze W, Pratt S. Technology Brewing & Malting, 4th ed. Berlin: VLB; 2010. (In Eng.)
11. Bellut K, Michel M, Hutzler M, Zarnkow M, Jacob F, De Schutter DP, [et al.]. Investigation into the Potential of Lachancea fermentati Strain KBI 12.1 for Low Alcohol Beer Brewing. J. of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 2019;77 (3):157-169. DOI: 10.1080/03610470.2019.1629227. (In Eng.)
12. Domizio P, House JF, Joseph CML, Bisson LF, Bamforth CW. Lachancea thermotolerans as an alternative yeast for the production of beer. J. Inst. Brew. 2016;122:599-604. DOI: 10.1002/jib.362. (In Eng.)
Authors
Konstantin V. Kobelev, Doctor of Technical Science;
Tat'yana N. Volkova, Candidate of Biological Science;
Irina V. Selina, Candidate of Technical Science;
Marina S. Sosinova
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Peschanskaya V. A., Andryevskaya D. V., Ulyanova E. V.Prospects for the Use of Glucose-fructose Syrups in the Production of Alcoholic Beverages

P. 13-16 Key words
glucose-fructose syrups; sugar-containing raw materials; spirits.

Abstract
Issues of improving the quality and competitiveness of domestic alcohol products have now become particularly relevant. In the production of grape-derived alcoholic beverages, white sugar is used as sugar-containing raw material, which is used at the stage of blending in the form of sugar syrup and/or sugar color in order to form specific organoleptic characteristics of the product. However, in some cases, the addition of the above-mentioned components may help to reduce the quality of the beverage, including loss of stability. Currently, glucose-fructose syrups (GFS) with a different fructose content are widely used abroad as sugar-containing raw materials. In recent years, there has been an increase in their production in our country. The purpose of this work was to compare the qualitative indicators of different types of GFS from the perspective of their use in the production of grape spirits. During the work, industrial samples of glucose-fructose syrups of various commercial brands from wheat and corn starch were investigated. Organoleptic evaluation of the samples showed the advantage of GFS in a milder taste compared to sugar syrup. Studies of the carbohydrate composition of glucose-fructose syrups confirmed the information of manufacturers of these products. The highest cation content was found in the corn starch GFS sample. Among the glucose-fructose syrups from wheat starch, a sample of "GFS 55" should be distinguished, which was distinguished by the highest content of ammonium, sodium, calcium and magnesium cations, and a sample of "GFS 42" with a maximum concentration of potassium. The obtained results require additional studies on the effect of glucose-fructose syrups on the organoleptic indices of the finished product and its bottling resistance, however, in general, it is possible to characterize GFS as a promising sugar-containing raw material for use in the production of grape spirits.

References
1. Oganesyants LA, Linetskaya AE, Danilyan AV. Problema stabilizatsii kon'yakov [The problem of stabilization of cognac]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Wine and viticulture]. 2005;1:24-25. (In Russ.)
2. Kuz'mina EI. Sakhar v proizvodstve vin i bezalkogol'nykh napitkov [Sugar in the production of wines and soft drinks]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2009;7:35-38. (In Russ.)
3. Ageeva NM, Popandopulo VG, Kozhanova TS, Drobyazko YuV. Vliyanie kachestva sakhara na ustoichivost' vinodel'cheskoi produktsii k pomutneniyam [Influence of sugar quality on the stability of wine products to turbidity]. Novatsii i effektivnost' proizvodstvennykh protsessov v vinogradarstve i vinodelii: sbornik trudov konferentsii [Innovations and efficiency of production processes in viticulture and winemaking: Proceedings of the conference]; 2005; Krasnodar. Krasnodar: Sev.?Kavk. zon. nauch.?issled. in-t sadovodstva i vinogradarstva. P. 147-150. (In Russ.)
4. Chernyavskaya LM, Mokanyuk YuA, Kukhar VI, Chernyavskii AV. Soderzhanie zol'nykh elementov v belom sakhare, metody ikh kontrolya i snizheniya [Content of ash elements in white sugar, methods of their control and reduction]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2017;11:40-47. (In Russ.)
5. Chugunova LS, Kazakova SI. Kachestvo sakhara-peska, proizvodimogo sakharnymi zavodami Rossii [Quality of granulated sugar produced by Russian sugar factories]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2006;2:42-43. (In Russ.)
6. Kanarskaya ZA, Demina NV. Tendentsii v proizvodstve sakharozamenitelei [Trends in the production of sweeteners]. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Kazan technological University]. 2012;15 (9):145-153. (In Russ.)
7. Aksenov VV. Vnedrenie innovatsionnykh tekhnologii v pererabotku zernovogo syr'ya [Introduction of innovative technologies in the processing of grain raw materials]. Vestnik KrasGAU [KrasGAU Bulletin]. 2012;2:208-212. (In Russ.)
8. Kapoguzov EA, Chupin RI, Kharlamova MS. Strukturnye izmeneniya rossiiskogo zernovogo balansa v usloviyakh antirossiiskikh sanktsii: regional'nyi aspekt [Structural changes in the Russian grain balance under anti-Russian sanctions: regional aspect]. TERRAECONOMICUS [TERRAECONOMICUS]. 2018;16 (2):122-139. (In Russ.)
9. Zainullin RA, Kunakova RV, Kirsanov VYu. Vliyanie glyukozno-fruktoznogo siropa na osobennosti brozheniya drozhzhei Saccharomyces cerevisiae [The impact of glucose-fructose syrup on the characteristics of fermentation yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 201;6:46-48. (In Russ.)
10. Gol'dshtein VG, Kulikov DS, Strakhova SA. Perspektivy glubokoi pererabotki zerna pshenitsy [Prospects for deep processing of wheat grain]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018;7:14-19. (In Russ.)
11. Aksenov VV. Kompleksnaya pererabotka rastitel'nogo krakhmalsoderzhashchego syr'ya v Rossii [Complex processing of vegetable starch-containing raw materials in Russia]. Vestnik KrasGAU [KrasGAU Bulletin]. 2007;4:213-218. (In Russ.)
12. Andreev NR, Lukin ND, Papakhin AA. Glubokaya pererabotka zerna ozimoi rzhi [Deep processing of grain of a winter rye]. Agrarnaya nauka Evro-Severo-Vostoka [Agricultural science Euro-North-East]. 2014;6 (43):9-12. (In Russ.)
13. Khuzin FK, Yamashev TA, Kanarskaya ZA, [et al.]. Vliyanie razlichnykh podslashchivayushchikh veshchestv na brodil'nuyu aktivnost' drozhzhei. [Effect of various sweeteners on the fermentation activity of yeast]. Khleboprodukty [Bread products]. 2013;8:36-38. (In Russ.)
Authors
Violetta A. Peschanskaya;
Darya V. Andrievskaya, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ekaterina V. Ulyanova, Candidate of Chemical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Êrasnovà T. A., Gorelkina À. Ê., Utrobina T. A., Timoshñhuk I. V., Chernyshev D. A.Stability of Ascorbic Acid in the Production of Beverages

P. 17-20 Key words
vitamin C; drinking water; carbonated non-alcoholic beverages; dichloroethane; trichloroethylene; phenol; ñhloroform; chlorophenol.

Abstract
Currently, water from the centralized domestic drinking water supply system is mainly used to make non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. The classical technology does not always provide the purification of water from organic compounds. In addition, during water preparation, at the primary chlorination stage, chlorine-containing organic compounds (chloroform, dichloroethane et al.) are formed due to the interaction of chlorine with natural organic substances. The by-products of natural water treatment by chloragents, in addition to the toxic and carcinogenic effects, can interact with the main components of products reducing their quality. Such water cannot be used for drinking purposes and in food production without the additional post-treatment. The results of the study of the effect of organic impurities present in water (chloroform, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, phenol, chlorophenol) on the stability of vitamin C have been provided 10 and 15 mg/100 cm3 of ascorbic acid were added to the test samples of water without organic impurities and containing organic impurities. The studies were carried out in the Kemerovo region using gas-liquid chromatography, molecular absorption spectroscopy, and capillary electrophoresis. The initial concentration of vitamin C (10 mg/100 cm3) in non-alcoholic carbonated beverages in the presence of trichloroethylene was found to decrease by 29%, dichloroethane by 39, phenol by 41, chlorophenol by 31%; initial concentration of vitamin C (15 mg/100 cm3) in the presence of trichloroethylene by 16%, dichloroethane by 20, phenol by 21, chlorophenol by 15%. It has been shown that chloroform does not come into chemical interaction with the vitamin C of beverages. The chemical interaction of organic impurities with ascorbic acid has experimentally been confirmed by a corresponding decrease in the content of trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, phenol and chlorophenol in the presence of vitamin C in water over time. The mechanism of interaction of vitamin Ñ in non-alcoholic carbonated beverages with trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, phenol and chlorophenol has been theoretically justified.

References
1. Stin DP, Jeshherst FR. Gazirovannye bezalkogol'nye napitki: receptury i proizvodstvo [Carbonated soft drinks: formulations and production]. Saint-Petersburg: Professija; 2008. 416 p. (In Russ.)
2. Sarafanova LA. Primenenie pishhevyh dobavok v industrii napitkov [The use of food additives in the beverage industry]. Saint-Petersburg: Professija; 2007. 240 ð. (In Russ.)
3. Berezovskij VM. Himija vitaminov [Vitamin Chemistry]. Moscow: Pishhevaja promyshlennost'; 1973. 632 ð. (In Russ.)
4. Timoshñhuk IV, Krasnova TA, Tumanova TA, [i dr.]. Vlijanie zagrjaznitelej na tovarovednye svojstva napitka "Tarhun" [The effect of pollutants on the merchandising properties of the "Tarkhun" drink]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2010;5:46-48. (In Russ.)
5. Krasnova TA, Timoshñhuk IV, Gorelkina AK, [et al.]. Effect of priority drinking water contaminants. Foods and Raw materials. 2018;6 (1):230-241. (In Eng.)
6. Krasnova TA, Timoshñhuk IV, Gorelkina AK, [et al.]. K voprosu formirovanija kachestva napitkov [On the issue of forming the quality of beverages]. Tehnologija i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishhevyh produktov [Technology and commodity science of innovative food products]. 2015;6:101-109. (In Russ.)
Authors
Tamara A. Krasnova, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Alena K. Gorelkina, Candidate of Chemical Science;
Tamara A. Utrobina, Candidate of Technical Science;
Irina V. Timoshchuk, Doctor of Technical Science;
Daniil A. Chernyshev
Kemerovo Institute of Food Technology (University),
47 Stroiteley boulevard, Kemerovo, 650056, Russia, eñ This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Volkova T. N., Soboleva O. A., Kovaleva I. L.Clouding Agents for Drinks: Characteristics and Properties

P. 21-27 Key words
thickeners; clouding agents (cloudifiers); beverages; stabilizers; suspensions; weighting agents; physical stability of dispersions; emulsifiers; emulsions.

Abstract
Natural fruit juices are often cloudy. To produce soft drinks with natural juice-like appearance this property often is achievable through the addition of clouding agents. The resend trend to produce cloudy beverages is now becoming more widespread. Clouding agents (cloudifiers) are food additives, and have a complex, multicomponent composition. Use of oil-in-water emulsions and suspensions of small particles is the most well established methodology utilized by the beverage industry. The surface active molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, alcohols, and surfactants, which can accumulate at the interface, participate in the stabilizing of emulsions and are also able to alter their properties. Emulsions and suspensions are thermodynamically unstable and tend to break down during storage through mechanisms such as gravitational separation, flocculation, or particle size increase by coalescence and Ostwald ripening. Therefore, special measures are needed to maintain the stability of the emulsions, at least throughout the shelf life of the drinks. The instability of emulsions in beverages is a perpetual concern facing the beverage industry. This review article describes the optical properties of cloudifiers and methods for measuring turbidity. Methods for manufacturing beverage emulsions are presented. Numerous food additives (stabilizers, weighting agents, emulsifiers, thickeners) are listed that included in the clouding agents in order to stabilize them throughout shelf life of the drink. The mechanisms of emulsion and suspension destruction by gravitational separation, flocculation and coalescence and methods of physical stability maintaining are discussed.

References
1. Stounbjerg L, Vestergaard C, Andreasen B, Ipsen R. Beverage clouding agents: Review of principles and current manufacturing. Food Reviews International. 2018: 34 (7):613-638. DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2017.137328. (In Eng.)
2. Taherian AR, Fustier P, Britten M, Ramaswamy HS. Rheology and Stability of Beve­rage Emulsions in the Presence and Absence of Weighting Agents: A Review. Food Biophysics. 2008:3:279-286. DOI 10.1007/s11483-008-9093-4. (In Eng.)
3. Zamutniteli [Clouding agents]. Jenciklopedija pitanija. 4: Pishhevye dobavki. [Food Enciclopedia. Food Additives] [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from:: https://bstudy.net/619539/estestvoznanie/zamutniteli. (In Russ.)
4. Gosselin Y, Menin R, Meulemans S. Use of a yeast protein extract to stabilise beer haze. United States Patent Application 20190161713. 2019. [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2019/0161713.html.
5. Veshhestva, regulirujushhie konsistenciju productov. Pishhevyje koncentraty i dobavki [Thickeners. Food Concentrates and Additives] [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: https://znaytovar.ru/new359.html. (In Russ.)
6. Jemu'sii: poluchenie, svoistva, razrushenie [Emulsions: manufacturing, characteristics, destruction]. Metodologicheskaja instrukcija dlja laboratornoj raboty nj. 13 [Methodological instruction for laboratory work no. 13]. Samara, 2017. [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: http://afh.samgtu.ru/sites/afh.samgtu.ru/files/emulsii-13.pdf (accessed: 10.08.20.). (In Russ.)
7. Jemul'sii: Klassifikacija, metody poluchenija i stabilizacii [Emulsions: Classification, manufacturing and stabilization methods] [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: https://lektsia.com/7x9b47.html. (In Russ.)
8. Emul'gatory [Emulsifiers]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ýìóëüãàòîðû. (In Russ.)
9. Kamed' [Gum]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Êàìåäü. (In Russ.)
10. TR TS 029/2012. Tehnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo Sojuza "Trebovanija bezopasnosti pishhevyh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tehnologicheskih vspomogatel'nyh sredstv". Prilozhenije 2. Perechen' pishhevyh dobavok, razreshennyh dlja primenenija pri proizvodstve pishhevoj produkcii [Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "Food additives, flavors and processing aids safety requirements" Appendix 2. List of food additives permitted for use in the manufacture of food products]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2012. 428 p. (In Russ.)
11. TR EAES 047/2018. Tehnicheskij Reglament Evrazijskogo jekonomicheskogo sojuza "O bezopasnosti alkogol'noj produkcii" [Technical regulations of the Eurasian economic union. "On the safety of alcoholic beverages"]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2019. 129 p. (In Russ.)
12. GOST 33310-2015. Dobavki pishhevyje. Zagustiteli pishhevyh produktov. Terminy i opredelenija [State standard 33310-2015. Food additives. Thickeners of foodstuffs. Terms and definitions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2019. 35 p. (In Russ.)
13. GOST 33782-2016. Dobavki pishhevyje. Stabilizatory pishhevyh produktov. Terminy i opredelenija. Mezhgosudarstvennyj. [State standard 33782-2016. Food additives. Stabilizers of foodstuffs. Terms and definitions]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2018. 23 p. (In Russ.)
14. Spotti ML, Cecchini JP, Spotti MJ, Carrara CR. Brea Gum (from Cercidium praecox) as a structural support for emulsion-based edible films. WT-Food Science and Technology. 2016:68:127-134. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.018. (In Eng.)
15. Ñloudix WB. Clouding agent. CBS. Beer Belgian Experts. [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: http://www.cbsbrew.com/cloudix/. (In Eng.)
16. Nejtral'naja jemulsija dlja nefil'trovannogo piva. [Neutral emulsion for unfiltered beer] [Internet]. [cited 2020 August 10]. Available from: https://aromarus.ru/a206264?nejtralnaya-emulsiya-dlya.html. (In Russ.)
Authors
Tat'yana N. Volkova, Candidate of Biological Science;
Ol'ga A. Soboleva, Candidate of Technical Science;
Irina L. Kovaleva
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Makushin A. N., Zipaev D. V., Kozhukhov A. N.Influence of Thiamine and Riboflavin on Pure Yeast Culture During the Fermentation of Beer Wort

P. 28-31 Key words
ñultivation; beer drink; brewing yeast; nutrition; riboflavin; growth; thiamine.

Abstract
The use of yeast plays a key role in the technology of beer or beer drinks. Of great importance during the cultivation of S. cerevisiae is the creation of favorable conditions for growth and reproduction, of which the nutrient medium is fundamental. The domestic and foreign literature provides many different options for the use of culture media for breeding a pure culture of brewing yeast. Scientists use various new components to create a new or improve an existing nutrient medium. The purposes of using these cultivation techniques can be very diverse. In some cases, this can be the production of productive strains of brewing yeast culture, and in others, the creation of conditions for better fermentation of beer wort in a production environment. We have made an attempt to use thiamine and riboflavin as top dressing for the cultivation of strain Saflager S-23 of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the course of research it was found that the most optimal dosage of vitamins is 4%. When using vitamins B1 and B2 at a concentration of 4%, the extract of the initial wort is 12.0 and 11.35%, respectively, and the proportion of the visible extract of the drink is 9.51 and 11.35%.

References
1. Alekseeva NP. Vse o pive [All about beer]. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya; 2006. 576 p. (In Russ.)
2. Meledina TV, Davy'denko SG, Vasil'eva LM. Fiziologicheskoe sostoyanie drozhzhej [Physiological state of yeast]. Saint-Petersburg: ITMO; 2013. 48 p. (In Russ.)
3. Marty'nov AA. Primenenie aktivatorov brozheniya "VITOL" v pivovarennoj promy'shlennosti [Application of VITOL fermentation activators in the brewing industry]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2011;1:18-19. (In Russ.)
4. Meledina TV, Davy'denko SG. Drozhzhi Saccharomyces cerevisiae morfologiya, ximicheskij sostav, metabolism [Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast morphology, chemical composition, metabolism]. Saint-Petersburg: ITMO; 2015. 88 p. (In Russ.)
5. Kotenko EA. Osobennosti drozhzhej [Features of yeast]. Moscow: Vokrug sveta; 2004. 395 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Andrey N. Makushin, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Samara State Agrarian University,
1 Uchebnaya Str., Ust-kinelsky, Kinel, Samara region, 446442, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Dmitriy V. Zipaev, Candidate of Technical Science;
Aleksandr N. Kozhukhov
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara, 443100 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Khaev O. V., Kachmazov G. S., Tuaeva A. Yu.Secondary Material Resources in the Beer Production by the Method of Combined Mashing-Filtering

P. 32-36 Key words
hydrolysis; spent grains; acid; animal feed; enzyme preparation; Ceremix 2XL.

Abstract
In the production of beer, beer and malt drinks prepared both from malt and using unmalted products, including the separate processing of malt and its substitutes, a secondary material resource is formed - grains. Nevertheless, due to the special working conditions of the combined method of mashing-filtering, the pellet contains a higher content of leachable extract and has a lower humidity than with the traditional method of preparing beer. In modern conditions, due to special attention to environmental protection, the processing of secondary material production resources is relevant. The work explored the possibility of increasing soluble solids in the pellet because of its acid-enzymatic treatment in order to increase the nutritional value by increasing the content of water-soluble extractive substances formed because of hydrolysis. Orthophosphoric acid and the enzyme preparation Ceremix 2XL were used. Complex processing of grains allowed transferring up to 30% of dry substances into reducing substances, thereby increasing the content of soluble substances in it.

References
1. Itogi raboty predprijatij RF po proizvodstvu piva, bezalkogol'nyh i alkogol'nyh napitkov, sokov, vinodel'cheskoj produkcii i spirta za janvar'-dekabr' 2019 g. [The results of the work of enterprises of the Russian Federation in the production of beer, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, juices, wine products and alcohol for January-December 2019]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:4-5. (In Russ.)
2. Haev OV, Kachmazov GS, Tuaeva AJ. Intensivnyj sposob sovmeshhennogo zatiranija-fil'trovanija v proizvodstve piva s razdel'noj obrabotkoj zlakov [Intensive method of combined mashing-filtering in beer production with separate processing of cereals]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:25-29. (In Russ.)
3. Ermolaeva GA. Spravochnik rabotnika laboratorii pivovarennogo predprijatija [Brewery Lab Employee Handbook]. Saint-Petersburg: Professija; 2004. 546 p. (In Russ.)
4. Kolmogorova EA, Ivanova OV. Ispol'zovanie pivnoj drobiny v kormlenii laktirujushhih korov [The use of beer grains in feeding lactating cows]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Stavropol'skogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo instituta zhivotnovodstva i kormoproizvodstva [Collection of scientific papers of the Stavropol research Institute of animal husbandry and feed production]. 2014;2 (7):123-126. (In Russ.)
5. Volkova AA, Ivanchenko OV, Balanov PE. Vlijanie fermentnyh preparatov na uvelichenie aminnogo azota v fermentativnom gidrolize pivnoj drobiny [The effect of enzyme preparations on the increase in amine nitrogen in the enzymatic hydrolysis of beer grains]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2010;6:13-15. (In Russ.)
6. Rudenko EJ. Sovremennye tendencii pererabotki osnovnyh pobochnyh produktov pivovarenija [Current trends in the processing of major brewing by-products] Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2007;2:66-68. (In Russ.)
7. Lazarevich AN, Lesnov AP. Pivnaja drobina v kormlenii svinej [Beer pellet in pig feed]. Svinovodstvo [Pig breeding]. 2010;8:34-36. (In Russ.)
8. Tabakov NA, Lazarevich AN, Lesnov AP. Rekomendacii po proizvodstvu i ispol'zovaniju uglevodno-belkovogo korma, poluchennogo putem biotransformacii pivnoj drobiny. [Recommendations for the production and use of carbohydrate-protein feed obtained by bio­transformation of beer grains]. Krasnojarsk; Krasnojarskij agrar. un-t. [Krasnoyarsk Agricultural University]; 2013. 54 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Oleg V. Khaev;
Gennadiy S. Kachmazov,
Candidate of Veterinary Science;
Albina Y. Tuaeva
North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov,
44-46, Vatutina Str., Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, North Caucasian Federal District, 362025, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Semipyatniy V. K., Vafin R. R., Mikhaylova I. Yu., Lazareva E. G.Molecular Genetic Analysis Method - a Way to Improve the Quality of Wine

P. 37-39 Key words
wine; grape; DNA; identification; quality; marker; PCR.

Abstract
One of the urgent problems of the alcohol industry is to ensure food safety of the quality of products sold, including wine. A characteristic feature of the modern market for alcoholic beverages is the tendency to falsify well-known brands of domestic and imported wines made from a particular grape variety. At the same time, the classical methodological bases for assessing the quality of alcoholic beverages in most cases do not have the potential to recognize many modern "technological solutions". A solution to this problem can be the DNA authentication of wines - the technological process of verifying their authenticity by genetically identifying the main plant ingredient - technical grape varieties, by means of molecular genetic analysis of the residual amounts of Vitis vinifera L. nucleic acids extracted from the cell debris of the finished product being sold. he article provides an overview of DNA marker methods for wine authentication. The material presented in the article indicates the relevance of creating an approved integrated wine identification scheme with their addition with new DNA authentication methods, which will increase the reliability of assessing the authenticity and place of origin of wine products.

References
1. Kalek K. Vino. Illyustrirovannaya enciklopediya [Wine. Illustrated Encyclopedia]. Ìoscow: Labirint Press Publ.; 2004. 320 p. (In Russ.)
2. Oganesyanc LA, Hurshudyan SA, Galstyan AG. Monitoring kachestva pishchevyh produktov-bazovyj ehlement strategii [Food quality monitoring as the basic strategic element]. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii [Product quality control]. 2018;4:56-59. (In Russ.)
3. Hurshudyan SA, Galstyan AG. Monitoring kachestva vinodel'cheskoj produkcii [Monitoring the quality of wine products]. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii [Product quality control]. 2017;8:12-13. (In Russ.)
4. Khurshudyan SA, Kharlamova LN. Opredeleniye fal'sifikatsii vina organolepticheskim metodom [Determination of wine falsification by organoleptic method]. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii [Product quality control]. 2017;7:12-14. (In Russ.)
5. Oganesyants LA, Kuzmina EI, Khurshudyan SA. Izotopnaya mass-spektrometriya v opredelenii kachestva vina [Isotopic mass spectrometry in determining the quality of wine]. Kontrol' kachestva produkcii [Product quality control]. 2017;7:15-17. (In Russ.)
6. Zaychik BT, Khurshudyan SA. Fal'sifikatsiya pishchevykh produktov v Rossii: istoriya i sovremennost' [Food fraud in Russia: history and modernity]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2009;8:22-25. (In Russ.)
7. Catalano V, Moreno-Sanz P, Lorenzi S, Grando MS. Experimental Review of DNA-Based Methods for Wine Traceability and Development of a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assay for Quantitative Varietal Authentication. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64 (37):6969-6984. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02560.
8. Baleiras-Couto MM, Eiras-Dias JE. Detection and identification of grape varieties in must and wine using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2006;563 (1-2):283-291. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2005.09.076.
9. Thomas MR, Scott NS. Microsatellite repeats in grapevine reveal DNA polymorphisms when analysed as sequence-tagged sites (STSs). Theor. Appl. Genet. 1993;86 (8):985-990. DOI: 10.1007/BF00211051.
10. Chung S-M, Staub JE. The development and evaluation of consensus chloroplast primer pairs that possess highly variable sequence regions in a diverse array of plant taxa. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2003;107 (4):757-767. DOI: 10.1007/s00122?003?1311?3.
11. Nakamura S, Haraguchi K, Mitani N, Ohtsubo K. Novel preparation method of template DNAs from wine for PCR to differentiate grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55 (25):10388-10395. DOI: 10.1021/jf072407u.
12. Pereira L, Guedes-Pinto H, Martins-Lopes P. An enhanced method for vitis vinifera L. DNA extraction from wines. Am.?J. Enol. Vitic. 2011;62 (4):547-552. DOI: 10.5344/ajev.2011.10022.
13. Oganesyants LA, Vafin RR, Galstyan AG, Semipyatniy VK, Khurshudyan SA, Ryabova E. Prospects for DNA authentication in wine production monitoring. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6 (2):438-448. DOI: 10.21603/2308?4057?2018?2?438448.
14. Oganesyants LA, Semipyatnyy VK, Vafin RR, Ryabova AE, Lazareva EG, Galstyan AG. Programma dlya opredeleniya identifikatsionnogo rasstoyaniya sortovoy prinadlezhnosti v metodikakh gennoy autentifikatsii vinomateriala [Program for determining the identification distance of varietal affiliation in the methods of gene authentication of wine material]. Certificate of registration of the computer program RU 2020612766.2020.
Authors
Vladislav K. Semipyatniy, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ramil R. Vafin, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor RAS;
Irina Yu. Mikhaylova
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ekaterina G. Lazareva
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
26 Talalikhina Str., Moscow, 109316, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Oganesyants L. A., Panasyuk A. L., Kuzmina E. I., Sviridov D. A, Likhovskoy V. V., Zagoruyko V. A., Shmigelskaya N. A., Yalanetskiy A. Ya., Ilin A. A.Geographical Place of Origin Analysis of the Crimean Peninsula Wine with the Use of Isotope Mass Spectrometry and Chemometry

P. 40-43 Key words
grapes; wine; Republic of Crimea; isotope mass spectrometry; identification; place of origin; statistical analysis methods.

Abstract
An analysis of 20 samples of fresh grapes from various wine-making regions of the Republic of Crimea was carried out. The obtained from them grape must was fermented under laboratory conditions. In wine samples, the delta13C, delta18O and deltaD values of ethanol and the delta18O of water component index were examined. The range of the oxygen isotopes ratio values of the water component is determined by geochemical factors and climatic conditions and is characteristic for a particular geographic zone. The samples researched within the work framework were in the range from 3.41 to 9.50‰. Also, 35 samples of wines from various countries (Italy, France, Spain, Argentina, South Africa, Chile) were analyzed. The obtained data were statistically processed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Levene test, and the Tukey pairwise test. The used methods made it possible to establish statistically significant differences between the data of the Crimea samples values, from the Argentina, Italy and Chile samples. For more accurate results, it is necessary to carry out annual sampling, increase the sample and expand its geographic coverage, and monitor other identification indicators. Chemometric methods are able to identify the indicators that make greatest contribution to the statistical model, which in turn will allow with high accuracy the confirmation of wine geographical place of origin.

References
1. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Kuzmina EI, Sviridov DA. Ispol'zovanie instrumental'nyh metodov analiza s cel'yu ustanovleniya geograficheskogo mesta proiskhozhdeniya vinodel'cheskoj produkcii [Modern analysis methods use in order to establish the geographic origin of food products]. Pishchevye sistemy [Food systems]. 2020;3 (1):4-9. DOI: 10/21323/2618-9771-2020-3-1-4-9. (In Russ.)
2. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Kuzmina EI, Sviridov DA. Ispol'zovanie sovremennyh instrumental'nyh metodov analiza s cel'yu ustanovleniya geograficheskogo mesta proiskhozhdeniya vinodel'cheskoj produkcii [Use of modern instrumental analysis methods for establishing geographical place of wine products origin]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2019; (4):59-64. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650-2019-10002. (In Russ.)
3. Kruskal WH, Wallis WA. Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1952; (260): 583-621. (In Eng.)
4. Tukey JW. Comparing individual means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics. 1949: 99-114. (In Eng.)
5. Levene H, Olkin I, Hotelling H. Robust tests for equality of variances. Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling. Stanford University Press. 1960: 278-292. DOI: 10.2307/2282455. (In Eng.)
Authors
Lev A. Oganesyants, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS;
Aleksandr L. Panasyuk, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Elena I. Kuzmina, Candidate of Technical Science;
Dmitriy A. Sviridov, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Vladimir V. Likhovskoy, Doctor of Agricultural Science;
Viktor A. Zagoruyko, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Nataliya A. Shmigelskaya, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking Magarach of RAS,
31, Kirova Str., Yalta, 298600, Republic of Crimea, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Anatoliy Ya. Yalanetskiy, Candidate of Technical Science
The Union of winemakers of the Crimea,
31, Kirova Str., Yalta, 298600, Republic of Crimea, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Aleksandr A. Ilin
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology,
30-1, Bolshoy Boulevard, Moscow, 121205, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Shelekhova N. V., Shelekhova T. M.Comparative Assessment of Composition of Volatile Organic Impurities Whiskey on Basis of Results Chromatographic Research

P. 44-49 Key words
whiskey; gas chromatography; identification; volatile organic impurities; methods, alcoholic beverages; falsification.

Abstract
Today, whiskey is produced in many countries of the world using various production schemes, which undoubtedly affects the chemical composition of an alcoholic drink. The lack of development of instrumental methods for identifying whiskey makes this area of research very relevant. In order to increase the efficiency of controlling and regulating the turnover of alcoholic beverages in the Russian Federation, on the basis of the gas chromatography method, a methodology for determining the composition of volatile organic impurities of whiskey has been developed, which allows us to differentiate 20 components of different classes of substances over 25 minutes. The composition of volatile organic impurities in 60 samples of whiskey produced by Armenia, Belarus, Russia, Ireland, Italy, Canada, USA, Thailand, Czech Republic, Scotland, Japan was investigated, new experimental data were obtained and systematized. It was found that in the composition of identified volatile organic impurities of whiskey, the largest content falls on isoamyl, isopropyl and isobutyl alcohols, among the esters acetic acid ethyl ester prevails, organic acids are represented by acetic acid. The revealed trend continues regardless of the country of production of whiskey. It has been found that the total concentration of identified volatile organic impurities in Irish whiskey samples ranged from 1339 to 3504 mg/dm3, in Scottish production samples from 1406 to 3905, USA from 4189 to 6082 mg/dm3. Studies of the composition of whiskey produced in Russia and Armenia from own distillates, for the preparation of which local raw materials were used, showed that for samples from Russia the range of mass concentration of volatile impurities is from 2631 to 5736 mg/dm3, for samples from Armenia from 693 to 2436 mg/dm3. The characteristic limits for varying the proportion of isoamylol from 14 to 48%, isopropanol from 12 to 57%, isobutanol alcohols from 11 to 30% are established, the proportion of ethyl acetate varies from 8 to 14%, acetic acid from 2 to 20% in the composition of identified volatile organic impurities. The methodology developed can be recommended to study the composition of volatile organic impurities of whiskey in order to establish objective criteria for detecting falsification.

References
1. Kirillov EA, Kononenko VV, Grunin EA, Solovyov AO, Alekseev AN. Proizvodstvo zernovogo distillyata na bragorektifikatsionnykh ustanovkakh iz krakhmalosoderzhashchego syrya [Production of grain distillate on distiller installations from starch-containing raw materials]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2016;3:22-24. (In Russ.)
2. Novikova IV. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty intensivnoj tekhnologii spirtnyh napitkov iz zernovogo syrya s primeneniem ekstraktov drevesiny [Theoretical and practical aspects of intensive technology of alcoholic beverages from grain raw materials with the use of wood extracts]. Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga; 2014. 172 p. (In Russ.)
3. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy kontrolja tehnologicheskih processov proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Improving the control system of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2017;1:34-36. (In Russ.)
4. Agafonov GV. Innovacionnye resheniya v tekhnologii proizvodstva alkogol'noj produkcii [Innovative solutions in the technology of production of alcoholic beverages]. Mat. VI otchetnoj nauchn. konf. prepod. i nauchnyh sotrudnikov VGUIT za 2017 g. [Proceedings of the VI reportable scientific Conf. and research staff of VSUIT for 2017]; 2018; Voronezh. Voronezh: VGUIT, 2018. P. 1, Vol. 1. p. 59. (In Russ.)
5. Novikova IV, Agafonov GV, Jakovlev AN, Chusova AE. Tehnologicheskoe proektirovanie proizvodstva spirtnyh napitkov [Technological design for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Saint-Petersburg: Izdatel'stvo Lan'; 2015. 384 p. (In Russ.)
6. Shelekhova NV, Rimareva LV. Upravlenie tehnologicheskimi processami proizvodstva alkogol'noj produkcii s primeneniem informacionnyh tehnologij [Management of technological processes for the production of alcoholic beverages using information technology]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2017;3:28-31. (In Russ.)
7. Rimareva LV, Overchenko MB, Ignatova NI, [et al.]. Nakopleniye metabolitov drozhzhami Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1039 pri kul'tivirovanii na zernovom susle [Accumulation of metabolites by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1039 during cultivation on grain wort]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya [Storage and processing of farm products]. 2016; 5:23-27. (In Russ.)
8. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija kontrolja kachestva alkogol'noj produkcii [Current state and prospects of development of quality control of alcoholic beverages]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019; 4:117-118. DOI: 10.24411/0235-2486­2019-10059. (In Russ.)
9. Rudakov OB, Nikitina SJ. Trendy v analiticheskom kontrole kachestva pit'evogo jetanola [Trends in analytical quality control of drinking ethanol]. Analitika i kontrol' [Analytics and control]. 2017;3:180-196. (In Russ.)
10. Nikitina SJ, Shahov SV, Pyl'nyj DV, Rudakov OB. Analiticheskij kontrol' kachestva rektifikovannogo jetanola, vodok i spirtovyh distilljatov [Analytical quality control of rectified ethanol, vodka and alcohol distillates]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2018;6:56-60. (In Russ.)
11. Shkolnikova MN, Rozhnov ED, Chetverikov VI. Issledovaniye protsessa peregonki fruktovogo vinomateriala pri poluchenii oblepikhovykh distillyatov [Study of the process of distilling fruit wine material in obtaining sea buckthorn distillates]. Vestnik KrasGAU [Bulletin of KrasGAU]. 2019;7:147-154. (In Russ.)
12. Savchuk SA, Vlasov VN, Appolonova SA. Primenenie hromatografii i spektrometrii dlja identifikacii podlinnosti spirtnyh napitkov [The use of chromatography and spectrometry to identify the authenticity of alcoholic beverages]. Zhurnal analiticheskoj himii [Journal of Analytical Chemistry]. 2019;3:96. (In Russ.)
13. Shelekhova NV, Poljakov VA, Rimareva LV. Kapilljarnyj jelektroforez - vysokojeffektivnyj analiticheskij metod issledovanija sostava slozhnyh biologicheskih sred [Capillary electrophoresis is a highly effective analytical method for studying the composition of complex biological media]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2017;2:34-38. (In Russ.)
14. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Rasshireniye anali­ticheskikh vozmozhnostey kapillyarnogo elektroforeza dlya issledovaniy spirtnykh napitkov [Expansion of analytical capabilities of capillary electrophoresis for research of alcoholic beverages]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019;11:68-71. DOI: 10.24411/0235-2486-2019-10181. (In Russ.)
15. Rudakov OB. Mesto hromatografii v kontrole kachestva i bezopasnosti syrya i selskohozyajstvennoj produkcii [Place of chromatography in quality control and safety of raw materials and agricultural products]. Proizvodstvo i pererabotka selskohozyajstvennoj produkcii: menedzhment kachestva i bezopasnosti: Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 25?letiyu fakulteta tekhnologii i tovarovedeniya Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta im. Petra I [Production and processing of agricultural products: quality and safety management. Proceedings of the international scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 25th anniversary of the faculty of technology and commodity science of the Voronezh state agrarian University named by Peter I]; 2018; Voronezh. Voronezh: Voronezh state agrarian University named by Peter I, 2018. p. 405-410. (In Russ.)
16. Hotimchenko SA, Bessonov VV, Bagryanceva OV, Gmoshinskij IV. Bezopasnost' pishchevoj produkcii: novye problemy i puti reshenij [Food safety: new challenges and solutions]. Medicina truda i ekologiya cheloveka [Occupational medicine and human ecology]. 2015;4:7-14. (In Russ.)
17. Oganesjanc LA, Hurshudjan SA, Petrov AN. Identifikacija fal'sificirovannyh pishhevyh produktov. Terminy i opredelenija [Identification of falsified foods. Terms and definitions]. Ðishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food industry]. 2019;7:73-76. (In Russ.)
18. Shelekhova NV, Shelekhova TM, Skvorcova LI, Poltavskaja NV. Issledovaniye sostava zernovykh distillyatov, tekhnologicheskoy vody, viski i roma metodom kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Research for the composition of grain distillates, process water, whiskey and rum by capillary electrophoresis]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:14-19. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650­2020-10004. (In Russ.)
Authors
Nataliya V. Shelehova, Doctor of Technical Science;
Tamara M. Shelehova, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4b Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Khokonova M. B., Kagermasova A. Ch. Dynamics of Saccharification of Grinding and Free Barley Starch in Brewing

P. 50-53 Key words
wort quality; saccharification; milling; starch breakdown; barley; malt.

Abstract
The processing of well-loosened malt is not difficult - the wort from such malt has high sugar content and you can get deeply fermented beer from it. Bad malt requires constant intense attention to the operation of the brew house. When mashing such malts, it is necessary, first of all, to take care of maintaining the enzymes in an active state, both in the mash and in the filtered wort. The work is devoted to the study of the composition of laboratory wort, depending on the fractions of grinding malt and free starch during saccharification to various degrees of starch decomposition. The wort was obtained from malt of two grinding fractions: fine and coarse, which had different composition. It was determined that the coarse fraction of malt grinding contains less loosened particles, the resulting wort has a lower acidity and color, the content of maltose and amine nitrogen, as well as the final degree of fermentation. Dependences of the degree of saccharification of starch on the action of enzymes were established by comparing the rate of saccharification of starch in finely ground barley and starch isolated from this grinding. Saccharification was carried out under the same conditions with a purified enzyme preparation of heat-resistant amylase. It can be seen from the above data that with repeated mashing there are deviations in the rate of accumulation of dry substances and in the ratio of hydrolysis products. This is due to fluctuations in the intensity of heating. Despite the deviations, the general pattern remains in all cases: in the mash during saccharification of free starch, dry matter builds up faster and to a higher wort density than in barley flour mash. With a decrease in the starch content in saccharified mash barley, the density of the wort is lower, the less starch in the original barley and the more ballast substances were in the flour from this barley. It has been established that the completeness of starch saccharification and the composition of the wort depend on the degree of loosening of the malt and its enzymatic activity.

References
1. Bliev SG. Problemyi kachestva zerna [Problems of grain quality]. Nalchik: Elfa; 1999. 380 p. (In Russ.)
2. Troughton MJ. Canadian Agriculture. Budapest: Akademiai kiado; 1982. 355 ð. (In Eng.)
3. Kashukoev MV, Hokonova MB. Produktivnost i tehnologicheskie svoystva zerna yarovogo yachmenya [Productivity and technological properties of spring barley grain]. Agrarnaya nauka, 2009;7:13-15. (In Russ.)
4. Mukailov MD, Hokonova MB. Tehnologiya i oborudovanie brodilnyih proizvodstv [Technology and equipment of fermentation productions]. Nalchik: Izd-vo M. i V. Kotlyarovyih; 2016. 203 p. (In Russ.)
5. Romanova EV, Vvedenskiy VV. Tehnologiya hraneniya i pererabotki produktsii rastenievodstva [Technology of storage and processing of plant growing products]. Moscow: Rossiyskiy universitet drujbyi narodov; 2010. 184 p. (In Russ.)
6. Hokonova MB. Azotistyiy sostav susla v zavisimosti ot rejima obrabotki nesolojenogo yachmenya [Nitrogenous composition of wort, depending on the mode of processing of unmalted barley]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2012;5:24-26. (In Russ.)
7. Hokonova MB. Rol' predshestvennikov v povyshenii produktivnosti jachmenja [The role of precursors in increasing the productivity of barley]. Sovremennye modeli razvitiya v aspekte globalizatsii: mirovoi opyt, rossiiskie realii, tendentsii i perspektivy v ekonomike, upravlenii proektami, pedagogike, prave, istorii, kul'turologii, iskusstvovedenii, yazykoznanii, zhurnalistike, prirodo-pol'zovanii, rastenievodstve, biologii, zoologii, khimii, politologii, psikhologii, demografii, meditsine, filologii, filosofii, sotsiologii, matematike, tekhnike, fizike, informatike, gradostroitel'stve: sbornik nauchnykh statei po itogam mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. [Modern models of development in the aspect of globalization: world experience, Russian realities, trends and prospects in Economics, project management, pedagogy, law, history, cultural studies, art history, linguistics, journalism, nature use, crop production, biology, Zoology, chemistry, political science, psychology, demography, medicine, Philology, philosophy, sociology, mathematics, engineering, physics, computer science, urban planning: Proceedings of the of scientific articles on the results of international conferences. scientific-practical conf.]; 2015; Saint-Petersburg. Saint-Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskij institut proektnogo menedzhmenta; 2015. P. 231-233. (In Russ.)
8. Khokonova MB, Adzieva AA. Photosynthetic activity of spring barley plants depending on moisture provision. Amazonija-investiga. 2019;8 (23):96-100. (In Eng.)
9. Khokonova MB, Àdzievà ÀÀ, Karashaeva AS. Barleycorn Productivity and Quality in Relation to the Surface Slope. Journal of International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. 2017;8 (4):884-889. (In Eng.)
10. Khokonova MB, Karashaeva AS, Zavalin AA. Quality of brewing malt depending on the storage conditions of barley. Russian Agricultural Sciences. 2015;41 (6):488-491. DOI: 10.3103/S1068367415060099. (In Eng.)
11. Hokonova MB. Vliyanie sposobov sushki yachmenya na kachestvo zerna, soloda i pivnogo susla [Influence of methods of drying barley on the quality of grain, malt and beer wort]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2013;5:38-40. (In Russ.) 12. Hokonova MB. Tehnologicheskie rejimyi i oborudovanie dlya proraschivaniya zerna [Technological regimes and equipment for germination of grain]. Problemyi i perspektivyi tehnicheskih nauk: sbornik statey mejdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Problems and prospects of technical Sciences: Collection of articles of the international scientific and practical conference: proceedings of the international conference. scientific-practical Conf. "Problems and prospects of technical Sciences"]; 2015; Ufa Ufa: Aeterna; 2015. P. 66-68. (In Russ.)
Authors
Madina B. Khokonova, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor;
Anzhelika Ch. Kagermasova, Candidate of Agricultural Scienñe
Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V.?M. Kokov,
1v, Lenina avenue, Nalchik, Cabardino-Balkarian Republic, 360030, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Rozina L. I., Egorova O. S., Akbulatova D. R., Pelikh L. A.Features of the Biochemical Composition of Wines from Frozen Strawberry

P. 54-58 Key words
frozen fruit raw materials; garden strawberries; defrosting methods; fruit wines.

Abstract
Numerous researches of the freezing effect on the fruits quality indicators show that frozen fruits and berries are not inferior to fresh ones in appearance, taste and physical and chemical indicators, therefore they are suitable for subsequent processing all year round. The fruits of quick freezing after defrosting are use in the canning industry for the juices, fruit purees, as well as products for baby food production. At the same time, there are currently no data in the literature on the optimal fruits and berries freezing and defrosting modes, as well as their subsequent processing for the wine products production. The aim of this work was to research the biochemical composition of fruit wine materials obtained from frozen fruits. The experimental data obtained in the research of fruit wine materials from frozen garden strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are presented. Frozen fruits were defrosting in air at a temperature of 20 °C; in a refrigerator at a temperature of 3 °C; in a microwave oven. In experimental wine materials obtained from defrosted berries of garden strawberry, the mass concentration of organic acids, sugars and glycerin, amino acid cations, and volatile components were determined. It was not possible to reveal significant differences in the physicochemical and biochemical composition of the obtained strawberry wine materials. Studies of fruit wine materials obtained from frozen fruits of garden strawberries have shown that all three researched defrosting methods make it possible to obtain raw materials suitable for the fruit wine materials production. It is necessary to conduct more in-depth researches aimed at developing optimal modes of fruit raw materials freezing and defrosting during its subsequent processing for the wine products production.

References
1. Sebnem Tavman, Semih Otles, Selale Glaue, Nihan Gogus. Food preservation technologies In book: Saving food. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, 2019. 117-140 p. DOI: 10.1016/C2017?0?03480?8. (In Eng.)
2. Bystroe zamorazhivanie plodov i yagod [Fast freezing of fruits and berries] [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 8]. Available from: http://konservirovanie.su/books/item/f00/s00/z0000001/st021.shtml. (In Russ.)
3. Chirkova ES, Chepeleva GG. Vliyanie rezhimov zamorazhivaniya na khimicheskii sostav i tovarnoe kachestvo yagod smorodiny chernoi (Ribes nigrum L.) sibirskikh sortov [Influence of freezing regimes on the chemical composition and commercial quality of black currant berries (Ribes nigrum L.) of Siberian varieties]. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk state agrarian University]. 2016;2:92-98. (In Russ.)
4. Sazonova ID. Otsenka smorodiny krasnoi i chernoi po khimicheskomu sostavu plodov i kachestvu zamorozhennoi produktsii [Evaluation of red and black currants on the chemical composition of fruits and the quality of frozen products]. Osnovy povysheniya produktivnosti agrotsenozov: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi pamyati izvestnykh uchenykh I.A. Muromtseva i A.S. Tatarintseva [Fundamentals of increasing the productivity of agrocenoses: Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the memory of famous scientists I.A. Muromtsev and A.S. Tatarintsev]; 2015; Michurinsk. Michurinsk: BIS; 2015. p. 275-279. (In Russ.)
5. Korotkaya EV, Korotkii IA. Issledovanie fiziko-khimicheskikh pokazatelei svezhikh i zamorozhennykh plodov oblepikhi [Investigation of physical and chemical parameters of fresh and frozen sea buckthorn fruits]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [News of higher educational institutions. Food technology]. 2008;1 (302):116-117. (In Russ.)
6. Khapova CA, Molyakova TA. Sortovye resursy fragaria ananassa posle defrostatsii [Varietal resources of fragaria ananassa after defrosting]. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii [Fruit and berry growing in Russia]. 2012:31 (2):292-298. (In Russ.)
7. Kazantseva MA, Yarushin AM. Primenenie zamorozhennykh yagod v proizvodstve kupazhirovannykh sokov [Use frozen berries in the production of blended juices]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and drinks]. 2009;2:36-37. (In Russ.)
8. Guseinova BM. Sokhrannost' biokhimicheskogo kompleksa plodov inzhira i shelkovitsy pri kholodovom khranenii [Safety of the biochemical complex of Fig and mulberry fruits during cold storage]. Sovremennye tendentsii razvitiya nauki i tekhnologii [Modern trends in the development of science and technology]. 2017;3-1:95-98. (In Russ.)
9. Muchkin EV, Kaukhcheshvili NE, Gryzunov AA. Bezopasnoe sokhranenie plodoovoshchnogo syr'ya v zamorozhennom sostoyanii, gotovogo k upotrebleniyu bez obyazatel'noi teplovoi obrabotki [Safe preservation of fruit and vegetable raw materials in a frozen state, ready for use without mandatory heat treatment]. Prakticheskie aspekty sezonnogo proizvodstva morozhenogo i zamorozhennoi produktsii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Practical aspects of seasonal production of ice cream and frozen products: Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference]; 2008; Moscow. Moscow, 2008. P. 22-23. (In Russ.)
10. Mukailov MD, Guseinova BM. Vliyanie nizkotemperaturnogo zamorazhivaniya na pitatel'nuyu tsennost' zemlyaniki i maliny [Effect of low-temperature freezing on the nutritional value of strawberries and raspberries]. Proizvodstvo i realizatsiya morozhennogo i bystrozamorozhennykh produktov [Production and sale of ice cream and quick-frozen products]. 2004;2:28-29. (In Russ.)
Authors
Larisa I. Rozina, Candidate of Technical Science;
Olesya S. Egorova;
Dilyara R. Akbulatova;
Lyudmila A. Pelikh
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Krikunova L. N., Peschanskaya V. A., Dubinina E. V. Research of the Cornelian Cherries Preparation for Distillation Process with Use of Enzyme Preparations

P. 59-63 Key words
biocatalysis; biopolymers; ñornel; multi-enzyme composition; cornel pulp preparation for distillation; enzyme preparations.

Abstract
This article is devoted to research of the cornel pulp enzymatic processing effect on the fermentation process and the fermented pulp quality indicators intended for distillation. For the cornel pulp treatment, 7 industrially produced enzyme preparations of different spectrum of action of domestic and foreign production, as well as multi-enzyme compositions with certain pectinlyase and polygalacturonase activities were used. A feature of the cornelian cherries biochemical composition is a high content of pectin substances, the main part of which is insoluble protopectin. The researches were aimed at finding the composition of multi-enzyme composition, which ensures the destruction of the pectin bond with other components of the cell wall, without affecting the metaxyl groups, since this can lead to an increase in the methanol concentration in the product. The qualitative indicators of fermented cornel pulp (strength, qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile components) assessed the effectiveness of the enzymatic treatment. It was found that when using enzyme preparations, the fermentation process took place 2-3 days faster and the strength of the fermented raw material increased in comparison with the control sample from 0.2 to 0.8%. It is shown that the treatment of cornel pulp with enzyme preparations with high pectinesterase activity leads to a significant increase in the fermented pulp methanol concentration. A conclusion was made about the inexpediency of using the Fructocyme group preparations for cornel pulp processing intended for distillation. It is proposed at the stage of cornelian cherries preparation for distillation to use a multi-enzyme composition with predominant pectinlyase and polygalacturonase activities in the ratio: 7:1. This made it possible not only to intensify the fermentation process, but also to minimize the methanol accumulation in the fermented pulp. It was shown that the use of developed multi-enzyme composition led to a change in the higher alcohols ratio towards a decrease in the concentration of isobutanol, which had a positive effect on the organoleptic characteristics of the fermented raw materials.

References
1. TR TS 021/2011. Tekhnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza "O bezopasnosti pishchevoj produkcii", utv. [TR CU 021/2011 Technical regulations of the Customs Union "On food safety"]. [Internet]. [cited 2020 July 15]. Available from: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902320560. (In Russ.)
2. Gusejnova BM. Pishchevaya cennost' dikorastushchih plodov iz gornogo Dagestana i eyo sohrannost' posle bystrogo zamorazhivaniya i holodovogo hraneniya [Nutrition value of wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan and its safety after fast freezing and cold storage]. Voprosy pitaniya [Problems of Nutrition]. 2016;4 (85):76-81. (In Russ.)
3. Kasumova AA. Izuchenie himicheskogo sostava dikorastushchih plodov i yagod Gyandzha-Gazahskoj zony [Study of the Chemical Composition of Wild Fruits and Berries in the Ganja-Gazakh Zone]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and Processing of Farm Products]. 2017;10:34-36. (In Russ.)
4. Kazimierski M, Regula J, Molska M. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - characteristics, nutritional and pro-health properties. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria. 2019;1 (18):5-12. DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.2019.0628.
5. Bijelic SM, Golosin BR, Ninic Todorovic JI, [et al.]. Physicochemical fruit characteristics of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes from Serbia. Hortscience. 2011;6 (46):849-853. (In Eng.)
6. Donchenko LV, Edygova SN, Kolotij TB, [et al.]. Frakcionnyj sostav pektinovyh veshchestv ajvy i dikorastushchego syr'ya [Fractional composition of pectin substances of quince and wild-growing raw materials]. Izvestiya VUZOV. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya [News of institutes of higher education. Food technology]. 2008;2-3; 118-119. (In Russ.)
7. Kolotij TB, Hatko ZN. Analiticheskie harakteristiki pektina iz nekotoryh vidov dikorastushchih plodov i yagod predgornoj zony Adygei [Analitical characteristics of pectin from some wild fruits and berries of the foothill zone of Adyghea]. Novye tekhnologii [New Technologies]. 2012;3:30-32. (In Russ.)
8. Donchenko LV. Tekhnologiya pektina i pektinoproduktov [Technology of pectin and pectin products]. Moscow: DeLi; 2000. 255 p. (In Russ.) 9. Alekseenko EV. Fermentativnaya biokonversiya plodovo-yagodnogo syr'ya: biohimicheskie aspekty i prakticheskoe primenenie [Enzymatic bioconversion of fruit and berry raw materials: biochemical aspects and practical application]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya [Storage and Processing of Farm Products]. 2012;3:49-52. (In Russ.)
10. Volchok AA, Rozhkova AM, Zorov IN, [et al.]. Ispol'zovanie fermentnyh kompleksov novogo pokoleniya dlya obrabotki razlichnyh plodovo-yagodnyh substratov [Use of new generation enzyme complexes for processing various fruit and berry substrates]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Winemaking and Viticulture]. 2012:1:20-21. (In Russ.)
11. Gnet'ko LV, Belyavceva TA, Ageeva NM. Fermentnye preparaty gruppy Fruktocim [Enzyme preparations of group Fractosim]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo [Winemaking and Viticulture]. 2010;3:7-9. (In Russ.)
12. Kapasakalidis PG, Rastall RA, Gordon MH. Effect of a cellulase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.) Pomace. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry. 2009;57:4342-4351. DOI: 10.1021/jf8029176. (In Eng.)
13. Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, Krikunova LN, [et al.]. Ocenka biohimicheskogo sostava plodov kizila kak syr'ya dlya proizvodstva distillyatov [Assessment of the biochemical composition of dogwood fruit as a raw material for distillate production]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages]. 2020;1:44-47. DOI: 10.24411/2072-9650-2020-10009. (In Russ.)
14. GOST 32095-2013. Produkciya alkogol'naya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Metod opredeleniya ob'emnoj doli etilovogo spirta [State Standart 32095-2013. The alcohol production and raw material for it producing. Method of ethyl alcohol determination]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2014. 5 p.
15. GOST 33834-2016. Produkciya vinodel'cheskaya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazohromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii letuchih komponentov [State Standart 33834-2016. Wine products and raw materials for it's production. Gas chromatographic method for determination of mass concentration of volatile components]. Moscow: Standartinform; 2016. 11 p.
16. Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV, Alieva GA. Ob'ektivnye kriterii ocenki kachestva vishnevyh vodok [Objective quality estimation indices for cherry brandies]. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya pishchevyh proizvodstv [Food Processing. Techniques and Technology]. 2016;2 (41):47-54. (In Russ.)
Authors
Luydmila N. Krikunova, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Violetta A. Peschanskaya;
Elena V. Dubinina, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tsugkieva V. B., Dzantieva L. B., Dzitsoeva Z. L., Shabanova I. A., Tokhtieva L. Kh., Kiyashkina L. A., Doev D. N., Tokhtieva E. A.The Study of the Possibility of Using the Grape Variety Introduced in RSO - Alania for the Production of Cognac Spirit

P. 64-67 Key words
wine material; aging; introduction; cognac; cognac spirit; distillation; grape variety; raw spirit.

Abstract
Twelve varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera), including Vostorg variety, were successfully introduced to the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania. The chemical composition of grape berries of Vostorg variety and the possibility of their usage for the production of wine material were studied. We have determined the possibility of using grapes of Vostorg variety introduced in the RSO - Alania for the production of wine and cognac distillate. The wine material was prepared using the technology of production of white wines. To do this, the grapes were crushed, the must was selected by gravity, the pulp was pressed, the resulting must was defended, drained from the sediment, sent to fermentation, fermented dry, and removed from the yeast sediment. The resulting wine material corresponded to the requirements for wine materials for the production of cognac distillate, according to GOST 31728-2014. In the wine material, the alcohol content was 12,5% by volume, and the titrated acidity it has reached 7 g/dm3. The distillation of wine material was carried out in two stages. At first, raw alcohol with a strength of 27% was obtained from the wine material during simple distillation. Then, with fractional distillation of raw alcohol, cognac distillate with a strength of 70% was obtained. The resulting distillate was subjected to physicochemical evaluation by gas chromatography, and we found that the resulting distillate meets the requirements of GOST 31728-2014. At the end of a tasting evaluation, it was established that the cognac distillate produced from grapes of Vostorg variety, introduced in the conditions of North Ossetia - Alania, meets the requirements of GOST 31728-2014 on cognac distillates.

References
1. Gryazina FI, Danilova OA, Yambulatova EI. Tendenciya razvitiya rynka kon'yakov [The Development Trend of the Cognac Market]. Vestnik Marijskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya "Sel'skohozyajstvennye nauki. Ekonomicheskie nauki" [Bulletin of the Mari state University. A series of "Agricultural science. Economics"]. 2017;3 (2):11-15. (In Russ.)
2. Egorov NA, Borisova NE. Aromaticheskie al'degidy kon'yachnyh spirtov [Aromatic Aldehydes of Cognac Spirits]. Trudi VNIIViV "Magarach" [Works ARIGW "Magarach"]. 1957;5:116-123. (In Russ.)
3. Martynenko EYa. Technology of cognac [The Technology of Cognac]. Simferopol: Tavrida; 2003. 320 p. (In Russ.)
4. Dziscoeva ZL, Cugkieva VB. Vliyanie nekotoryh faktorov na sohranyaemost' vinograda v processe hraneniya [The Influence of Some Factors on the Preservation of Grapes During Their Storage]. Izvestiya Gorskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Gorsky state agrarian University]. 2010;47 (1):47-49. (In Russ.)
5. Dziscoeva ZL, Cugkieva VB, Ulubieva NA. Vinograd sorta Kodryanka v usloviyah RSO - Alaniya [The Grape Varieties Codreanca in the Conditions of North Ossetia?-?Alania]. Izvestiya Gorskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Gorsky state agrarian University]. 2010;47 (2):241-244. (In Russ.)
6. Dziscoeva ZL, Cugkieva VB. Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya vinograd sorta Kristall v usloviyah RSO - Alaniya [The Prospects for the Usage of Crystal Grapes in the Conditions of North Ossetia?-?Alania]. Izvestiya Gorskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Gorsky state agrarian University]. 2011;48 (1):303-304. (In Russ.)
7. Khanikaev DN, Cugkieva VB. Content of micro and macroelements in grapes of different varieties in RSO - Alania [The Content of Micro and Macroelements in Grapes of Different Varieties in RSO?-?Alania]. Izvestiya gorskogo state agrarian University [Proceedings of the Gorsky state agrarian University]. 2017;54 (4):153-155. (In Russ.)
8. Pavlova AN. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii ordinarnykh kon'yakov na osnove analiza ekstraktivnykh komponentov [Improving the technology of ordinary cognacs based on the analysis of extractive components]. Abstract of candidate's thesis. Krasnodar: Kuban state technological University, 2012. 24 p. (In Russ.)
9. Oseledtseva IV. Nauchnoe obosnovanie i razvitie metodologii kontrolya kachestva kon'yachnykh distillyatov i kon'yakov [Scientific justification and development of quality control methodology for cognac distillates and cognacs]. Doctor's thesis. Krasnodar: North Caucasus zonal research Institute of horticulture and viticulture; 2017. 48 ñ. (In Russ.)
10. GOST 31728-2014. Distillyaty kon'yachnye. Tekhnicheskie usloviya. [State Standart 31728-2014. Distillates and brandy. Technical conditions]. Moscow, 2015. 5 p.
Authors
Valentina B. Tsugkieva, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor;
Larisa B. Dzantieva, Candidate of Biological Science;
Zalina L. Dzitsoeva, Candidate of Biological Science;
Irina A. Shabanova, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Larisa Kh. Tokhtieva, Candidate of Biological Science;
Lyudmila A. Kiyashkina, Candidate of Biological Science;
Dzambolat N. Doev, Candidate of Biological Science;
Elina A. Tokhtieva
Gorsky State Agrarian University,
37 Kirova Street, Vladikavkaz, 362001, The Republic of North Ossetia - Alania, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Baloglanova K. V., Fataliyev H. K., Alekperov A. M. A Study of the Production of Safe Apple Wort for Calvados

P. 68-72 Key words
research; patulin; variety; raw materials; heat treatment; apple; apple juice.

Abstract
An apple is a fruit that is widely distributed on all five continents. In addition to the fact that now there are more than 6 thousand varieties of apples in the world, new varieties appear every year. The varieties of apples most used in trade are Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Fougie, Gala and Gran Smith. The share of these varieties is 60% of the total. The raw materials involved in processing, in most cases, do not meet all the requirements. This is especially true for varieties of apples of a universal nature. Sometimes the best fruits of such varieties are selected for consumption or directly sent for sale. The remaining crumpled, damaged and for some reason lost the integrity of the fruit are sent for processing. This in most cases negatively affects the quality of the resulting product. Thus, the study of this problem is relevant. One of the most important indicators that pose a great danger to the quality of apple juices produced is patulin, secreted by various types of mold. Patulin is widely distributed in apples and products made from them. In apples damaged for various reasons during the production of juices and condensed juices, it is advisable to remove the parts infected with mold that secrete patulin. The aim of the study is to improve the technology for producing calvados by ensuring the production of fruit wort that does not contain patulin. It was noted that the wort samples obtained from the processing of whole fruits and apples with varying degrees of rot, differed from each other in the content of various amounts of patulin. So, with an increase in the degree of rot of fruits (from 35 to 100%), the content of patulin also increased. The content of patulin also varied in different varieties and depending on which region the apples were grown in. The content of patulin was the lowest in the fruits of the Gyzyl Ahmedi variety, and in the apples of the Fouget variety was relatively higher. The patulin content in the samples of the studied varieties grown in the Gadabay region, located at an altitude of 1467 m above sea level, was lower compared to samples of the same varieties grown in the Samukh region located at an altitude of 79 m above sea level. With an increase in the percentage of rot in the fruits of apples, a tendency towards an increase in the content of fumaric acid and hydroxymethyl furfural was mainly observed. Processing apple juice with a patulin content of 25 mg/cm3 activated carbon in a ratio of 17 mg/cm3 led to a complete purification of juice from patulin.

References
1. Cemeroglu B, Karadeniz F. Meyve suyu ?retim teknolojisi. [Fruit juice production technology] Gida Texnolojisi Dernegi Yayinlari [Publications Of The Society For The Texnology Of Food]. Ankara; 2001. 384 p. (In Turkish)
2. Fataliyev HK, Musayev NM, Aliyeva GS. Meyva-gilameyva sarabla­rinin texnologiyasi. [Technology of fruit-berry wines]. Baki: Ecoprint; 2018. 312 p. [In Azerbaijani]
3. Artik N, Velioglu va Saglam N. Mikotoksinler: Patulinin olusumu ve meyve sularindaki onemi [Formation of patulin and its importance in fruit juices]. Arastirma [Research]. 1991;3 (33):13-17. (In Turkish)
4. Starodub NF, Pilipenko LN, Egorova AV, Pilipenko IV. Mikotoksin patulin: producenty, biologicheskoe dejstvie, indikacija v pishhevyh produktah [Mycotoxin patulin: producers, biological action, indication in food products] Sovremennye problemy toksikologii [Modern problems of toxicology]. 2008;3:50-57. (In Russ.)
5. Shamraj SM. Mikotoksiny - postojannaja ugroza so storony "jekologicheski chistyh" prirodnyh jadov [Mycotoxins are a constant threat from "environmentally friendly" natural poisons ]. Biologija. Vse dlja uchitelja. Pilotnyj vypusk [Biology. Everything for the teacher. Pilot issue]. 2010;7-14. (In Russ.)
6. Kadakal C, Nas Cetin Kadakal S, Nas S. Elma ve elma urunlerinde patulin miktarini etkileyen faktorler [Factors affecting the amount of patulin in apples and Apple products]. Muhendislik Belimleri Dergisi [Journal Of Engineering Sciences]. 2000;6 (1):87-96. (In Turkish)
7. Donchenko LV, Nadykta VD. Bezopasnost' pishhevoj produkcii [The safety of food products]. Moscow: DeLi print; 2002. 539 p. (In Russ.)
8. Hopmans EC. Patulin: a Mycotoxinin Apples. Perishables Handing Quarterly. 1997;91:5-7. (In Eng.)
Authors
Kenul V. Baloglanova;
Hasil K. Fataliyev, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Alekper M. Alekperov, Candidate of Technical Science
Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, 62, Ataturk avenue, Ganja, AZ2000, Azerbaijan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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