+7(499) 750-01-11 (ext. 68-98); +7(916) 969-61-36
foodprom@foodprom.ru

  

 



Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №4/2019

INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-September, 2019

TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: THE RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGES

Kochubey P.V., Kochubey A.A. Influence of Spirulina with and without Heat Treatment on Yeast Growth on Agarized Beer Wort

P. 6-9 Key words
antioxidant; fermentation; yeast; intensifiers; beer; spirulina; wort.

Abstract
Consumers today make attention on natural ingredients in products and drinks. Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is one of the natural fermentation intensifier. There are many literature data of the velocity increase of beer fermentation and the yeast survival after spirulina adding. Spirulina has a double positive effect: due to high protein level, it nourishes yeast colonies; due to phycocyanin with the strong antioxidant activity, it protects yeast cells from fermentation products, for example from alcohol at alcoholic bearing. To avoid contamination of beer wort by alien microorganisms it is better to add different extracts before it boiling. Some extracts and agents can increase drink quality, velocity and fermentation intensity, are not thermo stable and should be sterilized before adding to the wort. Here we have shown that addition of heat-treated spirulina did not influence neither on a quantity of yeast colonies on agarized beer wort, nor on their growth velocity. Adding spirulina without heat treat increase a yeast colonies quantity in Petri dishes, but not influence on their growth velocity. Because of spirulina antioxidant - phycocyanin is not a thermo tolerance protein, spirulina could have a positive influence on yeast colonies growth by it antioxidant activity. To understand the positive influence of spirulina on yeast survival at alcohol bearing more researches are needed.

References
1. Betjaeva SJa., Gernet MV. Vlijanie spiruliny platensis na biosintez jetanola [The effect of spirulina platensis on ethanol biosynthesis]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likjorovodochnyh izdelij [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages]. 2004;2:35-36. (In Russ.)
2. Aikawa S. Direct conversion of Spirulina to ethanol without pretreatment or enzymatic hydrolysis process. Energy Environmental. Science. 2013;6:1844-1849. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C3EE40305J.
3. Sirenko LA, Tret'jakov OL. Spirulina i ee ispol'zovanie v mikrobiologii [Spirulina and its use in microbiology]. Jekologija morja [Ecology of the sea]. 2005;7:42-48. (In Russ.)
4. Ciferri O. Spirulina, the Edible Microorganism. USA.: Microbiological Reviews. 1983; 47 (4):551-578.
5. Niu YJ, Zhou W, Guo J, [et al.]. C-Phycocyanin protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in parthenogenetic porcine embryos. Scientific reports. 2017;7:16992. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41598?017?17287?0.
6. Ross E, Dominy W. The nutritional value of dehydrated, blue-green algae (Spirulina platensis) for poultry. Poultry science. 1990;69 (5):794-800. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.3382/ps.0690794.
7. Salehi M, Moieni A, Safaie N. A Novel Medium for Enhancing Callus Growth of Hazel (Corylus avellana L.). Scientific reports. 2017;7 (1):15598. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41598?017?15703?z.
8. Parada JL, Zulpa de Caire G, Zaccaro de Mule MC, Storni de Cano MM. Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis. International journal of food microbiology. 1998;45 (3):225-228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(98)00151-2.
9. Sabarinathan KG, Ganesan G. Antibacterial and toxicity evaluation of C-phycocyanin and cell extract of filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium - Westiellopsis sps. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2008;12 (2):79-82.
10. Bidihova MJe, Lavrova VL, Gernet AM. Povyshenie zhiznesposobnosti pivovarennyh drozhzhej s ispol'zovaniem Spirulina Platensis [Improving the viability of brewing yeast using Spirulina Platensis]. Pivo i napitki [Beers and drinks]. 2002;6:10-12. (In Russ.)
11. Wu Q, Liu L, Miron A, [et al.]. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview. Archives of toxicology. 2016;90 (8):1817-1840. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204?016?1744?5.
Authors
Kochubey Pavel V.
Individual entrepreneur Toropov S.N.,
7, Syromolotov Str., Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk region, 620072 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kochubey Alena A., Candidate of Biological Science
Botanical garden of the Ural branch of the RAS,
202a, 8 Marta Str., Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk region, 620144 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Trofimchenko V.A., Sevostianova E.M., Osipova V.P., Presnyakova O.P.The Criteria for Evaluation of Prepared Water in the Production of Fruit Brandies

P. 10-14 Key words
quality of fruit brandies; mineral composition; prepared water; processing method; fruit distillates.

Abstract
A feature of fruit brandies is the use in fruit distillates blend with high content of various volatile components. Distillate volatile components interact with prepared water minerals. This interaction can lead to both positive and negative effects. Taking into account increasing demand for fruit brandies and increasing their production, criteria development for assessing water quality for their production is extremely urgent. In this work was studied effect of prepared water salt composition on quality indicators and bottling resistance of fruit brandies prepared on the basis of apricot and pear distillates. Eight samples of prepared water from various Russian manufacturers were used as study objects. The work used standardized analytical research methods and techniques, approved in prescribed manner and adopted in analysis of drinking water and alcohol quality. It was found that all tested water samples met the requirements of normative documentation on hardness. Depending on softening method used at enterprise, water samples differed in content of cations and mineral salts. It was shown that water samples prepared using ion exchange method contain significantly more chlorides, sulfates and hydrocarbons in their composition than samples prepared using reverse osmosis. As a result of mathematical processing, no relationship was found between concentration of aldehydes and esters in fruit distillate and mineral composition of prepared water. It has been established that mineral composition of prepared water is most correlated with higher alcohols concentration in fruit distillate. It is recommended in manufacture of alcoholic drinks from fruit distillates with concentration of higher alcohols of more than 2610 mg/dm3 aa to prepare drinking water using reverse osmosis.

References
1. Oganesyanc AL, Hurshudyan SA. Ak­tu­al'­nye aspekty obespecheniya kachestva alkogol'noj produkcii Rossii [Actual aspects of quality assurance of alcoholic beverages in Russia]. Pivo i napitki, 2015, no. 5, pp. 12-14. (In Russ.)
2. Polyakov VA, Abramova IM, Vorob'eva EV, [et al.]. Prichiny pomutnenij likerovodochnyh napitkov i puti povysheniya ih stabil'nosti [Causes of Opacifications of Alcoholic Beverages and Ways to Improve Their Stability]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya, 2014, no. 10, pp. 21-26. (In Russ.)
3. Sevost'yanova EM, Osipova VP, Horosheva EV, [et al.]. Vliyanie tekhnologicheskoj vody na organolepticheskie harakteristiki krepkih napitkov [Influence of process water on organoleptic characteristics of strong drinks]. Pivo i napitki, 2017, no. 3, pp. 40-43. (In Russ.)
4. Polyakov VA, Abramova IM, Morozova SS, [et al.] Ispravlennaya voda dlya prigotovleniya vysokosortnyh vodok [Reclaimed water for the preparation of high-grade vodka]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij, 2015, no. 1, pp. 20-22. (In Russ.)
5. Ermolaeva GA. Vliyanie solevogo sostava vody na kachestvo vodki [Influence of salt composition of water on vodka quality]. Proizvodstvo likerovodochnyh izdelij, 2002, no. 1, pp. 21. (In Russ.)
6. Slavskaya IL, Il'ina EV, Makarov SYu. Trebovaniya k kachestvu vody dlya prigotovleniya vodok [Requirements for the quality of water for the preparation of vodka]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij, 2009, no. 3, pp. 15-17. (In Russ.)
7. Daudova TN, Ahmedov MEh, Demirova AF, [et al.]. Novyj sposob vodopodgotovki dlya proizvodstva alkogol'nyh napitkov [A new method of water treatment for the production of alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki, 2014, no. 4, pp. 12-13. (In Russ.)
8. Davidyan GG. Prakticheskie voprosy upravleniya kachestvom vody [Practical issues of water quality management]. Likerovodochnoe proizvodstvo i vinodelie, 2011, no. 8, pp. 24-26. (In Russ.)
9. Vostrikov SV, Tatarincev AM, Ukolova TA. Optimizaciya solevogo sostava vodochnyh sortirovok [Optimization of salt composition of vodka sorts] Materialy III Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 80?letiyu GOUVPO "Voronezhskaya gosudarstvennaya tekhnologicheskaya akademiya". Voronezh, 2009, pp. 222-225. URL: http://window.edu.ru/catalog/pdf2txt/673/66673/39228?p_page=22. (In Russ.)
10. Fedorenko VI. Ispravlenie vody metodom obratnogo osmosa [Correction of water by reverse osmosis]. Likerovodochnoe proizvodstvo i vinodelie, 2010, no. 3-4, pp. 18-21. (In Russ.)
11. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV, [et al.]. Ocenka tekhnologicheskih svojstv ryabiny obyknovennoj v kachestve syr'ya dlya plodovoj vodki [Assessment of Technological Properties of Rowan for Production of Alcoholic Beverages]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya, 2016, no. 9, pp. 19-22. (In Russ.)
12. Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Razrabotka tekhnologii spirtnogo napitka na osnove vishnevogo distillyata [Developing the Technology of the Alcohol Drink Based on Cherry Distillate]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya, 2017, no. 4, pp. 25-28. (In Russ.)
13. Dubinina EV, Osipova VP, Trofimchenko VA. Vliyanie sposoba podgotovki syr'ya na sostav letuchih komponentov i vyhod distillyatov iz maliny [Influence of Preparation Method on Volatile Compounds Content and Output of Distillates from Raspberry]. Pivo i napitki, 2018, no. 1, pp. 28-32. (In Russ.)
Authors
Trofimchenko Vladimir A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Sevost'yanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science;
Osipova Valentina P., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Presnyakova Ol'ga Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Publishing house "Food Industry",
21-1, 3 Krasnoselskiy per., Moscow, 107140, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abramovа I.M., Kalinina A.G., Golovachova N.Ye., Morozova S.S., Gallyamova L.P., Kaplun A.P.On the Issue of the Use of Plant Materials Containing Biologically Active Substances in the Production of Alcoholic Beverages

P. 15-19 Key words
beta-azarone; biologically active substances; quassin, menthofuran; pulegon; hydrocyanic acid; teukrin; thujone.

Abstract
Currently, in the production of alcoholic beverages, more than 100 kinds of vegetable and fruit raw materials are used, which are diverse and complex in chemical composition, which may depend not only on the type, but also on the conditions of its growth. In the preparation of alcoholic beverages, alcoholic extracts of a number of plants used in official medicine and possessing medicinal properties can be used. In combination with ethyl alcohol, these infusions can reduce the toxicity of the finished product, have a positive effect on the toxicity of the finished products, but can also enhance its negative qualities or, finally, not showing a biological effect, improve only the consumer properties of beverages. Recently, special attention has been paid to biologically active substances of plant origin in the composition of alcoholic beverages, the maximum allowable quantities, which are specified in the ТР ТС 029/2012 (Appendix 20): beta-azarone, quassin, menthofuran, pulegon, hydrocyanic acid, teukrin, thujone (alpha and beta). When developing the formulations of alcoholic beverages, pharmacological doses are calculated that have a therapeutic effect (per 1 liter of the product). Alcoholic extracts of medicinal plants are introduced into alcoholic beverages in a technological dose not exceeding 1/3 of the pharmacological dose. For example, the technological dose (g/dm3) of ginseng root is 0.1; root radiola rose - 0.5; lemongrass seeds - 0.3; medicinal valerian root - 1.3, etc. The question of studying the influence of prescription ingredients on the toxicity of alcoholic beverages has important medico-social significance, which is associated not only with cases of acute alcohol poisoning, but also with the effect of its consumption on the formation of alcohol dependence, the development of organ pathology, impaired reproductive function and the health of offspring.

References
1. TR TS 029/2012. Trebovaniya bezopasnosti pishchevyh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tekhnologicheskih vspomogatel'nyh sredstv [Safety requirements for food additives, flavorings and process AIDS]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902359401. (In Russ.)
2. Karomatov ID. Air bolotnyj i ego primenenie v medicine [Calamus marsh and its use in medicine]. Molodoj uchenyj [Young scientist]. 2015;7:296-302. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/87/16624/ (In Russ.)
3. Khan MA, Islam MT. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kige-lia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.J. Pharm. Bioallied. - Sci. 2012;4 (2):149-154.
4. Bjornstad K, Helander A, Hulten P, Beck O. Bioanalytical investigation of asa-rone in connection with Acorus calamus oil intoxications. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33 (9):604-609. DOI:10.1093/jat/33.9.604.
5. Scientific Committee on Food Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on quassin (expressed on 2 July 2002). URL: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/sci-com_scf_out134_en.pdf.
6. Vojtkevich SA. Celebnye rasteniya i efirnye masla [Medicinal plants and essential oils]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 2002. 172 p. (In Russ.)
7. Anderson IB, Mullen UH, Miker DzhE, [et al.]. Pennyroyal toksichnost': izmerenie urovnya toksichnyh metabolitov v dvuh sluchayah i obzor literatury [Pennyroyal toxicity: measurement of toxic metabolite levels in two cases and literature review]. Annaly vnutrennej mediciny [Annals of internal medicine]. 1996;24 (8):726-734. DOI: 10.7326/0003?4819? 124?8?19960415000004.PMID8633832. (In Russ.)
8. Thomassen D, Knebel N, Slattery JT, [et al.]. Reactive intermediates in the oxidation of menthofuran by cytochromes P-450. Chem.Res. Toxicol. 1992;5 (1): 123-130. DOI: 10.1021/tx00025a021.
9. Vojtkevich SA. Efirnye masla, aromatizatory, konservanty [Essential oils, flavorings, preservatives]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 2000. 97 p. (In Russ.)
10. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on pulegone and menthofuran (expressed on 2 July 2002). - URL: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/sci-com_scf_out133_en.pdf.
11. Shvajkova M.D. Toksikologicheskaya himiya [Toxicological chemistry]. Moscow: Medicina, 1975. 376 p. (In Russ.)
12. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Thujone Scientific Committee on Food (2003) Retrieved Oct 28, 2006. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/sci-com_scf_out162_en.pdf.
13. FDA Regulation 21 CFR 172.510 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption. Food and Drug Administration (2003). Retrieved Oct 28, 2006.
14. Meschler JP, Howlett AC. Thujone exhibits low affinity for cannabinoid receptors but fails to evoke cannabimimetic responses. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999;62 (3):473-480. DOI: 10.1016/s0091-3057 (98) 00195-6.
15. Olsen RW. Absinthe and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. U. S. A. 2000;97 (9):4417-4418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas. 97.9.4417.
16. Hold KM, Sirisoma NS, Ikeda T, [et al.]. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. U.S.A. 2000;97 (8):3826-3831. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.070042397.
17. Naser B, Bodinet C, Tegtmeier M, Lindequist U. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;2 (1):69-78. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neh065.
Authors
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Science;
Kalinina Anna G., Candidate of Biological Science;
Golovachova Natal'ya Ye, Candidate of Technical Science;
Morozova Svetlana S., Candidate of Chemical Science;
Gallyamova Lubov' P.
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center of food, biotechnology and food safety,
4-B, Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kaplun Aleksandr P., Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies named after Lomonosov,
86 Vernadskogo avenue, Moscow, 119571, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Volkova T.N., Borisenko O.A., Selina I.V., Sozinova M.S.Nisin Usage in Brewing Industry

P. 20-25 Key words
microorganisms-spoilers in brewing; bacteriocins; nisin legislation; nisin; nisin producers; characteristics of nisin; nisin food safety.

Abstract
Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of two genera - Lactobacillus and Pediococcus - are the most frequent beer spoilage bacteria in brewing industry, according to recent statistic data from the Technical University of Munich. Different approaches are used traditionally in order to prevent infection: pasteurization, ultra filtration, common cleaning and disinfection agents with the automated cleaning process. Currently, there has been an increasing effort to develop novel approaches to minimal processing, such as the exploitation of inhibitory components natural to raw materials, to enhance the microbiological stability of beer. This will reduce heat treatment and replace chemical preservatives with natural bio-additives. In this regard, there is a great interest in such natural compounds as bacteriocins, and in particular, nisin. Their proven bactericidal effectiveness against the main beer spoilage bacteria, LAB, - is well known. Nisin, a Class I lantibiotic, bacteriocin, is the most well-known and characterized bacteriocin, and is the only one to be used commercially due to recognized safety. The usage of nisin is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An additional key benefit is that nisin does not affect the original brewer's yeast characteristics or the sensory properties of the beer, it is not toxic and is completely degraded by proteases in the upper parts of human digestive tract. This review provides data on the nature of bacteriocins, on the nisin structural formula, its chemical and physical properties, and its spectrum of bactericidal action, nisin production methods, a variety of analytical methods to determine nisin concentration, the history in the discovery, study and official acceptance of nisin. Additionally, legal aspects related to food safety of nisin and its application conditions, accepted in USA, EC and Russian Federation, are included. Possible industrial applications of nisin in breweries and potential advantages of the implementation are discussed.

References
1. Muller-Auffermann K, Grijalva F, Jacob F, Hutzler M. Nisin and its usage in breweries: a review and discussion. J. Inst. Brew., 2015, vol. 121, pp. 309-319. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jib.233 (accessed 20.11.19.)
2. Vaughan A, O'Sullivan T, Van Sinderen D. Enhancing the microbiological stability of malt and beer - A Review. J. Inst. Brew., 2005, vol. 111 (4), pp. 355-371. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j. 2050-0416.2005.tb00221.x (accessed 20.11.19.)
3. WHO Food Additives. Series: 68. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. NISIN. WHO, Geneva, 2013. Available at: http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v68je01.pdf (accessed 20.11.19.)
4. Safety of nisin (E 234) as a food additive in the light of new toxicological data and proposed extension of use. Scientific opinion. EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). EFSA Journal, 2017; 15 (12):5063. DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5063.
5. Franchi MA, Tribst AA, Cristianini M. The effect of antimicrobials and bacteriocins on beer spoilage microorganisms. Intern. Food Research J., 2012, vol. 19 (2), pp. 783-786. Available at: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19?%20(02)%202012/(63)IFRJ-2012?%20Alline%20Brazil.pdf (accessed 20.11.19.)
6. TR TS 029/2012. Trebovaniya besopasnosti pischevyh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tehnologicheskih vspomogatel'nyh sredstv. [Safety Requirements on food additives, flavourings and processing aids]. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902359401. (In Russ.)
7. FAO JECFA Specifications for Nisin Preparation. 71st JECFA, Monograf 7, pp. 63-66. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i0971e.pdf (accessed 20.11.19.)
8. Song AA-L, In LLA, Lim SHE, Rahim RA. A review on Lactococcus lactis: from food to factory. Microbial Cell Factories, 2017, 16:55, pp. 1-15. DOI 10.1186/s12934?017?0669?x.
9. Ozel B, Simsek O, Saris PEJ. Innovative approaches to nisin production. // Appl. Microbiology and Bacteriology, 2018;102 (15):6299-6307. DOI: 10.1007/s00253?018?9098?y.
10. Minaeva LP. Intensificatsiya tehnologii pishchevogo polipeptidnogo konservanta nisina [Intensification of food polypeptide preservative nisin technology]. Diss.Ph. D. Techn. Sciences. Moscow, 2000. 147 p. (In Russ.)
11. GOST R 57646-2017. Produktsija microbiologicheskaja. Dobavka pishchevaja nisin. Tehnicheskie uslovija [Microbiological products. Food additive nisin. Specification]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2017. 14 p. (In Russ.)
12. Bagrjantseva OV, Shatrov GN, Arnautov OV. Voprosy bezopasnogo ispol'zovanija fermentnyh preparatov, pishchevyh dobavok i aromatizatorov, poluchennyh metodom biotehnologii. [Issues of the safe use of enzyme preparations, food additives and flavorings obtained by the method of biotechnology]. Pishchevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry], 2016, no. 6, pp. 69-73. (In Russ.)
Authors
Volkova Tat'yana N., Candidate of Technical Science;
Borisenko Ol'ga A.;
Selina Irina V.;
Sozinova Marina S.
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries - a branch of the Federal Scientific Center for Food Systems V.M. Gorbatov RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tochilina R.P., Sklepovich Т.S., Poznanskaya Е.V., Saryan А.Sh., Pachkova I.N.Use of Spectrophotometry for Determination of Acid Sorbic in Wine Production

P. 26-30 Key words
wine products; concentration; method; sorbic acid; spectrophotometry.

Abstract
Among the few preserving agents allowed to use in wine industry is acid sorbic (E200) and its salts: sodium sorbate (E201) and potassium sorbate (E202). The permissible acid sorbic (AS) concentration limits for specific groups of wine production were set up. The standard methods are used in wine production to control AS content including highly effective liquid chromatography method (HELC) or capillary electrophoresis system. International Wine and Viniculture Organization (OIV) give it. During our work it was studied the recommended by OIV spectrophotometric method to determine AS in wine. This method demands no special expendables and expensive equipment; it needs only spectrophotometer enabling to make measurements in UV-part of spectrum, and an instrument for distillation by water vapor used in standard determination of volatile acids. The technique does not require any specially trained operators and expensive expendables. It is suggested to use certified AS mixtures to build the calibration characteristic and control the accuracy of AS determination results. There were given the calculated metrological characteristics of three certified AS mixtures of various concentration. The results are presented obtained for building the calibration characteristics, built according to original version of OIV technique and to proposed amended version. There are given metrological characteristics of developed spectrophotometry method to determine mass concentration of AS in wine production samples. It is stated that AS mass concentration determination results in wine production samples with the use of proposed method and standard HELC methods and electrophoresis capillary system enable to get comparable results. The developed technique is registered in the Federal information fund on uniformity of measurements.

References
1. TS 029/2012. Trebovaniya bezopasnosti pishchevykh dobavok, aromatizatorov i tekhnologicheskikh vspomogatel'nykh sredstv [Safety requirements for food additives, flavorings and technological aids]. Available from: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902359401. (In Russ.)
2. GOST R 53193-2008. Napitki alkogol'nyye i bezalkogol'nyye. Opredeleniye kofeina, askorbinovoy kisloty i yeye soley, konservantov i podslastiteley metodom kapillyarnogo elektroforeza [Alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Determination of caffeine, ascorbic acid and its salts, preservatives and sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis method]. Moscow: Standartiform, 2010. 11p. (In Russ.)
3. Metodika izmereniya massovoy kontsentratsii askorbinovoy, benzoynoy i sorbinovoy kislot v vinodel'cheskoy produktsii metodom vysokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii [Methodology for measuring the mass concentration of ascorbic, benzoic and sorbic acids in wine products using high performance liquid chromatography] (Reg. №?01.00225?62?10). (In Russ.)
4. GOST EN 12856-2015. Produktsiya pishchevaya. Opredeleniye atsesul'fama kaliya, aspartama i sakharina mеtodom vysokoeffektivnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii [Food products. Determination of Acesulfame Potassium, Aspartame and Saccharin by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method]. Moscow: Standartiform, 2016. 25p. (In Russ.)
5. Method OIV-MA-AS313-14A Sorbic acid. Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2360/oiv-ma-as313-14a.pdf. (In Fren.)
6. Methode OIV-MA-AS313-14B. Sorbic acid. Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2361/oiv-ma-as313-14b.pdf. (In Fren.)
7. Methode OIV-MA-AS313-14С. Sorbic acid (TLC). Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2362/oiv-ma-as313-14c.pdf. (In Fren.)
8. Methode OIV-MA-AS313-18. Sorbic acid (capillary electrophoresis). Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2366/oiv-ma-as313-18.pdf. (In Fren.)
9. Methode OIV-MA-AS313-20. Sorbic, benzoic, salicylic acids. Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2368/oiv-ma-as313-20.pdf. (In Fren.)
10. OIV-MA-AS1-03. Classification of analytical methods. Available from: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2620/oiv-ma-as1-03.pdf. (In Fren.)
11. GOST 32001-2012. Produktsiya alko­gol'­naya i syr'ye dlya yeye proizvodstva. Metod opredeleniya massovoy kontsentratsii letuchikh kislot [Alcoholic beverages and raw materials for their production. Method for determination of mass concentration of volatile acids] Moscow: Standartiform, 2014. 5p. (In Russ.)
12. Tochilina RP, Poznanskaya YeV. Vliyaniye protsedury probopodgotovki na rezul'taty opredeleniya v vinoproduktsii massovoy kontsentratsii sorbinovoy kisloty spektrofotometricheskim metodom [The influence of the sample preparation procedure on the results of determining the mass concentration of sorbic acid in wine products by the spectrophotometric method]. Aktual'nyye voprosy industrii napitkov [Current issues in the beverage industry]. 2017, no. 1, p. 120-122. (In Russ.)
13. RMG 60-2003. GSI. Smesi Attestovannyye. Obshchiye trebovaniya k razrabotke [GSI.Certified Mixtures. General requirements for development]. Moscow: Standartiform, 2007. 11p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Tochilina Regina P., Candidate of Technical Science;
Sklepovich Тat'yana S.;
Poznanskaya Еlena V.;
Saryan Аnaida Sh.;
Pachkova Irina N.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zhirov M.V., Zhirova V.V., Magomedov N.M., Makarov S.Y.Mathematical Model for Regulating the Temperature of Sparkling Wines During Secondary Fermentation

P. 31-35 Key words
secondary fermentation; sparkling wines; mathematical model; temperature field; regulation; energy saving.

Abstract
In order to ensure the technological parameters of the production of sparkling wines in the process of secondary fermentation and reduce energy consumption per unit of output, the possibility of controlling the temperature field of the wine material in a cylindrical tank with a "jacket", in the process of continuous champagne on paired fermenters (SBA) was studied. Studies were conducted to study the temperature changes of wine material around the perimeter of the tank using built-in temperature sensors in both laboratory and production conditions. On the basis of the conducted researches the mathematical model of regulation of temperature of sparkling wines at secondary fermentation was received. With the help of a special program that implements a mathematical model of temperature control, theoretical curves of changes in the temperature field of sparkling wine in the tank during secondary fermentation were calculated. The theoretical calculations coincide with the practical results on the coupled fermentation vessels in a production environment. This led to the conclusion about the possibility of regulating the temperature of sparkling wines in the tank during secondary fermentation. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that by controlling the temperature field, it is possible to regulate the cooling process of champagne wine material and significantly reduce the consumption of electricity for cooling.

References
1. Avakyanc SP. Biohimicheskie osnovy tekhnologii shampanskogo [Biochemical bases of technology of champagne]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 1980. 351 p. (In Russ.)
2. Belousova ID, Sarishvili NG, Storchevoj EN. Optimizaciya temperatury pri shampanizacii vina v nepreryvnom potoke [Optimization of the temperature of the wine champagnization in a continuous stream]. CNITEHIPishcheprom, 1977, no. 10, pp. 68. (In Russ.)
3. Gulyaeva VS. Problemy proizvodstva otechestvennyh igristyh vin i shampanskogo [Problems of production of domestic sparkling wines and champagne]. Vinograd i vino Rossii, 2001, no. 3, pp. 34-35. (In Russ.)
4. Zhirov MV. Adaptive control of technological processes with non-stationary parameters [Problems of production of domestic sparkling wines and champagne]. Dr. sci. diss. abstract. Moscow, 2004. 54 p. (In Russ.)
5. Magomedov NM, Zhirov MV. Energosberegayushchee upravlenie tekhnologicheskim processom nepreryvnoj shampanizacii [Energy saving control of technological process of continuous champagne]. Mezhdunarodnaya nauchnoprakticheskaya konferenciya: Peredovye informacionnye tekhnologii, sredstva i sistemy upravleniya i ih vnedrenie na Rossijskih predpriyatiyah [International Scientific Conference: Advanced information technologies, management tools and systems and their implementation at Russian enterprises]; 2011; Moscow: Institut problem upravleniya im. V.A. Trapeznikova RAN, 2011, p. 32-34. (In Russ.)
6. Magomedov NM. Razrabotka tekhnologii igristyh vin na osnove intensifikacii processa vtorichnogo brozheniya [Development of sparkling wine technology based on the intensification of the secondary fermentation process]. Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow: Mosk. state University of technology and management K.G. Razumovsky, 2011. 24 p. (In Russ.)
7. Makarov AS, Valujko GG (Ed.). Proizvodstvo shampanskogo [The production of champagne]. Simferopol': Tavriya, 2008. 416 p. (In Russ.)
8. Sarishvili NG, Rejtblat BB. Mikrobiologicheskie osnovy tekhnologii shampanizacii vin [Microbiological fundamentals of technology of champagne wines]. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 2000. 364 p. (In Russ.)
9. Chaplikene VI. Razrabotka tekhnologii krasnyh igristyh vin na osnove regulirovaniya fiziologii i metabolizma drozhzhej [Development of technology of red sparkling wines on the basis of regulation of physiology and metabolism of yeast]: Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow: All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of brewing, beverage and wine industry, 2003. 24 p. (In Russ.)
10. Gagarin MA. Progressivnaya tekhnologiya shampanskih vin [Progressive technology of sparkling wines] Moscow: KrugozorNauka, 2003. 320 p. (In Russ.)
11. Gyurov IF. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii proizvodstva shampanskogo v potoke na osnove intensifikacii massoobmena i metobolizma drozhzhej [Improvement of champagne production technology in the stream on the basis of intensification of mass transfer and metabolism of yeast]. Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow, 1989. 24 p. (In Russ.)
12. Kolosov SA. Razrabotka tekhnologii proizvodstva igristyh vin s povyshennymi penistymi svojstvami [Development of technology for the production of sparkling wines with increased foamy properties]. Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Yalta: National Institute of grapes and wine "Magarach", 2005. 19 s. (In Russ.)
13. Kucheryavyj LM. Razrabotka tekhnologii polucheniya yablochnyh igristyh vin na osnove napravlennogo regulirovaniya i intensifikacii processa vtorichnogo brozheniya [Development of technology for producing Apple sparkling wines on the basis of directional regulation and intensification of the secondary fermentation process]: Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow: All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of brewing, beverage and wine industry, 2010. 24 p. (In Russ.)
14. Makarov AS. Aktual'nye problemy proizvodstva shampanskih i igristyh vin [Actual problems of champagne and sparkling wine production]. Sad, vinograd і vino Ukraїni, 2007, no. 4, pp. 20-27. (In Russ.)
15. Gagarin MA, Zhirov MV, Bakulin VP, So­lov'ev IA. Issledovanie polya temperatur vinomateriala v rezervuare cilindricheskoj formy [Investigation of the temperature field of wine material in a cylindrical tank]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2002, no. 3, pp. 38-40. (In Russ.)
16. Magomedov NM, Zhirov VM, Presnyakova OP. Optimizaciya tekhnologicheskoj skhemy nepreryvnoj shampanizacii na Rostovskom kombinate shampanskih vin [Optimization of the technological scheme of continuous champagne production at the Rostov plant of champagne wines]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij, 2009, no. 2, pp. 22-23. (In Russ.)
17. Stepanenkova LN. Optimizaciya organizacii potokov v bioreaktorah nepreryvnogo dejstviya [Optimization of flow organization in continuous bioreactors]: Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow: Mosow State University of technol. and management, 2006. 108 p. (In Russ.)
18. Shahovskoj AV. Razrabotka programmiruemyh sistem otobrazheniya informacii i cifrovyh mnogoparametricheskih regulyatorov dlya avtomatizacii upravleniya tekhnologicheskimi processami (na primere vinodeliya) [Development of programmable information display systems and digital multi-parameter controllers for automation of technological processes control (on the example of winemaking)]: Abstract. diss. Cand. tech. sci. Moscow: Moscow State technological Academy, 2002. 24 p. (In Russ.)
19. Zhirov MV, Makarov VV, Soldatov VV. Identifikaciya i adaptivnoe upravlenie tekhnologicheskimi processami s nestandartnymi parametrami [Identification and adaptive control of technological processes with non-standard parameters]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 2007. 203 p. (In Russ.)
20. Zhirov MV, Shahovskoj AV. Razrabotka adaptivnoj komp'yuternoj sistemy upravleniya termoobrabotkoj vinomaterialov [Development of adaptive computer control system for heat treatment of wine materials]. Vinograd i vino Rossii, 2000, no. 2, pp. 33-35. (In Russ.)
Authors
Zhirov Mikhail V., Doctor of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe sh., Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zhirova Vera V., Candidate of Technical Science, Associate professor;
Magomedov Nizamutdin M., Candidate of Technical Science, Associate professor;
Makarov Sergei Yu., Candidate of Technical Science, Associate professor
Moscow State University of technologies and management bу K.G. Razumovsky (the First Cossack University),
73, Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russian, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Fataliyev H.K., Imamguliyeva M.M., Cafarova K.T.The Research of Cahors Wine Production by the "Kurdamir Method" in Azerbaijan

P. 36-40 Key words
wine; grape; Cahors; pulp; alcohol; alcoholization; must; phenolic compounds.

Abstract
In 1982, 2 million tons of grapes were harvested in Azerbaijan, and 121.6 million decalitres of wine materials were produced from 275 thousand hectares of vineyard. In the same year, 23.9 million decalitres of grape wines, 12.5 million bottles of champagne and 1,599 thousand decalitres of cognac were produced. For comparison, we note that in the USSR 7 million 622 thousand tons of grapes were harvested from 1 million 374 thousand hectares of vineyards. Apparently, Azerbaijani vineyards accounted for about a quarter of the country's vineyards. At that time, the wine branch in Azerbaijan was mainly specialized in the production of strong wines, and 92-95?% of the wines produced fell to the share of strong wines. The country's wine tradition, known for its peculiar history in this area, was famous for its specific brands. One of the most famous was the Cahors Kurdamir, prepared by the "Kurdamir technique". It should be noted that at that time in the USSR 18 wines were produced by the Kurdamir technique. In such conditions, the restoration of production and improvement of technology of Kurdamir wines using the raw material base were very relevant and require special research. As can be seen, an important scientific problem faces the industry related to the production and technology of Cahors wine. The object of the study was the aboriginal and introduced varieties of red grapes of Mattress, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shirvanshahs, Merlot, obtained from them must, pulp, wine material, wine, stalk, squeeze, yeast, technological methods, means, etc. Grapes are harvested in stage of technical or full maturity. Harvested grapes are processed using such methods as "By white", "By Red", "thermovinification", "Kakhetian" and "Kurdamir". In the process and at the end the samples of wines and wine materials were examined by the organoleptic and physicochemical methods of analysis that exist in enochemistry. It was found that in indigenous and introduced grape varieties during the team maturity, the ratio of glucose to fructose by varieties was close to unity (1.01-1.08). The total amount of phenolic compounds in wine samples using such technological methods as fermentation on the pulp, heating of the pulp, fermentation from the stalks and alcoholization of the pulp was much more than in the samples of the wines obtained by the "white method". General phenolic compounds and its monomeric forms in the "alcoholization of the pulp" variants; polymeric phenols during the "heating of the pulp" and the amount of anthocyanins during the "fermentation of the pulp from the stalks" attracts attention with higher rates. The amount of phenol-carboxylic acids compared to the "white method" with the use of other methods showed an increase of about 2 times, while with the method of "alcoholization the pulp" there is an increase of 2.5 times. It is shown that, regardless of the method of obtaining wines by successive stages, a decrease in the total number of anthocyanins is observed.

References
1. Fataliyev HK. Sharabin texnologiyasi. Baki., Elm., 2011, 596 s?h. (In Azerb.)
2. Valuyko GG. Texnologiya vinoqradnih vin [Technology of grape wines]. Simferopol: Tavrida, 2001. 624 p. (In Russ.)
3. Kishkovskiy ZN, Merjanian AA. Tehnogiya vina [Wine technology]. Moscow: Legkaya i pishevaya promishlennost, 1984. 504 p. (In Russ.)
4. Timush AI. Enciklopediya vinogradarstva [Encyclopedia of viticulture]. Kishinev: Gl. red. Mold.Cov. Enciklopediya, 1986, Vol. 2. 504 p.
5. Gerjikova VG. Metodi tehnohimiceshoqo kontrolya v vinodelii [Methods of technochemical control in winemaking]. Simferopol: Tavrida, 2009. 304 p. (In Russ.)
6. Kishkovskiy ZN., Skurihin IM. Himija vina [Chemistry of wine]. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1988. 254 p. (In Russ.)
7. Zaprometov MN. Fenolnie soedineniya [Phenolic compounds] Moscow: Nauka. 1993. 272 s. (In Russ.)
8. Rodopulo AK. Osnovy biohimii vinodeliya [Fundamentals of biochemistry of winemaking]. Moscow, PP. 1983. 240 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Fataliev Khasil K., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Imamkulieva Maviya M., Undergraduate;
Dzhafarova Kenul' T.,Undergraduate
Azerbaijan State Agrarian University,
262, Ataturk avenue, Ganja, AZ2000, Azerbaijan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Cherepitsa S.V., Sytova S.N., Egorov V.V., Leshchev S.M., Korban A.L., Sobolenko L.N., Milochkin D.A., Ustyugov V.S., Korobov V.A., Ismagilov D.R.Validation of the Method of Direct Determination of the Quantitative Content of Volatile Components in Alcohol Containing Products

P. 41-45 Key words
validation; quantitative determination; volatile compounds; reference method; alcohol-containing products.

Abstract
The aim of this work is the further development of the method of direct determination of the quantitative content of volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products. This method is based on the use of ethanol as an internal standard and, as was shown earlier, can be used to analyze a wide range of alcohol-containing products, including spirit beverages, pharmaceutical products, perfumes, bioethanol, ethanol-containing automobile fuel, i. e. any product containing ethanol. The method provides a direct determination of the quantitative content of volatile compounds directly in the dimension mg per litre AA in full compliance with regulatory legal acts for the tested products. The experimental data processing algorithm using the proposed method coincides with the algorithm for such calculation in traditional method of internal standard. The work demonstrates the possibility of validating the proposed method based on the analysis of experimental data when testing standard solutions of volatile compounds in accordance with current standards, without any additional measurements, material and financial costs. In the studies performed, standard solutions for gas chromatographic measurements were prepared by the gravimetric method. To evaluate the metrological characteristics of the method, the obtained experimental results were processed in accordance with a series of standards ISO 5725 and the guidance of EuroChem. In undertaken experiment it was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity and quantification limits by gas chromatographic measurements of gravimetrically prepared standard solutions of volatile congeners in water-ethanol matrix. The values of the repeatability limits varied between 1.0 and 7.0?%, the values of the intermediate precision limits varied between 1.2 and 8.6?% for all the studied compounds. This fact indicates satisfactory repeatability of the method. The relative bias values varied between 0.1 and 6.1?% for all the studied compounds, that demonstrates the high accuracy of the method. So, the analysis confirmed that the method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" saves labour, time and resources than the traditional method of internal standard, can be easily employed in each and every testing laboratory and can be used as a reference at the international level.

References
1. TR EAES 047/2018. Tehnicheskiy reglament Evraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza "O bezopasnosti alkogolnoy produktsii" [Сustoms regulation of EAEU 047/2018. On the safety of alcohol], 2018. 129 p. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/551893590.
2. GOST 30536-2013. Vodka i spirt etilovyj iz pishhevogo syrya. Gazoxromatograficheskij ekspress-metod opredeleniya soderzhaniya toksichnyx mikroprimesej [Vodka and ethyl alcohol from food raw materials. Gas chromatographic express method for determining the content of toxic microimpurities]. Moscow: Interstate Council for Standar­dization, Metrology and Certification, 2013. 21 p.
3. GOST 33408-2015. Konyaki, distillyatyi konyachnyie, brendi. Opredelenie soderzhaniya aldegidov, efirov i spirtov metodom gazovoy hromatografii [Cognac, cognac distillates, brandy. Determination of aldehydes, esters and alcohols by gas chromatography]. Minsk: Eurasian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification, 2015. 18 p.
4. GOST 33834-2016. Produkciya vinodelcheskaya i syre dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazoxromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii letuchix komponentov [Wine production and raw materials for its production. Gas chromatographic method for determining the mass concentration of volatile components]. Minsk: Eurasian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification, 2016. 15 p.
5. STB GOST R 51698-2001. Vodka i spirt etilovyj. Gazoxromatograficheskij ekspress-metod opredeleniya soderzhaniya toksichnyx mikroprimesej [Vodka and ethyl alcohol. Gas chromatographic express method for determining the content of toxic microimpurities]. Minsk: State Standard of the Republic of Belarus, 2001. 37 p.
6. GOST R 57893-2017. Produkty brozheniya i syre dlya ix proizvodstva. Gazoxromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya koncentracii letuchix komponentov [Fermentation products and raw materials for their production. Gas chromatographic method for determining the concentration of volatile components]. Moscow: Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology, 2017. 15 p.
7. DSTU 4222:2003. Vodki, spirt etilovyj i vodno-spirtovye rastvory. Gazoxromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya soderzhaniya mikrokomponentov [Vodka, ethyl alcohol and water-alcohol solutions. Gas chromatographic method for determining the content of microcomponents]. Kiev: State Standard of Ukraine, 2003. 13 p.
8. GOST 3639-79. Rastvory vodno-spirtovye. Metody opredeleniya koncentracii etilovogo spirta [Water-alcohol solutions. Methods for determining the concentration of ethyl alcohol]. Moscow: State Standard of USSR, 1979, 11 p.
9. Charapitsa SV, [et al.] Direct Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013;61 (12):2950-2956. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf3044956.
10. EC 2870/2000. Community reference methods for the analysis of spirits drinks. 04.12.2002. The commission of the European communities, 2002. 47 p.
11. OIV-MA-BS-14:R2009. Compendium of international methods of analysis of spirituous beverages of viti-vinicultural origin. Determination of the principal volatile substances of spirit drinks of viti-vinicultural origin. International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV). 12 p. URL: http://www.oiv.int/public/medias/2674/oiv-ma-bs-14.pdf.
12. ASTM D 4307-99. Practice for preparation of liquid blends for use as analytical standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
13. STB ISO 5725, Chasti 1-6. Tochnost' (pravil'­nost' i precizionnost') metodov i rezul'tatov izmerenij [Accuracy (Trueness and Precision) of the methods and results of measurements]. Minsk: State Standard of the Republic of Belarus, 2002.
Authors
Cherepitsa Sergei V., Candidate of Physico-Matematical Science;
Sytova Svetlana N., Candidate of Physico-Matematical Science
Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University,
11, Bobruiskaya str., Minsk, 220030, Republic of Belarus, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Egorov Vladimir V., Doctor of Chemistry Science, Professor;
Leshchev Sergei M., Doctor of Chemistry Science, Professor;
Korban Anton L.;
Sobolenko Lidiya N.
Belarusian State University,
4, Nezavisimosti avenue, Minsk, 220030, Republic of Belarus, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , leschev. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Milochkin Dmitrii A.;
Ustyugov Vladimir S.;
Korobov Valerii A.;
Ismagilov Dmitrii R., Candidate of Chemical Science
JSС CHROMATEC,
94, Stroiteley str., Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El, 424000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Karpenko D.V., Kryukova E.V., Shcherbakova E.V.Method for Intensification of the Extraction of Plant Raw Materials in the Beverage Industry

P. 46-50 Key words
peppermint; pretreatment with sound of the audible range; acoustic processing parameters; beverage production; extraction of plant raw materials.

Abstract
The article is devoted to methods of increasing the degree of processing of plant materials used in the production of beverages of various strengths, which increase the competitiveness of the enterprise and the environmental safety of the technological process. Information is given on factors affecting the extraction process, and methods for intensifying this process. The article presents the results of studies of the effect of peppermint pretreatment with the sound of the audible range in order to increase the yield of technologically valuable components of plant raw materials in the extract. The presence of a significant effect of sound on the peppermint components extraction was established. It was found that the parameters of the extract can both improve and worsen compared to the control depending on the frequency of the sound used to process of test specimens. The effect of a number of preliminary acoustic processing parameters on the extraction results was studied: the frequency of sound, the duration of sound action on the experimental sample of peppermint, and sound power. It was found that the largest increase in the yield of dry substances in the extract and its color was provided by acoustic treatment at the frequency of 11,000 Hz for 40 min at a power equal to 40?% of the maximum of the sound source used in the experiment (3 W). The specified mode of preliminary acoustic treatment of the peppermint provided an increase in the yield of dry substances by 16-20??%, and an increase in the color of the extract by 13-21??% compared with the control. Based on the presented research results, it is concluded that the application of acoustic processing on a production scale is perspective.

References
1. Gadzhieva AM, Kasyanov GI, Mungieva NA, [et al.]. Effective complex processing of raw tomatoes. Scientific Study & Research - Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry. 2018;19 (1):83-89.
2. Il'ina EV, Makarova SYu, Slavskaya IL. Tekhnologiya i oborudovanie dlya proizvodstva vodok i likerovodochnykh izdeliy [Technology and equipment for the production of vodka and alcoholic beverages]. Moscow: DeLi print; 2010. 492 p. (In Russ.)
3. Stepanyan VP. Intensifikatsiya protsessa ehkstraktsii biologicheski aktivnykh soedineniy iz rastitel'nogo syr'ya ehlektricheskimi impul'snymi razryadami [Intensification of the process of extraction of biologically active compounds from plant materials by electric pulse discharges]. Dr. techn. sci. diss. Pyati­gorsk; 2000. 153 p. (In Russ.)
4. Ismailov EhSh, Daudova TN, Dzharullaev DS. Novyy sposob intensifikatsii protsessa ehkstraktsii [A new way to intensify the extraction process]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost' [Food Industry]. 2005;10:32-34. (In Russ.)
5. Eremeeva NB, Makarova NV. Vliyanie tekhnologii ehkstraktsii na antiokislitel'nuyu aktivnost' ehkstraktov plodov chernoplodnoy ryabiny [The influence of extraction technology on the antioxidant activity of black chokeberry fruit extracts]. Vestnik MGTU [Herald of MSTU]. 2017;3:12-18. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.21443/1560?9278? 2017?20?3?600?608.
6. Chemat F, Zill-e-Huma, Khan MK. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrasonic Sonochemistry. 2011;18 (4):813-835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.11.023.
7. Alekseenko EV. Monitoring ehffektivnosti primeneniya fermentnykh preparatov dlya obrabotki yagod brusniki pri poluchenii soka [Monitoring the effectiveness of enzyme preparations for the processing of lingonberry berries in juice production]. Vestnik VGUIT [Herald of VSUIT]. 2015;3:177-181. (In Russ.)
8. Karpenko DV. Uluchshenie kachestvennykh kharakteristik syr'ya i poluproduktov pivovareniya za schyot akusticheskoy obrabotki [Improving the quality characteristics of raw materials and semi-products of brewing due to acoustic processing]. Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem "Razvitie pishchevoy i pererabatyvayushchey promyshlennosti Rossii: kadry i nauka" [Materials of a scientific conference with international participation "Development of the food and processing industry of Russia: personnel and science"]; 2017; Moscow. Moscow: MGUPP, 2017. 240 p. (In Russ.)
9. Karpenko DV, Gernet MV, Krjukova EV, [et al.]. Acoustic vibration effect on genus Saccaromyces yeast population development. News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series of geology and technical sciences. 2019;4 (436):103-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32014/2019.2518-170X.103.
10. Karpenko DV, Tikhonova TA, Khodarev KK, [et al.]. Sposob aktivatsii amiloliticheskogo fermentnogo preparata [The method of activation of amylolytic enzyme preparation]. Moscow, 2015, Pivo i Napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2015;4:42-44. (In Russ.)
11. Karpenko DV, Kravchenko VS, Shalaginov KV. Aktivatsiya amiloliticheskogo fermentnogo preparata volnovymi vozdeystviyami [Amylolytic enzyme preparation activation by wave effects]. Pivo i Napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2017;5:16-19. (In Russ.)
12. Karpenko DV, Berketova MA. Optimizatsiya parametrov akusticheskoy obrabotki pivovarennogo yachmennogo soloda [Optimization of acoustic processing parameters of brewing barley malt]. Pivo i Napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2012;4:8-10. (In Russ.)
13. Karpenko DV, Berketova MA. Izuchenie vliyaniya akusticheskikh kolebaniy na kachestvo pivovarennogo yachmennogo soloda [Study of the influence of acoustic vibrations on the quality of malting barley malt]. Pivo i Napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2012;5:14-16. (In Russ.)
14. Karpenko DV, Pozdnyakova IEh. Povyshenie ehkstraktivnosti khmelya s pomoshch'yu akusticheskoy obrabotki [The increase of the extract content of hops with acoustic treatment]. Pivo i Napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2016;6:46-49. (In Russ.)
Authors
Karpenko Dmitriy V., Doctor of Technical Science;
Kryukova Elizaveta V., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Shcherbakova Evgeniya V.
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Rozina L.I., Pelikh L.A., Letfullina D.R., Ganin M.Yu.Food Vinegar Production Using Immobilized Acetic-acid Bacterium

P. 51-55 Key words
biochemical food vinegar; bio-carrier; immobilization; cell immobilization methods; beer dialysate; acetic-acid bacterium (AAB).

Abstract
The article provides an overview of biochemical food vinegar production current state using immobilized acetic-acid bacterium (AAB). For special types of natural vinegar, today are used special raw materials for which the final product is called, for example, malt vinegar (in England), wine vinegar (in Italy and France), rice vinegar (in China), coconut vinegar (in Southeast Asia, in Philippines, in southern regions of India), from tropical fruits, raisin, honey. The main methods of biochemical vinegar obtaining are depth and surface (circulating). The depth method is based on principle of acetic-acid bacterium cultivation directly in aerated medium. Surface cultivation method is characterized by fact that acetic-acid bacterium are fixed on a solid carrier, and the nutrient fluid constantly circulates from top to bottom through the carrier. Physiological and morphological signs of cells during immobilization undergo significant changes. Immobilization affects the cell proliferation rate, biochemical processes intensity, enzymatic activity. There are physical, chemical and mechanical methods of cells immobilization. Currently, most large-scale microbiological processes use cells sorbed on various carriers, which are associated with such advantages of adhesive immobilization as cheapness, versatility, absence of stress effects on cells and ease of implementation.

References
1. By Ed. Anderkofler LA, Hikkey Dzh. Brodil'nye proizvodstva [Fermentation production]. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 1959. 416 p. (In Russ.)
2. Zhang B, Chen J, Li D. Tekhnologiya polucheniya uksusa brozheniem s ispol'zovaniem povrezhdennyh i defektnyh plodov kitajskogo finika [Technology for producing vinegar by fermentation using damaged and defective Chinese date fruits]. Nongye gongcheng xuebao = Trans. Chin.Soc. Agr. Eng., 2004, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 213-216.
3. Solieri L. Vinegars of the World. Korean Handong Global University, 2008.
4. Zhou J-B, Ye H-L, Wei J., Zhang Q.?S. Study of the composition and antimicrobial action of vinegar from wheat straw. Linchan huaxue yu gongye = Chem. and Ind. Forest Prod. 2008;28 (4); 55-58.
5. Zhuang G, Wei M, Zhu G-Z, Gong M-Y. Research of vinegar of fermentation with use as a starting material of shells of grain and the grits received at extraction of grain starch. Henan gongye daxue xuebao. Ziran kexue ban = J. Henan Univ. Technol. Nat.Sci. Ed., 2006;27 (4):28-31.
6. Liu Yuemei, Bai Weidong, Lu Zhoumin, Zheng Hao. Optimization of acetic acid fermentation parameters for production of persimmon vinegar. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agriculture Engineering, 2008;24 (4):257-260.
7. Ji X, Wang K-P, Zhang L., Zhang L. Ultrafiltration treatment of peach vinegar. Huaxue yanjiu = Chem. Res., 2005, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 65-66.
8. Batashov ES, Sevodin VP. Sposob proizvodstva oblepihovogo uksusa [Method of production of sea buckthorn vinegar]. Patent RU no. 2552889. 2015. (In Russ.)
9. Lamberova AA, Koshelev YuA, Lamberova ME. Issledovanie vliyaniya sostava pitatel'noj sredy na effektivnost' rosta i obrazovaniya oblepihovogo pishchevogo uksusa bakteriyami Acetobacter Aceti [Investigation of the influence of nutrient medium composition on the efficiency of growth and formation of sea buckthorn food vinegar by Acetobacter Aceti bacteria]. Polzunovskij vestnik. 2008; (1-2):78-81.
10. Galkina GV, Illarionova VI, Kuksova EV, [i dr.]. Sovremennye sposoby proizvodstva biohimicheskogo uksusa. Tezisy nauchnoj konferencii. Uglich, 2006. (In Russ.)
11. Galkina GV, Illarionova VI, Kuksova EV, [i dr.]. Poluchenie uksusa na spirtovyh zavodah s ispol'zovaniem v kachestve syr'ya spirtosoderzhashchih othodov i vtorichnyh resursov [Production of vinegar in distilleries using alcohol-containing wastes and secondary resources as raw materials]. Proizvodstvo spirta I likerovodochnyh izdelii. 2006; (4):34-35. (In Russ.)
12. Ocenka fiziologicheskoj i metabolicheskoj aktivnostej kletok v immobilizovannom sostoyanii [Assessment of physiological and metabolic activity of cells in immobilized state]. - URL: http://megapredmet.ru/1-18686.html. (In Russ.)
13. By Ed. Vudvorda Dzh. Immobilizovannye kletki i fermenty. Metody [Immobilized cells and enzymes. Methods]. Moscow: Mir, 1988. 215 p.
14. Zvyagincev NG. Vzaimodejstvie mikroorganizmov s tverdymi poverhnostyami. Moscow: Izd-vo MGU, 1979. pp. 114-142.
15. Skryabin GK, Koshcheenko KA. Immobilizovannye kletki mikroorganizmov. In: Biotekhnologiya [The interaction of microorganisms with solid surfaces]. Moscow: Nauka, 1984. pp. 70-77. (In Russ.)
16. Belyasova NA. Biohimiya i molekulyarnaya biologiya [Biochemistry and molecular bio­logy]. Minsk: BGTU, 2002. (In Russ.)
17. Gvozdyak PI, Dmitrenko GN, Kulikov NI. Ochistka promyshlennyh stochnyh vod prikreplennymi mikroorganizmami [Industrial wastewater treatment with attached microorganisms]. Himiya i tekhnologiya vody. 1985;7 (1):64-68. (In Russ.)
18. Korshik TS, Kislicyn YuYu, Lelyuk KV, [i dr.]. Sposob proizvodstva pishchevogo natural'nogo uksusa [Method of production of edible natural vinegar]. Patent RU 2301255.2007.
19. Koshelev YuA, CHernuha BA, Galkina GV, [i dr.]. Sposob proizvodstva uksusa [Method of production of vinegar]. Patent RU 2385924.2010.
20. Lamberova AA, Koshelev YuA, Lamberova ME. Primenenie nanoadsorbentov v processah polucheniya i ochistki oblepihovogo biohimicheskogo uksusa [Application of nanoadsorbents in the processes of preparation and purification of sea buckthorn biochemical vinegar]. Polzunovskij vestnik, 2009; (3):319-323. (In Russ.)
21. Lamberova AA, Lamberova ME. Primenenie melkoporistyh sorbentov v biotekhnologii pishchevogo uksusa [Application of fine-porous sorbents in food vinegar biotechnology]. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki. 2011; (5):94-105. (In Russ.)
22. Lamberova AA, Lamberova ME. Sposob proizvodstva natural'nogo biohimicheskogo uksusa [Method of production of natural biochemical vinegar]. Patent RU 2483104. 2013. (In Russ.)
23. Antropova AL, Lamberova AA, Lamberova ME. Issledovanie sposobov intensifikacii processa polucheniya oblepihovogo uksusa pri immobilizacii kletok Acetobacter aceti na razlichnyh nositelyah [Investigation of ways to intensify the process of obtaining sea buckthorn vinegar by immobilization of Acetobacter aceti cells on various carriers]. Tekhnologii i oborudovanie himicheskoj, biotekhnologicheskoj i pishchevoj promyshlennosti: 3 Vserossijskaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferenciya studentov, aspirantov i molodyh uchenyh s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem [Technologies and equipment of chemical, biotechnological and food industry: Proceedigs of the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference of students, postgraduates and young scientists with international participation]. Bijsk, 2010, pp. 274-277. (In Russ.)
24. Bushuev YuG. Ceolity. Komp'yuternoe modelirovanie ceolitnyh materialov [Zeolites. Computer modeling of zeolite materials]. Ivanovo: Ivan. gos. him.?tekhnol. un-t., 2011. 104 p. (In Russ.)
25. Vinogradova SL, Zadorskij VI, Krapivnikova GI, [i dr.]. Sposob polucheniya plodovo-yagodnogo uksusa [Method for producing fruit vinegar]. Copyright certificate RU 1252332.1986. (In Russ.)
26. Panasyuk AL, Storchevoj YuN, Sen'kina ZE, [i dr.]. Sposob proizvodstva plodovogo uksusa [Method of production of fruit vinegar]. Copyright certificate RU 1296570. 1987. (In Russ.)
27. Panasyuk AL, Litvak VS, YAnsons IA, [i dr.]. Sposob polucheniya plodovogo uksusa [Method for producing fruit vinegar]. Copyright certificate RU 1402612.1988. (In Russ.)
Authors
Rozina Larisa I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Pelikh Lyudmila A.;
Letfullina Dilyara R.;
Ganin Mihail Yu.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Altaeva A.M., Remneva G.A., Khorosheva E.V., Sevostyanova E.M.Plastic or Glass? The Effect of Packaging Material on the Degassing of Mineral Waters

P. 56-58 Key words
degassing; carbon dioxide; mineral water; PET; glass; packaging.

Abstract
One indicator of the quality of carbonated mineral waters is the carbon dioxide content. Carbon dioxide gives water the refreshing properties of the drink, and also acts as a preservative. Mineral water healthy-table and healthy are produced only in carbonated type. Carbon dioxide in this case acts as a preservative and stabilizer of chemical composition. The mass concentration of carbon dioxide in carbonated mineral waters should be at least 0.2??% during the entire shelf life. Mineral carbonated water is poured into polymer and glass packaging, with a capacity of up to 2.0 liters. The shelf life of mineral waters in PET packaging is from 6 to 12 months. As the objects of research, industrially produced mineral waters were put up in consumer packaging (PET and glass). Samples were placed in a thermostat at a temperature of 25±2?°С for the planned shelf life taking into account the safety factor. It was found that during the expiration date, a decrease in the content of carbon dioxide is observed, and the rate of decrease is determined by the quality of the bottle and corking. As a result of the experiment, it was found that the maximum shelf life for mineral water packed in PET bottles (in terms of CO2 content) can be allowed up to 12 months; for mineral water in glass bottles, the shelf life can be extended to 24 months or more. Extended shelf life should be confirmed by protocols for a specific type of product during the shelf life, subject to established storage conditions.

References
1. Senior D, Dege N. Bottling Water - Maintaining Safety and Integrity through the Process. Technology of Bottled Water, 2011, 175-195 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444393330.ch6 (In Eng.)
2. Hawkins G, Potter E, Race K. Packaging Water. Plastic Water. 2015:3-26. DOI: https://10.7551/mitpress/9780262029414. 003.0001 (In Eng.)
3. Sinicin G. Plastikovaja upakovka: mirovye tendencii [Plastic packaging: global trends]. Upakovka i upakovka [Packaging and Packaging], 2003, no. 5, pp. 10. (In Russ.)
4. Gul' VE. Polimery dlja upakovki pishhevoj produkcii [Polymers for packaging food products]. Upakovka i upakovka [Packaging and packaging], 1993, no. 3, pp. 24-26. (In Russ.)
5. Uharceva IJu, Gol'dade A. Sovremennye upakovochnye materialy v pishhevoj promyshlennosti [Modern packaging materials in the food industry]. Plasticheskie massy [Plastics], 2006, pp. 42-50. (In Russ.)
6. Almeida H, Ramos C, B?rtolo H, B?rtolo P. Evaluating the impact of glass and PET packaging for bottled water. Green Design, Materials and Manufacturing Processes. London: CRC Press, 2013. 345-350 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/b15002. (In Eng.)
7. Shul'c MM, Mazurin OV. Sovremennye predstavlenija o stroenii stekol i ih svojstvah [Modern ideas about the structure of glasses and their properties. Leningrad: Nauka, 1988. 200 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Altaeva Alla M.;
Remneva Galina A.;
Khorosheva Elena V.;
Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L., Kuz'mina E. I., Sviridov D.A.Use of Modern Instrumental Analysis Methods for Establishing Geographical Place of Wine Products Origin

P. 59-64 Key words
geography; isotope mass spectrometry; authenticity control; origin place; elemental profile.

Abstract
The article presents published works analysis, devoted to regional wines owner ship establishment. According to published data over the past few years, wines proportion, produced in Russia from their own grapes, doesn't exceed 50?% of the total. The main direction of viticulture and winemaking in Russia today is to increase its own wine materials and wines production by increasing the area of vineyards, increasing yields, for which a number of subsidies and benefits for enterprises to produce products from their own raw materials are provided. At the same time, there remains the danger of replacing domestic products with imported wine materials or wine materials of other wine-growing regions. The authors analyzed existing approaches for determining wines geographical origin authenticity in various wine-making regions of the world and indicated their advantages and disadvantages. Based on scientific literature and regulatory framework analysis, it has been shown that the most studies widespread are aimed at oxygen isotope characteristics values studying (18O/16O) and hydrogen (2H/1H) of wines water component, as well as wines and soils elemental profile of studied regions. The main causes of stable isotopes fractionation of biophilic elements in nature and its influence on ratio of "light" and "heavy" isotopes in grape plant and wine are considered. The main methodological approaches to mineral terroir signature identification of wine-making regions are analyzed. Сomplex studies of number of indicators advantages and their in-depth analysis using various mathematical statistics and modeling methods in identifying wines origin geographical place are shown.

References
1. Yakuba YuF, Kaunova AA, Temerdashev ZA, [i dr.] Vinogradnye vina, problemy otsenki ikh kachestva i regional'noi prinadlezhnosti [Grape wines, problems of assessing their quality and regional affiliation]. Analitika i kontrol'. 2014;18 (4):344-372 (In Russ.)
2. Niculaua M, Cosofret S, Cotea VV, [et al.] Consideration on stable isotopic determination in Romanian wines. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2012;48 (2):25-31.
3. Adami L, Dutra SV, Marcon AR, [et al.] Geographic origin of southern Brazilian wines by carbon and oxygen isotope analyses. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2010;24 (20):2943-2948.
4. Ferrarini R, Maria G, Camin CF, [et al.] Variation of oxygen isotopic ratio during wine dealcoholization by membrane contactors: Experiments and modelling. Journal of Membrane Science. 2016; 498:385-394.
5. Oganesyants LA, Panasyuk AL, Kuz'mina EI, [i dr.] Opredelenie ekzogennoi vody v vinakh metodom izotopnoi mass-spektro-metrii [Determination of exogenous water in wines by isotope mass spectrometry]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2013; (5):19-21. (In Russ.)
6. Christoph N, Rossmann A, Schlicht C, [et al.]. Authentication of Food and Wine, American Chemical Society. Washington, 2006. 166-179 p.
7. Van der Veer G, Voerkelius S, Lorentz G, [et al.] Spatial interpolation of the deuterium and oxygen-18 composition of global precipitation using temperature as ancillary variable. Geochem. 2009:175-184.
8. Nikanorov AM, Fedorov YuA. Stabil'nye izotopy v gidrokhimii [Stable isotopes in hydrochemistry]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1988. 247 p. (In Russ.)
9. Seletskii YuB. Litogenez i izotopnyi sostav podzemnykh vod [Lithogenesis and isotopic composition of groundwater]. Vodnye resursy. 1984; (6):59-64. (In Russ.)
10. Camin F, Dordevic N, Wehrens R, [et al.] Climatic and geographical dependence of the H, C and O stable isotope ratios of Italian wine. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2015;853:384-390.
11. Adami L, Dutra SV, Marcon AR, [et al.] Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values. Food Chemistry. 2013;141 (3):2148-2153.
12. Dordevic N, Wehrens R, Postma GJ, [et al.] Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2012;757:19-25.
13. Camin F, Bontempo L, Perini M, [et al.] Control of wine vinegar authenticity through ?18O analysis. Food Control. 2013; 29 (1):107-111.
14. Scheidegger Y, Saurer M, Bahn M, [et al.] Linking stable oxygen and carbon isotopes with stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity: a conceptual model. Oecologia. 2000:350-357.
15. E.E.C. Regulation no. 2347/91 on the collection of samples of wine products for the purposes of cooperation between Member States and for analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance, including analysis for the purposes of the Community databank.
16. Schellenberg A, Chmielus S, Schlicht C, [et al.] Multielement stable isotope ratios (H, C, N, S) of honey from different European regions. Food Chem. 2010:770-777.
17. Bontempo L, Camin F, Manzocco L, [et al.] Traceability along the production chain of Italian tomato products on the basis of stable isotopes and mineral composition. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2011;25 (7):899-909. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.4935.
18. Camin F, Wehrens R, Bertoldi D, [et al.] H, C, N and S stable isotopes and mineral profiles to objectively guarantee the authenticity of grated hard cheeses. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2012:54-59.
19. Orellana S, Johansen AM, Gazis C, [et al.] Geographic classification of U.S. Washington State wines using elemental and water isotope composition. Food Chemistry: X. 2019; (1), 100007. DOI: 10.1016/j.fochx. 2019.100007.
20. Fan S, Zhong Q, Gao H, [et al.] Elemental profile and oxygen isotope ratio (?18O) for verifying the geographical origin of Chinese wines. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2018; 26 (3):1033-1044.
21. Luo D, Dong H, Luo H, [et al.] The application of stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the geographical origin of wheat. Food Chemistry. 2015;174:197-201.
22. Drivelos SA, Georgiou CA. Multi-element and multi-isotope-ratio analysis to determine the geographical origin of foods in the European Union. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2012;4:38-51.
23. Kelly S, Heaton K., Hoogewerff J. Tracing the geographical origin of food: The application of multi-element and multi-isotope analysis. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2005;16 (12):555-567.
24. Di Paola-Naranjo RD, Baroni MV, Podio NS, [et al.] Fingerprints for main varieties of argentinean wines: Terroir differentiation by inorganic, organic, and stable isotopic analyses coupled to chemometrics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;59 (14):7854-7865. DOI:10.1021/jf2007419.
25. Hopfer H, Nelson J, Collins TS, [et al.] The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines. Food Chemistry. 2015;172:486-496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.113.
26. Pepi S, Vaccaro C. Geochemical fingerprints of "Prosecco" wine based on major and trace elements. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2018;40:833-847. DOI:10.1007/s10653?017?0029?0.
27. Azcarate SM, Martinez LD, Savio M, [et al.] Classification of monovarietal Argentinean white wines by their elemental profile. Food Control. 2015;57:268-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont. 2015.04.025.
28. Coetzee PP, Van Jaarsveld FP, Vanhaecke F. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting. Food Chemistry. 2014;164:485-492.
29. Dutra SV, Adami L, Marcon AR, [et al.] Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influenceof harvest on the isotope values. Food Chemistry. 2013;141 (3):2148-2153.
30. RoxanaIonete A, Marinescu A, Ranca A, [et al.] Geographical origin identification of Romanian wines by ICP-MS elemental analysis. Food Chemistry. 2013;138 (2-3):P. 1125-1134.
31. Soler F, Garcia-Rodrigues G, Perez-Lopez M, [et al.] Characterization of "Ribera del Guadiana" and "Mintrida" Spanish red wines by chemometric techniques based on their mineral contents. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2011;50 (1): 41-49.
32. Frias S, Perez Trujillo J, Pena E, [et al.] Classification and differentiation of bottled sweet wines of Canary Islands (Spain) by their metallic content. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2001;213:145-149.
33. Gonzalvez A, Llorens A, Cervera ML, [et al.] Elemental fingerprint of wines from the protected designation of origin Valencia. Food Chemistry. 2009;112:26-34.
34. Mar Castineira Gomez del M, Feldmann I, Jakubowski N, [et al.] Classification of German white wines with certified brand of origin by multielement quantitation and pattern recognition techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004;5:2962-2974.
35. Bentlin FRS, Pulgati FH, Dressler VL, [et al.] Elemental analysis of wines from South America and their classification according to country. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2011;22 (2):327-336.
36. Baffi C, Trincherini PR. Food traceability using the Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. European Food Research and Technology. 2016;242:1411-1439. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217?016? 2712?2.
37. Bora FD, Donici A, Rusu T, [et al.] Elemental profile and Pb-207/Pb-206, Pb-208/Pb-206, Pb-204/Pb-206, Sr-87/Sr-86 isotope ratio as fingerprints for geographical traceability of romanian wines. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2018;46 (1):223-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha46110853.
38. Geana EI, Sandru C, Stanciu V, [et al.] Elemental profile and Sr-87/Sr-86 isotope ratio as fingerprints for geographical traceability of wines: An approach on Romanian wines. Food Analytical Methods. - 2017;10:63-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161?016?0550?2.
39. Almeida CMR, Vasconcelos MTSD. Does the winemaking process influence the wine 87Sr/?86Sr? A case study. Food Chem. 2004;85 (1):7-12.
40. Durante C, Bertacchini L, Bontempo L, [et al.] From soil to grape and wine: Variation of light and heavy elements isotope ratios. Food Chemistry. 2016;210:648-659.
41. Bejjani J, Balaban M, Rizk T. A sharper characterization of the geographical origin of Lebanese wines by a new interpretation of the hydrogen isotope ratios of ethanol. Food Chemistry. 2014;165:134-139.
42. Marchionni S, Mattei M, Tassi F, [et al.] A Comparative 87Sr/86Sr Study in Red and White Wines to Validate its Use as Geochemical Tracer for the Geographical Origin of Wine. / S. Marchionni, // Procedia Earth and Planetary Science. 2015;13:169-172.
43. Ross S, Karine P, Andr? P, [et al.] Strontium Isotope Characterization of Wines from the Quebec (Canada) Terroir. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science. 2015;13:252-255.
44. Durante C, Baschieri C, Bertacchini L, [et al.] An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes. Food Chem. 2015;173:553-563.
Authors
Oganesyants Lev A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Panasyuk Aleksandr L., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuz'mina Elena I., Candidate of Technical Science;
Sviridov Dmitrii A., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Turshatov M.V., Krivchenko V.A., Soloviev A.O.Analysis of Technological Factors Affecting on the Qualitative Composition of Dietary Fiber in Grain Processing for Alcohol

P. 65-68 Key words
antibiotics; grain fiber; grain microimpurity; dietary fiber; alcohol production.

Abstract
Currently, for the production of alcohol for food purposes, mainly used feed crops, such as rye, wheat, corn, etc. During the process, only the starchy part of the grain is used. The insoluble part, including fiber, transits through the whole process and remains as a by-product, which in turn has a very high nutritional and feed value. In the case of the use of grain fiber as a source of dietary fiber, to ensure their safety, more stringent requirements are imposed on the quality of grain crops and methods for their purification. Existing grain cleaning schemes mainly provide for the removal of macro-impurities, which is not enough. To minimize the negative effects of micronutrients, it is necessary to develop topical methods for deeper cleaning of grain. An alternative to deep cleaning of grain, to reduce microbiological contamination using a wide range of antibiotic agents. This half-measure gives a temporary effect, since the microflora effectively adapts to the use of the same preparations and creates a number of other problems that are associated with the subsequent turnover of antibiotic drugs in the finished product and its consumers. In some states, the use of antibiotics to suppress the development of extraneous microflora in alcohol production processes is already limited and even prohibited. In Russia this problem has been studied extremely superficially. After more in-depth analysis and research on the use of grain fiber for food purposes, you can adjust the regimes of alcohol production and develop an algorithm for managing the quality of grain fiber, which will allow you to purposefully create its properties with regard to subsequent use.

References
1. Kononenko VV, Turshatov MV, Ledenev VP, [et al.]. O proizvodstve i perspektivah primeneniya etilovogo spirta v Rossii [On the production and prospects for the use of ethyl alcohol in Russia]. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya, 2018, no. 2, pp. 44-47. (In Russ.)
2. Lukin ND, Gol'dshtejn VG, Ulanova RV, [et al.]. Zernovoj ekstrakt kak syr'e dlya polucheniya kormovyh dobavok [Grain extract as raw material for feed additives] Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ya, 2015, no. 12, pp. 6-10. (In Russ.)
3. Turshatov MV, Solov'ev AO, Kononenko VV, [et al.]. Issledovanie vliyaniya vida i kachestva zernovogo syr'ya na pokazateli bardy, obrazuyushchejsya pri proizvodstve etilovogo spirta [Investigation of the influence of the type and quality of grain raw materials on the indices of bards, formed during the production of ethyl alcohol]. The proceedings of International congress "Biotechnology: state of the art and perspectives". Moscow, 2019. (In Russ.)
4. Turshatov MV, Krivchenko VA, Solov'ev AO, [et al.]. O mikrobiologicheskoj chistote i bezopasnosti produktov spirtovogo proizvodstva [About microbiological purity and safety of distillery products] Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 2019, no. 4, pp. 110-111. (In Russ.)
5. National Grain and Feed Association. 2010. FDA sampling distillers grains for presence of antibiotic residues. National Grain and Feed Association, Washington D.C., 2010, p. 2.
6. Ivleva AR, Kanarskaya ZA, Gematdinova VM. Adsorbcionnye svojstva pishchevoj kletchatki, poluchennoj iz vtorichnyh resursov pererabotki zernovyh kul'tur [Adsorption properties of dietary fiber, obtained from the secondary resources of grain processing]. Vestnik Tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2016, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 118-120. (In Russ.)
Authors
Turshatov Mihail V., Candidate of Technical Science;
Krivchenko Vera A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Soloviev Aleksandr O.
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center of Food, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4-B, Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sevostyanova E.M., Kovaleva I.L., Soboleva O.A., Zaharov M.A.Selection and Justification of Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Soft Drinks in the Process of "Accelerated Aging"

P. 69-72 Key words
soft drink; hydrolysis of sugars; shelf life; temperature condition; accelerated aging.

Abstract
With the shelf life of soft drinks from 6 to 12 months, the question arises of predicting the shelf life of newly developed drinks. And here is the actual use of the method of "accelerated aging" of soft drinks. The initial task was the selection of factors and critical indicators reflecting changes in the quality characteristics of beverages during the shelf life. Experimental conditions were selected. The temperature regime included exposure of beverages at various temperatures (50 °C or 6 °C). The exposure time was 30 days. The experiment was conducted in three variants. The first option is constant heating, the second option is alternation of heating and slow cooling, the third option is alternation of heating and rapid cooling. One cycle was 48 hours with a repeat of 30 days. Control samples were stored at 25 °C. After the experiment, the quality of soft drinks was evaluated by organoleptic characteristics. The optimal mode of "accelerated aging" was selected heating with slow cooling. The next stage was to determine the indicators reflecting the change in consumer properties of beverages during storage. Objects of study - carbonated and non-carbonated drinks on sugar. The data of organoleptic evaluation of the quality of beverages as a result of the experiment are given. A decrease in taste, aroma, saturation with carbon dioxide and a change in color towards darkening were revealed. The decrease in organoleptic characteristics during "accelerated aging" was comparable to the performance of samples with expired shelf life during natural aging. A decrease in the sucrose content with a simultaneous increase in the glucose and fructose content as a result of hydrolysis was revealed. Due to the caramelization of sugars in the process of hydrolysis darkening of drinks occurred. The decrease in the sweetness of drinks is explained by the decrease in the sucrose content and the prevalence of glucose compared to fructose. Glucose has the smallest coefficient of sweetness from the above sugars. Thus, the tests carried out confirm the possibility of using the "accelerated aging" method for predicting the shelf life of soft drinks.

References
1. Jeshherst FR, Hargitt R. Prakticheskie rekomendacii proizvoditeljam bezalkogol'nyh napitkov i sokov [Practical advice to manufacturers of soft drinks and juices]. Saint-Petersburg: Professija, 2010. 215 p. (In Russ.)
2. Kilkast D, Subramaniam P. Stabil'nost' i srok godnosti. Bezalkogol'nye napitki, soki, pivo, vino i kofe [Stability and shelf life. Soft drinks, juices, beer, wine and coffee]. Saint-Petersburg: Professija, 2013. 380 p. (In Russ.)
3. Akterian S. Sposob prognozirovanija srokov godnosti pishhevyh produktov s ispol'zovaniem kachestvennyh harakteristik i faktorov okruzhajushhej sredy [A method for predicting the shelf life of food using quality characteristics and environmental factors]. Izvestija Vuzov. Pishhevaja tehnologija [News of universities. Food technology], 1997, no 6, pp. 66-68. (In Russ.)
4. Shkol'nikova MN, Aver'janova EV, Shheglova IV. Izuchenie vozmozhnosti primenenija metoda uskorennogo starenija dlja prognozirovanija srokov hranenija bezalkogol'nyh bal'zamov [Exploring the possibility of using the accelerated aging method for predicting the shelf life of non-alcoholic balsams]. Tehnika i tehnologija pishhevyh proizvodstv [Technique and technology of food production], 2009, no. 1, pp. 52-56. (In Russ.)
5. Sevost'janova EM. Metodicheskij podhod k obosnovaniju srokov godnosti mineral'nyh vod [Methodical approach to the justification of the shelf life of mineral waters]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages], 2016, no. 6, pp. 10-12. (In Russ.)
6. Kovaleva IL, Soboleva OA, Sevost'janova EM. Faktory, opredeljajushhie ustanavlivaemyj srok godnosti bezalkogol'nyh napitkov [The factors that determine the established shelf life of soft drinks]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages], 2019, no. 2, pp. 26-29. (In Russ.)
7. Nechaev AP, Traubenberg SE, Kochetkova АА, [et al.]. Pishhevaja himija [Food chemistry]. Saint-Petersburg: GIORD, 2004. 640 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Sevostyanova Elena M., Candidate of Biological Science;
Kovaleva Irina L.;
Soboleva Ol'ga A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Zaharov Maksim A., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Russia, 119021, Moscow, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION

ХХIII International Professional Wine and Spirit Competition

Russia Expects a New Generation of Tasters

Lev Golitsyn Competition at the Summit of Winemakers 2019: Results and Estimates

List of Articles Published in the Magazine "Beer and Beverages" in 2019