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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №3/2019

INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-June, 2019

Topic of the Issue: INNOVATIVE METHODS PRODUCT QUALITY CONTROL

Lazareva E. G., Gilmanov Kh. Kh., Rzhanova I. A., Bigaeva A. V., Tyulkin S. V.DNA Authentication Technologies in Monitoring the Quality of Alcohol Products

P. 6-9 Key words
wine; grape; DNA; identification; marker; beer; PCR; barley.

Abstract
One of the urgent problems of the alcohol industry is the falsification of products with the replacement of traditional components with cheaper analogues. At the same time, the classical methodological bases for assessing the quality of alcoholic beverages in most cases do not have the potential to recognize many modern "technological solutions". Accordingly, the issue of developing new methods for identifying beverages, including using DNA authentication technology, is very timely. The latter involves the verification of the authenticity of the main plant ingredient by means of a molecular genetic analysis of the residual amounts of nucleic acids in the raw materials and in the final finished product. At the same time, the main problem with the introduction of DNA authentication is the insufficient development of the methodological basis for the extraction of residual amounts of nucleic acids from multicomponent biological systems. Accordingly, the main purpose of the work was to analyze the scientific and methodological literature on methods for extracting residual nucleic acids from wine and beer, as well as a global assessment of the actual applicability of DNA technologies for monitoring counterfeit alcoholic beverages. Analysis of scientific and technical material shows that in the world practice, three methods are widely used to isolate residual DNA from wines: Pereira, Savazzini & Martinelli, and Nakamura. Technologically, the selection of nucleic acids from beer is possible by modifying one of the above methods applied to wine. The article examines genetic targets applied to the initial raw materials: brewing barley varieties and technical grape varieties.

References
1. Oganesyanc LA, Hurshudyan SA, Galstyan AG. Monitoring kachestva pishchevyh produktov-bazovyj ehlement strategii [Food quality monitoring as the basic strategic element]. Kontrol" kachestva produkcii [Product quality control], 2018, no. 4, pp. 56-59. (In Russ.)
2. Nakamura S, Tsushima R, Ohtsubo K. A novel method for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from beer to detect materials and to develop DNA markers to evaluate the quality of beer. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2013, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 820-831. DOI: 10.1271/bbb. 120969.
3. Catalano V, Moreno-Sanz P, Lorenzi S, Grando MS. Experimental Review of DNA-Based Methods for Wine Traceability and Development of a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assay for Quantitative Varietal Authentication. J Agric Food Chem. 2016, vol. 64, no. 37, pp. 6969-6984. DOI: 10.1021/acs. jafc. 6b02560.
4. Pereira L, Guedes-Pinto H, Martins-Lopes P. An enhanced method for vitis vinifera L. DNA extraction from wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 2011, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 547-552. DOI: 10.5344/ajev. 2011.10022.
5. Savazzini F, Martinelli L. Development of methods for enhanced extraction and real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2006, vol. 536, no. 1-2, pp. 274-282. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca. 2005.10.078.
6. Nakamura S, Haraguchi K, Mitani N, Ohtsubo K. Novel preparation method of template DNAs from wine for PCR to differentiate grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, vol. 55, no. 25, pp. 10388-10395. DOI: 10.1021/jf072407u.
7. Garcia-Beneytez E, Maria VM, Joaquin B, Maria CP, Javier I. Application of a DNA analysis method for the cultivar identification of grape musts and experimental and commercial wines of Vitis vinifera L. using microsatellite markers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, vol. 50, no. 21, pp. 6090-6096. DOI: 10.1021/jf0202077.
8. Siret R, Gigaud O, Rosec JP, This P. Analysis of grape Vitis vinifera L. DNA in must mixtures and experimental mixed wines using microsatellite markers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 3822-3827. DOI: 10.1021/jf011462e.
9. Pereira L, Gomes S, Castro C, Eiras-Dias JE, Brazao J, Graca A, [et al.]. High Resolution Melting (HRM) applied to wine authenticity. Food Chem. 2017, vol. 216, pp. 80-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.185.
10. Gomes S, Castro C, Barrias S, Pereira L, Jorge P, Fernandes JR, [et al.]. Alternative SNP detection platforms, HRM and biosensors, for varietal identification in Vitis vinifera L. using F3H and LDOX genes. Sci. Rep. 2018, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 5850. DOI:10.1038/s41598?018-24158?9.
11. Oganesyants LA, Vafin RR, Galstyan AG, Semipyatniy VK, Khurshudyan SA, Ryabova AE. Prospects for DNA authentication in wine production monitoring. Foods and Raw Materials, 2018, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 438-448. DOI: http://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018?2?438448.
12. Lakhneko OR, Morgun BV, Kalendar RM, Stepanenko AI, Troianovska AV, Rybalka OI. SSR analysis in the study of genetic diversity and similarity of barley cultivars. Biotechnologia Acta. 2016, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 61-68. DOI: 10.15407/biotech9.03.061.
13. Tomka M, Urminska D, Chnapek M, Galova Z. Potential of selected SSR marke­rs for identification of malting barley. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Food Sci. 2017, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1276-1279. DOI: 10.15414/jmbfs. 2017.6.6.1276-1279.
14. Chiapparino E, Lee D, Donini P. Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in barley by tetra-primer ARMS - PCR. Genome. 2004, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 414-420. DOI: 10.1139/g03-130.
15. Hayden MJ, Tabone T, Mather DE. Development and assessment of simple PCR markers for SNP genotyping in barley. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2009, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 939-951. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-009-1101-7.
Authors
Lazareva Ekaterina G.;
Gilmanov Khamid Kh.,
Rzhanova Irina V.;
Bigaeva Alana V.;
Tyulkin Sergey V., Candidate of Agricultural Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abramovà I.M., Medrish M.E., Savelieva V.B., Romanova A.G., Gavrilova D.A., Khurshudyan S.A.Prospects for Using the Method of Ion Chromatography in the Fight Against the Falsification of Whiskey and the Search for New Markers of Authenticity

P. 10-14 Key words
whiskey, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, distilled spirits, ion chromatography, volatile impurities, trace elements, phenolic and furan compounds.

Abstract
The article provides an overview of the methods used to identify fake whiskey. The analysis of the development of the production of whiskey, the structure of whiskey fakes and possible ways of falsifying spirits. One of the main and available methods for controlling the quality of alcohol products is chromatography. The method of gas chromatography allows to identify substances markers of authenticity, which are formed at the stage of fermentation and distillation - aromatic volatile components. It is shown that the important markers of authenticity are phenolic-furan compounds formed by the interaction of distillate with oak wood. There are specific markers that indicate that the whiskey was aged in wine barrels. Tyrosol can be considered as a specific marker characteristic of certain brands of whiskey aged in whiskey barrels. The prospects of using the method of ion chromatography in the fight against the falsification of whiskey are presented. The main directions of the search for new markers that allow identification of the authenticity of whiskey are outlined.

References
1. Market whiskey. Marketing research. Avaliable at: http://www.indexbox.ru/reports/marketingovoe-issledovanie-rynok-viski. (In Russ.)
2. Solovyov AM. Analiz tenevogo rynka alkogol'noi produktsii [Analysis of the shadow market of alcohol products]. Nauchnye trudy: Institut narodnokhozyaistvennogo prognozirovaniya RAN [Scientific works: Institute of National Economic Forecasting of the Russian Academy of Sciences], 2017, pp. 278-293. (In Russ.)
3. Identifikatsiya i fal'sifikatsiya krepkikh natsional'nykh napitkov. Avaliable at: https://znaytovar.ru/s/Identifikaciya_i_falsifikaciya21.html. (In Russ.)
4. Burachevsky II, Vorobieva EV, Veselovskaya OV, Gallyamova LP. Proiskhozhdenie, klassifikatsiya i tekhnologiya prigotovleniya viski [The origin, classification and technology of making whiskey]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdelii [Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages], 2013, no. 1, pp. 9-14. (In Russ.)
5. Stupak M, Goodall I, Tomaniova M, Pulkrabova J, Hajslova J. A novel approach to assess the quality and authenticity of the Scotch. Anal Chim Acta, 2018, vol. 1042, pp. 60-70; doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.09.017.
6. Medrish ME, Abramova IM, Polyakov VA, Savelyeva VB, Gavrilova DA. Metodika kolichestvennogo opredeleniya fenol'nykh i furanovykh soedinenii v spirtnykh napitkakh [Method of quantitative determination of phenolic and furan compounds in alcoholic beverages]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and beverages], 2017, no. 6, pp. 23-25. (In Russ.)
7. Medrish ME, Abramova IM, Savelieva VB, Pavlenko SV, Priyomukhova NV. Metodika opredeleniya letuchikh primesei v spirtnykh napitkakh, poluchennykh na osnove vyderzhannykh zernovykh distillyatov [Method for determination of volatile impurities in alcoholic beverages, obtained on the basis of aged grain distillates]. Voprosy pitaniya [Questions of nutrition], 2018, no. 5, pp. 188. (In Russ.)
8. Kew W, Goodall I, Clarke D, Uhrin D. Chemical Diversity and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2017, vol. 28, Iss. 1, pp. 200-213.
9. Pryde J, Conner J, Jack F, Lancaster M, Meek L, Owen C, [et al.]. Sensory and Chemical Analysis of Shackleton's Mackinlay Scotch Whiskey Volatile Compounds in Food and Beverages. J. Inst. Brew., 2011, vol. 117 (2), pp. 156-165.
10. Makarov SYu. Osnovy tekhnologii viski [The basics of whiskey technology]. Moscow: Space-2000, 2011. 196 p. (In Russ.)
11. Moller JK, Catharino RR, Eberlin MN. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: fingerprinting of whiskey. Analyst., 2005, vol. 130 (6), pp. 890-897.
12. Wilson CA. Water Quality Composition on Malt Spirit Quality. Ph.D. Thesis. Heriot-Watt University International Center for Brewing and Distilling School of Life. Edinburgh, 2008.
13. Ivanova-Petropulos V, Balabanova B, Bogeva E, Frentiu T, Ponta M, Senila M, [et al.]. Rapid Determination of Trace Elements in Macedonian Grape Brandies for Their Characterization and Safety Evaluation. Food Analytical Methods, 2017, vol. 10 (2), pp. 459-468.
14. Adam T, Duthie E, Feldmann J. Investigations into the Use of Copper and Other Metals as Indicators for the Authenticity of Scotch Whiskies. Journal of Institute of Brewing, 2002, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 459-464.
15. Roullier-Gall C, Signoret J, Hemmler D, Witting MA, Kanawati B, Schafer B, [et al.]. Metabolomics for Characterizing the Chemical Signatures of Barrel-Aged Whiskey. Front Chem., 2018, pp. 6-29; doi:10.3389/fchem.2018.00029.
Authors
Abramova Irina M., Doctor of Technical Science;
Medrish Marina E., Candidate of Technical Science;
Savel'eva Vera B., Candidate of Technical Science;
Romanova Aleksandra G.;
Gavrilova Dar'ya A.
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center of food, biotechnology and food safety,
4-B, Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Khurshudyan Sergei A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Krikunova L. N., Dubinina E. V.Method for Increasing Grain Distillates Production Efficiency

P. 15-19 Key words
the yield of the distillate, grain distillate, quality, volatile components, prepared wort, fractionating distillation.

Abstract
The increase of domestic grain distillates production, intended for whiskey-type alcoholic drinks production, was the reason for conducting in-depth studies on the processes optimization at all processing chain stages. The purpose of these studies was to develop a way to improve the efficiency of grain distillates production, based on fermented wort strength regulation. The objects of research were grain distillates samples, obtained from fermented wort prepared by saccharified wort fermentation from rye and barley malt mixture. To obtain grain distillates experimental samples, a certain volume of rectified ethyl alcohol was introduced into initial fermented wort, which provided an increase in wort strength within 1.0-4.0??% vol. with an interval of 0.5±0.1??% vol. Fractionated distillation was carried out on Kothe Destillationstechnik (Germany) direct distillation unit. Fermented wort strength has a significant impact on both volume and ethyl alcohol concentration in fractions. Fermented wort strength increasing by 1.5-3.0??%, leads to an increase in yield of the average fraction in anhydrous alcohol by 1.4-3.4??%. In remaining samples, distillate yield for anhydrous alcohol was practically at control level. Addition of rectified alcohol to fermented wort leads to decrease in total content of volatile components in distillate and change in their ratios. When comparing study results of volatile components composition and organoleptic analysis of grain distillates experimental samples, certain correlations were found between mass concentration of individual components, as well as their ratios and tasting evaluation. It was recommended to add rectified spirit to fermented grain mash to increase its strength by 1.5-2.5% vol., which will increase distillate yield for anhydrous alcohol by 1.4-3.4??%, as well as significantly improve its organoleptic specifications.

References
1. Oganesyants LÀ. Nauchnye aspekty proizvodstva krepkikh spirtnykh napitkov iz plodovogo syr'ya [Scientific aspects of production Spirits from the fruit raw materials]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo, 2012, no. 1, pp. 18-19. (In Russ.)
2. Krikunova LN. Sravnitel"naya kharakteristika metodov otsenki prochnostnykh svojstv zerna [Comparative characteristics of methods for assessing the strength properties of grain]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel"khozsyr"ya, 2007, no. 4, pp. 48-52. (In Russ.)
3. Krikunova LN, Ryabova SM, Zhurba OS. Shelushenie zerna v tekhnologii ehtanola [Peeling the grain in the technology of ethanol]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdelij, 2012, no. 1, pp. 14-16. (In Russ.)
4. Oganesyants LÀ, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN, Obodeeva ON. Razrabotka tekhnologii spirtnykh napitkov na osnove distillyata iz topinambura. CHast' 1. Stadiya polucheniya osakharennogo susla [Development of technology of alcoholic beverages based on distillate from Jerusalem artichoke. Part 1. The stage of obtaining the saccharified wort]. Pivo i napitki, 2016, no. 6, pp. 34-37. (In Russ.)
5. Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV, Àlieva GÀ. O perspektivakh primeneniya fermentnykh preparatov pri proizvodstve vishnevogo distillyata [About prospects of application of the enzyme preparations at the production of cherry distillate]. Pishhevaya promyshlennost': nauka i tekhnologii, 2016, no. 3 (33), pp. 85-89. (In Russ.)
6. Makarov SS, Panasyuk ÀL. Vliyanie razlichnykh sposobov matseratsii yagodnoj mezgi na sostav biologicheski aktivnykh veshhestv susla [Influence of different methods of maceration berries pulp on composition of biologically active substances of must]. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovatsionnykh pishhevykh produktov, 2019, no. 1 (54), pp. 59-64. (In Russ.)
7. Oganesyants LÀ, Panasyuk ÀL, Rejtblat BB. Teoriya i praktika plodovogo vinodeliya [Theory and practice of fruit winemaking]. Moscow, Razvitie, 2012. 396 p. (In Russ.)
8. Li EH, Piggott Dzh. (red.) Spirtnye napitki: Osobennosti brozheniya i proizvodstva [Fermented Beverage Production]. SPb., Professiya, 2006. 552 p. (In Russ.)
9. Zubkovskaya OL, Tananajko TM, Rabchenok NR. Vliyanie aktivnykh sukhikh drozhzhej na pokazateli kachestva fruktovo-yagodnykh natural'nykh vin [The influence of active dry yeast on the quality of fruit and berry natural wines]. Pishhevaya promyshlennost': nauka i tekhnologiya, 2016, no. 1 (31), pp. 38-46. (In Russ.)
10. Peschanskaya VÀ, Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Sravnitel'naya kharakteristika sposobov proizvodstva zernovykh distillyatov [Comparative characteristics of methods of the grain distillates production]. Pivo i napitki, 2015, no. 6, pp. 40-43. (In Russ.)
11. Peschanskaya VÀ, Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Vliyanie skorosti distillyatsii na protsess polucheniya zernovogo sdistillyata [The effect of distillation speed on the process of obtaining grain distillate]. Pivo i napitki, 2016, no. 4, pp. 28-30. (In Russ.)
12. Peschanskaya VÀ, Krikunova LN, Dubinina EV. Vliyanie dlitel'nosti nagreva sbrozhennogo susla na vykhod i kachestvennye kharakteristiki zernovykh distillyatov [Influence of the duration of the fermented wort heating on the yield and quality characteristics of grain distillates]. Pivo i napitki, 2016, no. 3, pp. 36-39. (In Russ.)
13. GOST 33834-2016. Produktsiya vinodel'cheskaya i syr'e dlya ee proizvodstva. Gazokhromatograficheskij metod opredeleniya massovoj kontsentratsii letuchikh komponentov [Wine products and raw materials for it's production. Gas chromatographic method for determination of mass concentration of volatile components]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2016, 11 p. (In Russ.)
14. GOST 32051-2013. Produktsiya vinodel'cheskaya. Metody organolepticheskogo analiza [Wine products. Methods of organoleptic analysis]. Moscow, Standartinform, 2013, 13 p. (In Russ.)
15. Yarovenko VL, Marinchenko VÀ, Smirnov VÀ, [et al.]. Tekhnologiya spirta [Alcohol technology]. Moscow, Kolos, Kolos-Press, 2002, 463 p. (In Russ.)
16. Skurikhin IM. Khimiya kon'yaka i brendi [Chemistry of cognac and brandy]. Moscow, DeLi Print, 2005, 296 p. (In Russ.)
17. Dubinina EV, Àlieva GÀ. Issledovanie korrelyatsionnoj zavisimosti mezhdu organolepticheskoj otsenkoj i soderzhaniem letuchikh komponentov plodovykh vodok [Correlation Study Between Organoleptic Evaluation and the Content of Volatile Components of the Fruit Vodkas]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo, 2015, no. 3, pp. 29-34. (In Russ.)
Authors
Krikunova Ludmila N., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Dubinina Elena V., Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Khokonova M. B.Technological Features Production of Various Beers

P. 20-23 Key words
fermentation, aging, mashing, quality, beer, varieties, extractiveness.

Abstract
Currently, the quality and durability of fermented beverages, including beer, are high, due to the changes associated with the emergence of the Common Customs Space in the CIS countries. Much attention is paid to the composition of grain raw materials, because in the process of processing it serves as a source of directional fermentation, during which characteristic substances are produced that form aromatic, taste profiles and physical and chemical indicators of beer - carbohydrates, nitrogenous and mineral substances. Beer yield largely depends on the quality of barley and malt, as well as on compliance with the technical parameters of the production process. This work is devoted to the study of the sequence of technological operations in the method of joint mashing of raw materials in the production of various sorts of beer. In this paper, three sorts of beer were investigated - "Terek", "Zhigulevskoe", "Moscow". It was established that the processes of mashing, fermentation and aging affect the quality indicators of different sorts of beer. It was determined that out of the studied varieties the beer "Terek", containing a greater amount of dry substances and possessing high durability, stood out for the better. Thus, the yield of the extract depends on the fineness of grinding. In production, most of the time is spent on operations such as: holding, heating the thick fraction and boiling, where high temperatures are maintained. During fermentation, bitter hop substances and extractive properties are reduced. During aging, the ripening of the beer occurs, accompanied by redox transformations of substances.

References
1. TR TS 021/2011. Tekhnicheskiy reglament Tamozhennogo soyuza "O bezopasnosti pishchevoy produktsii" [Technical regulations of the Customs Union "On food safety"]. Utv. Resheniyem Komissii Tamozhennogo soyuza ot 09.12.2011 ¹?880 (red. Ot 10.06.2014) [Elektronnyy resurs]. - Rezhim dostupa: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902320560. (In Russ.)
2. Kharris MO, Yeliseyev MN. Voprosy identifikatsii zernovogo sostava piva [Issues of identification of the grain composition of beer]. Pivo i napitki, 2018, no. 2, pp. 46-51. (In Russ.)
3. Khokonova MB, Àdzievà ÀÀ, Karashaeva AS. Barleycorn Productivity and Quality in Relation to the Surface Slope. Journal of International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research, 2017, vol. 8, iss. 4, pp. 884-889.
4. Troughton MJ. Canadian Agriculture. Budapest: Akademiai kiado, 1982. 355 ð.
5. Khokonova MB. Azotistyy sostav susla v zavisimosti ot rezhima obrabotki nesolozhenogo yachmenya [The nitrogenous composition of the wort, depending on the processing mode of unmalted barley]. Pivo i napitki, 2012, no. 5, pp. 24-26. (In Russ.)
6. Khokonova MB, Terent'yev SYe. Tekhnologiya pivovarennogo soloda i khmelya [Brewing malt and hop technology]. Pivo i napitki, 2014, no. 3, pp. 36-38. (In Russ.)
7. Romanova EV, Vvedenskiy VV. Tehnologiya hraneniya i pererabotki produktsii rastenievodstva: uchebnoe posobie [Technology of storage and processing of plant growing products] [Elektronnyiy resurs]. Moscow: Rossiyskiy universitet drujbyi narodov, 2010. 188 p. Avaliable at: http://biblioclub.ru. (In Russ.)
Authors
Khokonova Madina B., Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
Kabardino-Balkarian State Agrarian University named after V.?M. Kokov,
1V, pr. Lenina, Nalchik, Cabardino-Balkarian Republic, 360030, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tagiyev A. T., Baloqlanova K. V.The Rationale for Some of the Cooling Requirements of the Wine

P. 24-26 Key words
wine, tartaric salts, tartaric stone, salt precipitation, coagulation proteins, cooling.

Abstract
The main task of modern winemaking in Azerbaijan is to ensure high quality and competitiveness of finished products. In this direction, it is quite important to increase the resistance of wines to turbidity. Grape must and wine contain a large number of organic and mineral salts, which in most cases are in a state of saturation. These substances by increasing the degree of alcohol content and reducing acidity crystallize and lead to clouding of the wine. One of the progressive methods in ensuring the stability of wines to crystalline and colloidal opacities is the use of cold. Usually wine cold treatment is carried out at a temperature close to the freezing point. However, despite some targeted research technology of wines and champagne with the application of cold, still for the deepening of knowledge of the issue, enhance its effectiveness in terms of variation of technological factors is the actual continuing development of technological process analysis. For the theoretical analysis of the impact of cold on the quality of the final product, a system-technological approach is applied, including the evaluation of the results at all stages of the process. The results of studies on the physical and chemical effects of cold on wine are analyzed. Under the influence of cold there is a loss of tartaric and other salts, tannins and dyes, coagulation of protein and pectin substances. Processing wine cold has also a biological effect too, the result of which is the improvement of wine. Fast or slow cooling of the wine to a temperature of -5?°C differently affects the amount of soluble salts that pass into the precipitate. Laboratory studies, it is confirmed by the practice of production, show that the treatment of table and fortified wines should be almost the same, that is, at the level of -4…-5?°C.

References
1. Valujko GG. Tehnologija vinogradnyh vin [Technology grape wines]. Simferopol', Tavrida, 2001. 624 p. (In Russ.)
2. Fataliev HK. Sovershenstvovanie tehnologii azerbajdzhanskih vin [Improving the technology of Azerbaijani wines of Baku]. Baku, Jelm, 2004. 140 p. (In Russ.)
3. Panova JeP, Karceva GN, Burda VE. Vliyanie nizkikh temperatur na fiziko-khimicheskie svoistva vinogradnogo susla [The effect of low temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of grape must]. Uchenye zapiski Tavricheskogo Nacional'nogo Universiteta im. V.?I. Vernadskogo. Serija "Biologija i himija". [Biology and chemistry], 2010, vol. 23 (62), no. 1, pp. 208-216. (In Russ.)
4. Taran NG, Ponomareva NN, Soldatenko EV, Taran MN. Sovershenstvovanie tehnologicheskih priemov stabilizacii belyh igristyh vin protiv kristallicheskih i kolloidnyh pomutnenij [Improvement of technological methods of stabilization of white sparkling wines against crystalline and colloidal opacities]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo, 2015, no. 6, pp. 18-20. (In Russ.)
5. Taran NG, Zinchenko VI. Sovremennye tehnologii stabilizacii vin [Modern technologies of wine stabilization]. Kishinev, 2006. 240 p. (In Russ.)
6. Rodionova OV, Osipova LA, Burda OG. Jeksperimental'noe modelirovanie processov nizkotemperaturnogo razdelenija vinomaterialov [Experimental modeling of low-temperature separation of wine materials]. Tr. III Mezhdunar.nauch.praktich.konf. "Pishhevye tehnologii-2005". Odessa, ONAPT, 2005, p. 76. (In Russ.)
7. Ageeva NM. Stabilizacija vinogradnyh vin. Teoreticheskie aspekty i prakticheskie rekomendacii [Stabilization of grape wines]. Krasnodar: Prosveshhenie-Jug, 2007. 251 p. (In Russ.)
8. Chizhov GB. Teplofizicheskie processy v holodil'noj tehnologii pishhevyh produktov. [Thermophysical processes of refrigeration technology of food products]. Moscow: Pishhevaja promyshlennost', 1971. 304 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Tagiev Azer T.
Azerbaijan Cooperation University,
8 b, N. Narimanov Str., Baku, AZ1106, Azerbaijan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Baloglanova Kenul' V.
Research Institute of Microbiology of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences,
103, M. Mushfiga Str., Baku, AZ1073, Azerbaijan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Volkova T.N., Selina I.V., Sozinova M.S.Spoilage Microorganisms in Beverages

P. 27-33 Key words
antimicrobial hurdles technologies; soft drinks; ingredients; preservatives; microorganisms-spoilers; pasteurization; predictive microbiology.

Abstract
Considerable changes have occurred in the global beverage market during the past twenty years. Functional beverages and bottled waters currently constitute rapidly growing market sector. Energy drinks, tooth-friendly beverages, and nonalcoholic malt beverages are also very popular. This review deals with the current knowledge on microbiological spoilage and safety risks in soft drinks. Many modern beverages have less antimicrobial hurdles compared to traditional carbonated soft drinks due to higher level of nutrients for microbial growth, lower acidity and carbonation level. Thermal processing and the use of chemical preservatives have also been reduced for the production of more "natural" products. These changes in the beverage production are expected to increase in the product spoilage. The major spoilage microbe types in the modern beverages will probably remain the same as in the traditional products, but the range of species is expected to increase. LAB and yeasts common in the traditional beverages may be able to grow in the modern products. Bacteria are expected to increase importance in the product spoilage. New emerging spoilers include acid-tolerant aerobic bacteria (e. g. Alicyclobacillus) in PET-bottled beverages, Asaia spp. in flavoured mineral waters, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in juice-rich drinks, and spore-forming bacteria and enterobacteria in mildly acidic drinks. The possible new microbial health risks in the beverage production may arise from the increasing ingredient import worldwide and from the use of low acid juices as ingredients. Whenever new beverages are developed it is important to control and analyze every change made in the recipe, packaging and preservation in order to consider the microbial risks. Predictive microbiology can help in optimizing the preservative systems and in predicting and describing the behavior of contaminants in beverages. The future challenge in the beverage production is to produce safe and acceptably stable products with minimal processing. The future of beverage preservation will be a skilled knowledge-based combination of antimicrobial hurdles to maintain microbiological stability while maintaining maximum sensory and nutritional quality.

References
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6. Sheveleva SA. Mikrobiologicheskaja bezopasnost' pishchevych productov: problemy i puti reshenija [Microbiological safety: problems and solutions]. III Vserossijskaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferenzija s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem "Aktual'nye problemy boleznej obshchih dlja cheloveka i zhivotnyh" [III All-Russian scientific-practical conference with international participation "Actual problems of diseases common to humans and animals"]. 24-25 April 2019. Stavropol. Available at: snipchi.ru>updoc/2019/Prezent/Øåâåëåâà Ñ.?À. pdf (accessed 02.05.19.)
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8. Clotteau M. Alicyclobacillus spp. Control in the Fruit Juice Industry. Pall Food and Beverage Technical Bulletin, January 2014, pp. 1-15. Available at: https://food-beverage.pall.com/content/dam/pall/food-beverage/literature-library/non-gated/FBTBTABFJEN.pdf (accessed 02.05.19.)
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Authors
Volkova Tat'yana N., Candidate of Technical Science;
Selina Irina V.,
Sozinova Marina S.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Soboleva O. A., Kovaleva I. L.The Influence of Fruit Vinegar on the Quality of Plant Extracts

P. 34-37 Key words
hydrolysis, microbiological stability, organic acid, fruit vinegar, plant raw materials, extract.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the possibility of using fruit vinegar in the process of hydrolysis of plant raw materials upon receipt of extracts. The basic technology developed at the institute includes hydroalcoholic enzymatic hydrolysis. The extractant contains citric acid in order to create an optimal pH value for the action of the enzyme complex. The extractant also contribute 3% ethanol. This reduces the technological risk. In the absence of the manufacturer's ability to use alcohol in the production process, there is a danger of microbiological deterioration of the hydrolyzate. Studies have been conducted to replace alcohol and citric acid with natural fruit vinegar. They allow you to set the required pH level and have a preservative effect. For studies were selected different types of plant raw materials (herbs, roots, leaves and flowers). Their hydrolysates need pH correction. Grape or apple vinegar was added to the extractant of the test specimens in an amount necessary to obtain a given pH value. The extractant of the control samples contained ethyl alcohol and citric acid. The results of the experiment showed that the experimental samples of the extracts had a higher mass concentration of dry substances compared with the control samples. They contained a wider spectrum and higher content of organic acids. Polycomponent concentrates for soft drinks based on extracts were prepared by condensing them in a rotary film evaporator. They were investigated for the content of micro and macro elements. The data obtained indicate a higher content in the experimental samples. Drinks from polycomponent concentrates, in the preparation of which fruit vinegars were used, had a richer and richer aroma and taste in comparison with the controls.

References
1. Filonova GL, Litvinova EA, Konovalov NT, Oganesyanc LA, Kovaleva IL. Sposob proizvodstva ekstrakta i koncentrata polikomponentnogo iz nego [Method for the production of extract and multicomponent concentrate from it]. Patent RF 2283602. 2006. (In Russ.)
2. Konichev AS, Baurin PV, Fedorovskij NN, [et al.] Tradicionnye i sovremennye metody ekstrakcii biologicheski aktivnyh veshchestv iz rastitel'nogo syr'ya: perspektivy, dostoinstva, nedostatki [Traditional and modern methods of extraction of biologically active substances from plant materials: prospects, advantages, disadvantages]. Vestnik MGOU. Seriya "Estestvennye nauki" [Bulletin of MGOU. Series "Natural Sciences"], 2011, no. 3, pp. 49-54. (In Russ.)
3. Kolos A. Vidy uksusa i osobennosti primeneniya [Types of vinegar and features of application] [Elektronnyj resurs]: https://prostoloca.ru/vidy-uksusa-i-osobennosti-primeneniya/. (In Russ.)
4. Sarafanova LA. Primenenie pishchevyh dobavok v industrii napitkov [The use of food additives in the beverage industry]. Saint Petersburg: Professiya Publ., 2007. - 239 p. (In Russ.)
5. Egorova ZE. Organicheskie kisloty [Organic acids] [Elektronnyj resurs]: https:// belstu.by/Portals/0/userfiles/66/eumk/…/organicheskie-kisloti/. (In Russ.)
6. Borilo GA, Sibagatov VA, Semenov SYu, [et al.] Effektivnost' ispol'zovaniya uksusnoj i limonnoj kislot i pishchevoj sody dlya konservacii vodnyh ekstraktov rastenij vodnogo giacinta [The effectiveness of the use of acetic and citric acids and baking soda for the conservation of aqueous extracts of plants of water hyacinth]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Biologiya [Bulletin of Tomsk State University. Biology], 2010, no. 1 (9), pp. 111-117. (In Russ.)
Authors
Soboleva Ol'ga A., Candidate of Technical Science;
Kovaleva Irina L.
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119201, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Ovcharenko A. S., Velichko N. A., Ivanova O. V.Functional Drink Based on Fruits-and-vegetables and Berries Raw Materials of Eastern Siberia

P. 38-42 Key words
ñowberry; vitamin C; vegetable marrow; blended drink; honey; small-fruited apples; functional food product.

Abstract
Human health is largely dependent on the quality of nutrition. Caloric, but poor in the necessary body with biologically active substances (BAS) (vitamins, mineral components, polyphenols, carotenoids, etc.), food provokes the risk of developing a number of severe alimentary diseases, leads to premature aging and death. Functional food products (FFP) enriched with BAS can act as one of the tools in the fight against this problem. The aim of the work was to create a recipe and obtain a check sample of a functional blended fruit-and-vegetable drink based on small-fruited apples, pumpkin vegetables, wild berries and honey. The work was carried out in the Department of Processing Animal and Vegetable Raw Materials of the Krasnoyarsk Scientific Research Institute of Animal Husbandry - Separate Division of the FRC KSC SB RAS. Functional drink recipe was developed, it containing (ml/l): juice from small-fruited apples - 300, juice from vegetable marrow - 450, cowberry syrup - 200, honey syrup - 50. Main physicochemical parameters: mass fraction of soluble solids was 15.4?%, mass fractions of pulp and sugar - 3.7 and 37.8?%, respectively, mass fraction of titratable acids in terms of malic acid - 0.43?%, pH - 3.3. The content of vitamin C in the sample - 7.7 mg/ml, beta-carotene - 0.1 mg/ml. A portion of the drink (200 ml) contains 17.1?% of the daily physiological human need for vitamin C, that, in accordance with GOST R 52349-2005, defines the drink as FFP. The drink on organoleptic and physicochemical parameters corresponds to GOST 32100-2013. The indicators of microbiological and toxicological safety were investigated, their compliance with the requirements of the technical regulations for the juice products of ÒÐ ÒÑ 023/2011 and technical regulations on food safety of ÒÐ ÒÑ 021/2011 was established.

References
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2. Poznjakovskij VM. Aktual'nye voprosy sovremennoj nutriciologii: terminy i opredelenija, klassifikacija prodovol'stvennogo syr'ja i pishhevyh produktov [Current issues of modern nutritional science: terms and definitions, classification of food raw materials and food products]. Tehnika i tehnologija pishhevyh proizvodstv, 2012, no. 3, pp. 1-8. (In Russ.)
3. Mamedov MI. Ovoshhevodstvo v mire: proizvodstvo osnovnyh ovoshhnyh kul'tur, tendencija razvitija za 1993-2013 gody po dannym FAO [Vegeculture in the world: production of basic vegetable crops, development trend for 1993-2013 years, according to the FAO]. Ovoshhi Rossii, 2015, no. 2, pp. 3-9. DOI 10.18619/2072-9146-2015-2-3-9. (In Russ.)
4. Beljaev AA. Tehnologija poluchenija kupazhirovannyh sokov iz melkoplodnyh jablok i dikorastushhih jagod Vostochnoj Sibiri [Technology of producing of blended juices from small-fruited apples and wild berries of Eastern Siberia]. Candidate's thesis. Krasnoyarsk; 2014. 135 p. (In Russ.)
5. Golub OV, Kovalevskaja IN, Kuprina IK. Issledovanie tovarnogo kachestva i tehnologicheskoj prigodnosti jablok-ranetok, proizrastajushhih v Kemerovskoj oblasti [Research of commodity quality and technological suitability of a variety of Siberian apple growing in the Kemerovo region]. Tehnika i tehnologija pishhevyh proizvodstv, 2015, no. 1, pp. 12-17. (In Russ.)
6. Buharova AR, Stepanjuk NV, Buharov AF. Himicheskij sostav tykvy krupnoplodnoj na soderzhanie nizkomolekuljarnyh antioksidantov [The chemical composition of pumpkin large-fruited on the content of low molecular weight antioxidants]. Vestnik RGAZU, 2014, no. 17 (22), pp. 13-17. (In Russ.)
7. Bardina N.?V. Ocenka tykvy stolovoj na pishhevye celi po kompleksu pokazatelej [Evaluation of the squash on food purposes on a set of indicators]. Vestnik GAU Severnogo Zaural'ja, 2015, no. 3 (30), pp. 34-44. (In Russ.)
8. Golub OV, Gabinskij AV, Kovalevskaja IN. Issledovanie prigodnosti k pererabotke kabachkov, proizrastajushhih v Kemerovskoj oblasti [Researching of processing suitability of marrows grown in the Kemerovo region]. Tehnika i tehnologija pishhevyh proizvodstv, 2013, no. 4, pp. 9-13. (In Russ.)
9. Ljutikova MN, Botirov JeH. Himicheskij sostav i prakticheskoe primenenie jagod brusniki i kljukvy [The chemical composition and practical application of the berries of cowberry and cranberry]. Himija rastitel'nogo syr'ja, 2015, no. 2, pp. 5-27. (In Russ.)
10. Pastushkova EV, Zavorohina NV, Vjatkin AV. Rastitel'noe syr'e kak istochnik funkcional'no-pishhevyh ingredientov [Plant raw materials as a source of functional food ingredients]. Vestnik JurGAU. Serija "Pishhevye i biotehnologii", 2016, no. 4 (4), pp. 105-113. (In Russ.)
11. Murashev SV. Izmenenie soderzhanija askorbinovoj kisloty pri hranenii i pererabotke [Changes in the content of ascorbic acid during storage and processing]. Izvestija Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 2015, no. 41. pp. 64-68. (In Russ.)
12. Sedinina NV, Donchenko LV. O vlijanii temperatury, rN i vremeni ih vozdejstvija na drozhzhi - pokazateli porchi pektinovyh koncentratov, sokov i napitkov [About the effect of temperature, pH and time of their impact on yeast - indicators of damage to pectin concentrates, juices and beverages]. Nauchnyj zhurnal KubGAU, 2013, no. 87 (03), pp. 1-10. (In Russ.)
13. Dugarova IK, Cybikova GC, Aleksandrova IT. Kompleksnoe ispolýzovanie plodov oblepihi v proizvodstve pishhevyh produktov [Integrated use of sea buckthorn fruit in food production]. Izvestija VUZov. Prikladnaja himija i biotehnologija, 2016, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 128-134. (In Russ.)
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Authors
Ovcharenko Andrey S.;
Velichko Nadezhda A., Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Ivanova Ol'ga V., Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor of RAS
Krasnoyarsk Scientific Research Institute of Animal Husbandry - Separate Division of the FRC KSC SB RAS,
66, Mira avenue, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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