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Rambler's Top100

Beer and beverages №2/2019

NEWS

EVENT

XХVIII International Forum "BEER" in Sochi

The Best Vodka and Spirits of 2019 are Announced

INDUSTRIAL MARKETING

The Outcome of the Russian Manufacture of Beer, Soft and Alcoholic Drinks, Juices, Wines and Alcohol for January-March, 2019

Oganesyants L.A. On the State of Viticulture and Winemaking in the Russian Federation

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ENSURING THE PRODUCTS QUALITY

Shaburova L.N., Danilova A.N., Ponomareva M.S., Gernet M.V. Effect of Laser Pulse Frequency on Ale Yeast Top-fermenting

P. 16-19 Key words
yeast; radiation; pulse frequency; laser.

Abstract
An important focus of the brewing industry development is the intensification of technological processes and the improvement of product quality. The quality of beer depends on the biotechnological processes that occur during the fermentation of the wort with yeast. The activity of enzymes in a yeast cell depends on many conditions that change during the growth, reproduction and development of the cell. The effects of laser radiation on living biological objects are extremely diverse (both inhibitory and stimulating effects). The purpose of the study was to study the effect of laser radiation in the infrared range on top-fermented brewer's yeast to intensify the fermentation processes. In the course of early experiments, we determined the optimal processing time of the yeast suspension, when exposed for 2 minutes, the result was optimal. When fermenting 12??% of beer wort and fermentation, the following indicators were monitored: visible extract, pH, fermentation rate, flocculation ability of yeast, accumulation of diacetyl in beer. During the research it was found that the percentage of cells with glycogen increases and the number of non-viable cells decreases. The effect of various frequencies on the fermentation of wort was studied. The low frequencies of laser have a favorable effect on the physiological state of the yeast cell, reducing the number of dead cells, stimulating the processes of yeast multiplication and fermentation. Our research has shown that the effect of a properly selected radiation mode, in this experiment, the pulse frequency, of low-intensity laser radiation usually does not cause obvious biosynthetic and energy processes of the yeast cell.

References
1. Bab'eva IP, Chernov IJu. Biologija drozhzhej. Moscow: Tovarishhestvo nauchnyh izdanij KMK, 2004. 221 p. (In Russ.)
2. Budagovskij AV. Lazernye tehnologii dlja rastenievodstva. Subtropicheskoe i dekorativnoe sadovodstvo: sb. nauch. tr. Rossel'hozakademii, 2014, iss. 51, pp. 207-214. (In Russ.)
3. Karu TJ. Universal'nyj kletochnyj mekhanizm lazernoj biostimulyacii: fotoaktivaciya fermenta dyhatel'noj cepi citohrom-s-oksidazy. Sovremennye lazerno-informacionnye i lazernye tehnologii: Sb. tr. IPLIT RAN. Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka, 2005. 304 p. (In Russ.)
4. Gamaleja NF. Novye dannye po foto­chuvstvitel'nosti zhivoj kletki v mehanizme lazernoj biostimuljacii. Dokl. Akad. nauk SSSR. 1983; 273 (1): 24. (In Russ.)
5. Moskvin SV. Jeffektivnost' lazernoj terapii. Serija "Jeffektivnaja lazernaja terapija". Vol. 2. - Moscow - Tver': Izdatel'stvo Triada, 2014. 896 p. (In Russ.)
6. Danilova AN, Ponomareva MS, Gernet MV, [i dr.]. Vlijanie lazernogo izluchenija na molochnokislye bakterii. Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja. 2017; 12: 12-14. (In Russ.)
7. Cyganova GA, Shaburova LN. Vlijanie nizkointensivnogo lazernogo izluchenija na razlichnye formy mikroorganizmov. Alleja nauki. Sovremennaja nauka i ee razvitie. 2018; 1 (6): 511-517. (In Russ.)
Authors
Shaburova Luybov' Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11, Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia
Danilova Anna Nikolaevna,
LLC "Russkart",
18, 1, Ostashkovskoye highway, Mytishchi, Moscow region, 141031, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ponomareva Mariya Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science
LLC "HOPGUN",
1, 37, 2nd Kotliakovskiy lane, Moscow, 115201, Russia
Gernet Marina Vasil'evna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of the Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries - a branch of the Federal Research Center for Food Systems V.?M. Gorbatov RAS,
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Panasyuk A.L., Kuz'mina E.I., Egorova O.S. Technological Modes of Grape Wines Processing with PVPP Preparations

P. 20-25 Key words
grape wine; wine oxidation; chromaticity indicators; phenolic substances; polyphenolic opacities; polyvinylpolypyrrolidone.

Abstract
The article presents the study results of grape wines treatment efficiency with new generation preparations based on polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) in order to remove oxidized polyphenols forms. Prototypes of oxidized white and pink grape wines were treated with new-generation products based on PVPP (Polyclar 10, Polyclar V, Polyclar VT). An experimental scheme was developed by the method of mathematical statistics, as a result of which the doses, temperature and duration of wine processing were selected for each of the three studied drugs. In the control and experimental wine samples, the optical density indices, the mass concentration of polyphenols, and the chromaticity indices were determined. The research results showed, that the oxidized grape wines treatment with PVPP preparations helps to reduce the content of phenolic substances condensed forms. According to the obtained data, for each of the three studied drugs was constructed a three-factor quadratic regression model of phenolic substances content dependence on the drug dose, temperature and exposure time. The results of the regression analysis are the equations, linking the phenolic substances content in the product with time, temperature and doses of injected drugs. Using the obtained equations, based on the constructed regression models were calculated the recommended dosage regimes and drug exposure time at a temperature of 12 °C. Had been calculated the optimal drugs doses for treatment temperatures at 12 and 20 °C, as well as treatment time of 5, 30 and 60 minutes. It was established, that the analysis of experimental data with use of mathematical statistics methods allows choosing the optimal modes of wine processing depending on the physicochemical parameters of a particular wine, as well as particular production capabilities.

References
1. Roznichnaya torgovlya, uslugi naseleniyu, turizm [Retail trade, services to the population, tourism]. Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoj statistiki. - URL: http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/enterprise/retail/#.
2. Fernandez-Zurbano P, [et al.] Role of Hydroxycinnamic Acids and Flavanols in the Oxidation and Browning of White Wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998; 46 (12): 4937-4944. DOI: 10.1021/jf980491v. (In Eng.)
3. Ostrouhova EV, Hil'skij VG, Bojko VA, [et al.]. Rol' fenol'nogo kompleksa krasnyh krepkih vinomaterialov v formirovanii cveta pri ih vyderzhke v bochkah [Role of a phenolic complex of red strong wine materials in formation of color at their endurance in barrels]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo, 2000, no. 4, pp. 34-36. (In Russ.)
4. Kontoudakis N, [et al.] Influence of Wine pH on Changes in Color and Polyphenol Composition Induced by Micro-oxygenation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011;59 (5):1974-1984. DOI: 10.1021/jf103038g. (In Eng.)
5. Valujko GG, Zinchenko VI, Mekhuzla NA. Stabilizaciya vinogradnyh vin. Simferopol': Tavrida Publ., 2002. 208 p. (In Russ.)
6. Sidel'kovskaya FP. Himiya N-vinilpirrolidona i ego polimerov. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1970. 150 p. (In Russ.)
7. Dedegkaev AT, Afonin DV, Meledina TV. Povyshenie fiziko-himicheskoj stabil"nosti piva pri ispol'zovanii silikagelej i polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP). Pivo i napitki, 2006; 2:26-28. (In Russ.)
8. Simone GV, Cabral Pavei, George GO. Study of the Specificity of Cross-Povidone (PVPP) as binding agent in the quantification of polyphenolic compounds. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2008; 8 (19):1627-1633. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532008000800025. (In Eng.)
9. Fetisov EA, [i dr.]. Planirovanie i analiz rezul'tatov tekhnologicheskih ehksperimentov. Moscow: Stalingrad Publ., 2015. 98 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Panasyuk Aleksandr L'vovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuz'mina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Egorova Olesya Sergeevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kovaleva I.L., Soboleva O.A., Sevostyanova E.M. The Factors that Determine the Established Shelf Life of Soft Drinks

P. 26-29 Key words
antioxidant; soft drink; pasteurization; food preservative; compound; shelf life; packaging; color.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the establishment of the shelf life of newly developed soft drinks. Many factors affect the shelf life of food. One of the main factors is the composition of the product being developed. The initial factor is the quality of raw materials and storage conditions. Herbal ingredients are most at risk. Essential oils and terpenes of citrus juices and extracts are highly reactive and susceptible to oxidation. Such components are recommended to expose deterpenation when used as part of the soft drink. Components with a remote terpene fraction are more stable. The carbohydrates and pectins that make up juices can also contribute to the spoilage of the drink. The composition of some drinks includes vitamin premixes. The stability of vitamins depends on temperature, light, pH, presence of oxygen and metal ions. It is necessary to take into account the compatibility of vitamins, the possible negative impact of some vitamins on others. When specifying the content of vitamins on the label, shelf life is determined by the most unstable component. It is important to include components with antioxidant activity. It is important to include in a soft drink components with antioxidant activity. These include ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotene, selenium, vegetable phenols. Antioxidant activity have some kinds of vegetable raw materials. Dihydroquercetin is a promising ingredient when making drinks. It not only exhibits biologically active properties, but is also a powerful antioxidant. Natural dyes are subject to negative exposure to light, heat, oxygen. They are most stable when the pH value is in the range of 2.7-3.7. Oxygen has a negative effect on the shelf life of the product. It is necessary to select packaging material impermeable to oxygen and minimize its entry into the product during filling. It is known that carbonated drinks are more stable, because CO2 has some preservative effect. The Arrhenius law should be taken into account when choosing a temperature storage mode. Increase the shelf life of the drink allows the use of food preservatives or pasteurization. Long-term temperature treatment contributes to the partial loss of taste and aroma. Aseptic packaging and pasteurization should be used to increase the shelf life of tea drinks. The pH value in them should not be higher than 4.0. Sorbic and benzoic acids and their salts in such products are not effective. Thus, to ensure the quality and stability of a soft drink during the shelf life, it is necessary to identify, manage and control all risk factors in a timely manner.

References
1. GOST 28188-2014. Napitki bezalkogol'nye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. 6 p. (In Russ.)
2. Sarishvili NG, [i dr.]. Sbornik osnovnyh pravil, tekhnologicheskih instrukcij i normativnyh materialov po proizvodstvu bezalkogol'noj produkcii. Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 2000. Pp. 103-107. (In Russ.)
3. Ehshkherst FR, Hargitt R. Prakticheskie rekomendacii proizvoditelyam bezalkogol'nyh napitkov i sokov. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2010. 215 p. (In Russ.)
4. Shumann G. Bezalkogol'nye napitki: syr'e, tekhnologiya, normativy. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2004. 278 p. (In Russ.)
5. Berri Ottavej P. Obogashchenie pishchevyh produktov i biologicheski aktivnye dobavki. Tekhnologiya, bezopasnost' i normativnaya baza. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2010. 309 p.
6. Strelkov VN, Burmistrov GP, [et al.]. Tekhnologiya special'nyh pishchevyh produktov i issledovaniya potrebitel'nyh svojstv. Pyatigorsk: RIA-KMV, 2013. Pp. 146-147. (In Russ.)
7. Kilkast D, Subramaniam P. Stabil'nost' i srok godnosti. Bezalkogol'nye napitki, soki, pivo, vino i kofe. Saint-Petersburg: Professiya, 2013. 380 p. (In Russ.)
8. Oganesyanc LA, [i dr.]. Tekhnologiya bezalkogol'nyh napitkov. Moscow: GIORD, 2012. 340 p. (In Russ.)
9. Patent RF no. 2268627, A23L 2/385, A23L 2/52; 27.01.2006. Filonova GL, Kovaleva IL, Belichenko AM, [et al.]. Sposob proizvodstva koncentrata "Tiakva" polikomponentnogo. (In Russ.)
10. Patent RF no. 2232526, A23L 2/00, A23L 2/52; 20.07.2004. Filonova GL, Kovaleva IL, Belichenko AM, [et al.]. Bezalkogol'nyj napitok "Tiakva "Behla". (In Russ.)
Authors
Kovaleva Irina L'vovna;
Soboleva Ol'ga Aleksandrovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Sevostyanova Elena Mihaylovna, Candidate of Biological Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow 119021 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gorelkina A.K., Timoshсhuk I.V., Кrasnovа T.A., Saveliev S.N., Chernyshev D.A.Resistance Pigments Juice Bases in the Production of Fruit-whey Drinks

P. 30-33 Key words
water; carotenoids; juice the based; fruit-whey drinks.

Abstract
Fruit-whey drinks, products on the basis of whole or restored whey and juice the based, are increasingly used in the daily diet of people. Presently, water from the central domestic water supply system is predominantly used in the production of fruit-wheyy drinks. Water treatment plants act as barriers against organic substances only to a slight extent; moreover, more dangerous toxic agents compared to incoming substances are produced during water treatment. The lasting properties color of the juice the based from gooseberries, sea buckthorn, cranberries, strawberries, black currants, oranges, used in the production of fruit-whey drinks has been studied in the presence of priority organic contaminants (trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, phenol, chlorophenol and chloroform) which are formed in water for the production of these drinks during chlorination in water preparation. It has been revealed that on lasting properties color in juice the based does not change in the presence of chloroform. The reduction the lasting properties color of the juice the based from gooseberries, sea buckthorn, cranberries, strawberries, black currants, oranges in the presence of phenol, chlorophenol, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane has been established. The decrease in the content of provitamin А in the juice the based in the presence of phenol, chlorophenol, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, is shown. It has been revealed that the stability of the provitamin А in the juice the based does not change in the presence of chloroform. The mechanism of interaction of the carotenoids with trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, phenol and chlorophenol has been theoretically proved. To prevent the reduction of quality of fruit-whey drinks, the water used for their production must be subjected to the additional purification from organic substances.

References
1. Krasnova T. A. Impact of priority water contaminants on the stability of the main components of nectars. Foods and Raw materials, 2013, №1, p. 95-107.
2. Hramcov A. G. Spravochnik tehnologa molochnogo proizvodstva. Tehnologija i receptury. Produkty iz obezzhirennogo moloka, pahty i molochnoj syvorotki [Reference technologist milk production. Technology and recipes. Skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey products]. S-Pb.: GIORD, 2004. 576 p.
3. Berezovskij V. M. Himiya vitaminov [Chemistry of vitamins]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 1973. 632 p.
4. Naumkin V. N. Pishchevye i lekarstvennye svojstva kul'turnyh rastenij: uchebnoe posobie [Food and medicinal properties of cultivated plants: textbook]. S-Pb.: Lan', 2015. 400 p.
5. Krasnova T. A. The choice of sorbent for adsorption extraction of chloroform from drinking water. Foods and Raw materials, 2017, №2, р. 189-196.
6. Starostina T. I. Periciklicheskie reakcii i orbital'naya simmetriya. Elektronnoe uchebnoe posobie [Pericyclic reactions and orbital symmetry. Electronic textbook]. N. Novgorod: Nizhegorodskij gosuniversitet, 2010. 53 p.
Authors
Gorelkina Alena Konstantinovna, Candidate of Chemical Science;
Timoshсhuk Irina Vadimovna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Кrasnovа Tamara Andreevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Saveliev Sergey Nikolaevich, Student;
Chernyshev Daniil Andreevich, Student
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya Str., Kemerovo, 650043, Russia, eс This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGY

Gribova N.А., Berketova L.V., Eliseeva L.G.Research and Development of the Formulation of the Drink with a High Protein Content

P. 34-38 Key words
protein shake; organoleptic properties; chemical composition; egg white.

Abstract
Today the direction in the field of technology of soft drinks with the increased protein-containing component most dynamically develops. They occupy a special niche in this segment, which allows them to be used not only in dietary, therapeutic, and preventive nutrition, but also in the nutrition of athletes and people leading an active lifestyle. Studies show that due to the introduction of vitamin, minerals, dietary fibers, vegetable, carbohydrate, lipid and protein-containing components into the formulation composition, they will allow the fortification of the population and adjust their diet. The protein-containing component is obtained from many different foods and each of them is a different composition of protein compounds that can affect cardiovascular disease. At the same time, an increase in the consumption of foods rich in proteins usually leads to a decrease in the consumption of other nutrients and can affect the metabolism in the human body. Given this fact, the use of additional proteins in both plant and animal food requires more study that is careful and determination of the exact formulation. The main purpose of the research work was to create a formulation of the drink - a protein cocktail of functional orientation and increased nutritional value using as an additional source of protein - protein of animal origin. The selection of the optimal ratio of the ingredients of this drink in physiologically active quantities, allowing to obtain harmonious organoleptic characteristics (appearance, taste, smell, consistency), and recommend the use of this drink in the prevention and diet therapy of alimentary-dependent diseases. The predicted shelf life (110 min) of the protein cocktail is determined, the chemical composition is calculated according to the proposed three recipes for 100 g of the finished beverage and a recipe is developed that can be recommended for people leading an active lifestyle as an additional source of protein.

References
1. Strategiya razvitiya pishchevoj i pererabatyvayushchej promyshlennosti Rossijskoj Federacii na period do 2020 g [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902343994 (data obrashcheniya 13.01.17).
2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 30 yanvarya 2010 g N 120 "Ob utverzhdenii doktriny prodovol'stvennoj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii" [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://base.garant.ru/12172719/ (data obrashcheniya 18.06.14).
3. Gosudarstvennaya programma razvitiya sel'skogo hozyajstva i regulirovaniya rynkov sel'skohozyajstvennoj produkcii, syr'ya i prodovol'stviya na 2013-2020 g [Elektronnyi resurs]. URL: http://government.ru/programs/208/events/ (data obrashcheniya 06.09.18).
4. Gribova NA, Berketova LV, Eliseeva LG, [i dr.]. Analiz sovremennyh tendencij v oblasti proizvodstva produktov pitaniya dlya lyudej vedushchij aktivnyj obraz zhizni. Chast' 1. Pishchevaya promyshlennost'. 2017; 1:16-19 (In Russ.).
5. Gribova NA, Berketova LV, Eliseeva LG, [i dr.]. Analiz sovremennyh tendencij v oblasti proizvodstva produktov pitaniya dlya lyudej vedushchij aktivnyj obraz zhizni. Chast' 2. Pishchevaya promyshlennost'. 2017; 2:11-15. (In Russ.)
6. Berketova LV, Kryukova EV. Funkcional'nye napitki na osnove pivnyh drozhzhej. Pivo i napitki, 2012; 5:62-63 (In Russ.)
7. Richter CK, Skulas-Ray AC, Champagne CM, [et al.]. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk? J Adv Nutr. 2015;6 (6): 712-728. DOI: 10.3945/an. 115.009654.
8. Blatt АD, Roe LS, Rolls BJ, [et al.]. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111 (2): 290-294. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada. 2010.10.047.
9. Skurihin IM, Tutel'yan VA. Himicheskij sostav rossijskih produktov pitaniya. Moscow: DeLi print, 2002. 236 р.
10. Hu FB. Protein, body weight, and cardiovascular health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005: 82 (1): 242-247.
11. Leidy HJ, Clifton PM, Astrup A, [et al.]. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 101: 1320-1329.
12. Vasdev S, Stuckless J. Antihypertensive effects of dietary protein and its mechanism. Int J Angio. 2010; 19: 7-20.
13. DiMeglio DP, Mattes RD. Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000; 24: 794-800.
14. Leidy HJ, Armstrong CL, Tang M, [et al.]. The influence of higher protein intake and greater eating frequency on appetite control in overweight and obese men. Obesity. 2010; 18. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2010.45.
Authors
Gribova Natal'ya Аnatol'evna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Berketova Lidiya Vladislavovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Eliseeva Lyudmila Gennadievna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Plekhanov Russian Economic University,
36, Stremyanniy lane, Moscow, 117997 Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



QUALITY CONTROL

Volkova T.N., Selina I.V., Sozinova M.S.Gushing in Beer: Current State of the Problem

P. 40-46 Key words
hydrophobins; gushing prediction methods in grain raw materials; nano bubbles of CO2; foam; primary gushing; surface active substances; beer foam proteins; Fusarium spp.

Abstract
Gushing is the vigorous overfoaming of carbonated beverages when the bottle is opened. Gashing observed in a wide range of carbonated drinks: juices, wine, beer, but most famous and important in brewery. Gushing affects the image of beer negatively. The loss of a beer brand's image in cases of gushing may have significant economic impacts. For years, brewers have been trying to understand the nature and causes of gushing. Many different procedures have been developed for determining the gushing propensity of barley, wheat and malt. Numerous factors causing and contributing to gushing have been reported. Primary gushing is induced by fungal metabolites, so-called gushing factors, which are present in cereal raw materials of beer. Particularly species of the genus Fusarium have been linked to primary gushing, especially in years with high humidity and rainfall during vegetation periods. Non-malt related gushing, i. e. secondary gushing, is due to faults in the beer production process. This review deals with problems of primary gashing. The formation of foam in beer and role of surface active substances in this process were studied. It is surfactants that provide foam stability. It was found that filamentous fungi that exist on the grain produce and excrete surface active proteins hydrophobins. During brewing, hydrophobins are transferred into the wort and finished beer where they can promote gushing. It has been demonstrated that hydrophobins isolated from strains of the genera Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae), GzHYD5, FcHYD5 and FpHYD5, respectively, induced beer gushing when added to bottled beer. Hydrophobin concentrations at the ppb levels were sufficient for gushing induction. It was demonstrated that hydrophobins act as one of the gushing factors. It was found that in the process of self-assembly of protein layers on the surface of foam nano bubbles the interaction occurs of fungi surface active hydrophobins and surface active proteins from grain, nsLtp1. In experiments the levels of gushing were depended on the quantitative ratio of these proteins, FcHYD5?: nsLtp1, and on the degree of their glycation. Gushing proved to be a multicausal phenomenon, and no clear mechanism has been devised by research to date. In recent studies, the most advanced methods were used: molecular genetics, PCR, MALDI TOF mass spectrometry, ELISA, statistic and other. This allowed to advance in the understanding of gushing nature but did not provide a simple and fast test for screening grain raw materials on gushing prediction that can be used by maltsters in their everyday business.

References
1. Sarlin T. Detection and characterisation of Fusarium hydrophobins inducing gushing in beer. Doct. Diss. Aalto University School of Chemical Technology. Espoo, Finland, 2012. 82 p. Available at: http://www.vtt.fi/publications/index.jsp (accessed 20.03.19.)
2. Specker C. Analysis of the interaction of gushing inducing hydrophobins with beer foam proteins. Dokt. Diss. Technischen Universitat Munchen, 2014. 174 p. Available at: https://media­tum.ub.tum.de/doc/1227262/1227262.pdf (accessed 20.03.19.)
3. Mastanjevic K., Mastanjevic K., Krstanovic V. The Gushing Experience - A Quick Overview. Beverages, 2017;3 (2):25-35. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/ 2306-5710/3/2/25 (accessed 20.03.19.)
4. Gjersten P., Trolle B., Anderson K. Weather-microflora of possible importance to malting and stored barley as a contributory of gushing in beer. Proc. Europ. Brew. Conv., 9th Congr., Brussels, 1963. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964, pp. 320-341.
5. Gjersten P, Trolle B, Anderson K. Studies of gushing II. Gushing caused by microorganisms, specially Fusarium species. Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention. 1965;10:428-438.
6. Volkova TN. Javlenije gashinga v pivovarenii. [Phenomenon of gushing in beer]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and Beveriges]. 2007; (3): 18-21.
7. Volkova TN. Prichiny gashinga piva i mery ego predotvrashchenija. Obzor. [Cause of beer gushing and measures to prevent it]. Industrija napitkov [Beverages Industry]. 2007; (3):10-18.
8. Wosten H.A., Vocht M. L. Hydrophobins, the fungal coat unraveled. Biochim. Biopys. Acta. 2000;1469 (2):79-86. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10998570 (accessed: 20.03.19.)
9. Sarlin T, Nakari-Setala T, Linder M, [et al.]. Fungal hydrophobins as predictors of the gushing activity of malt. J. Inst. Brew. 2005;111 (2):105-111. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228629877 (accessed 20.03.19.)
10. Virkajarvi V, Sarlin T, Laitila A. Fungal profiling and gushing potential. EBC Brewing Science Group 10th Technical Meeting, 9-11.09.2014. Vienna, Austria.: Available at: https://healthdocbox.com/Womens_Health/65528325-Fungal-profiling-and-gushing-potential.html (accessed: 20.03.19.)
11. Virkajarvi V, Sarlin T, Laitila A. Fusarium profiling and Barley Malt Gushing Propensity. J. Am. Brew. Chem. 2017;75 (3):181-192. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318943479_Fusarium_Profiling_and_Barley_Malt_Gushing_Propensity (accessed: 20.03.19.)
12. Press Release. Joint gushing project of European maltster and brewers' associations: Euromalt and EBC announce outcome of 2?year-project on gushing. Brussels, 9 February 2015. Available at: https://brewersofeurope.org/site/media-centre/post.php?doc_id=894 (accessed: 20.03.19.)
Authors
Volkova Tat'yana Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Selina Irina Vasil'evna;
Sozinova Marina Sergeevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abramova I.M., Medrish M.Je., Savel'eva V.B., Gavrilova D.A., Zhirova V.V.Methods for the Determination of Mineral Substances in the Process of Production of Alcoholic Beverages Obtained with the Use of Plant Materials

P. 48-51 Key words
anions; cations; quality; metals; research methods; minerals; vegetable raw materials; alcoholic beverages.

Abstract
One of the urgent problems of the production of alcoholic beverages, obtained with the use of plant materials, is the formation of cloudiness and precipitation during their long-term storage. To the cloudiness are more sensitive alcoholic beverages with a long exposure time, having high concentrations of dry substances. The reaction of sediment formation is very slow, the precipitate may appear in the drink, which is already in the trading network and cause rejection of the entire batch. The article presents information about the methods of studying mineral substances in alcoholic beverages obtained using plant materials. To determine the microelement composition of alcoholic beverages, including whiskey, various methods are used: ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, atomic absorption spectroscopy with various types of detection, optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The data on the use abroad of a number of trace elements as markers to identify counterfeit products and to ensure the possibility of identifying alcoholic beverages by age, raw material composition and region of origin are presented. So, manganese is one of the markers, indicating the aging of a drink using oak shavings regardless of its variety, and copper is a marker of influence of the type of oak shavings. The copper content in malt whiskey is much higher than in blended and cereals, which is associated with the technology of distillates, as copper cubes are used to make malt whiskey. The study of the presented problem allows for the improvement and introduction of modern analytical methods that allow for a comprehensive control of the quality and safety of alcoholic beverages produced using plant materials.

References
1. Lachenmeier DW, Attig R, Frank W, [et al.]. The use of ion chromatography to detect adulteration of vodka and rum. Eur Food Res Technol. 2003;218:105-110; doi 10.1007/s00217?003? 0799?8.
2. Tanyanyiwa J, Hauser PC. High-voltage contactless conductivity detection of metal ions in capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:3781-3786; doi: 10.1002/1522-2683 (200211) 23:213.0. CO; 2?L.
3. Gao J, Fan H, Yang W, [et al.]. Separation and determination of inorganic cations in beverages by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Central European Journal of Chemistry. 2008;6 (4): 617-621.
4. Popova OV, Sursyakova VV, Burmakina GV, [et al.]. Determination of iron and copper ions in cognacs by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2015; 70 (2):198-202.
5. Kinare S, Chanthai S. Ultra-trace determination of Pb (II) and Cd (II) in drinking water and alcoholic beverages using homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Chemical Papers. 2014; 68 (3): 342-351.
6. Plotka-Wasylka J, Frankowski M, Simeonov V, [et al.]. Determination of Metals Content in Wine Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Molecules. 2018; 23 (4041):1-11; doi: 10.3390/molecu les23114041.
7. Zhirov VM, Presnyakova OP, Neudahina OK, [et al.]. Opredelenie ehlementov vin metodom spektrometrii s induktivno svyazannoj plazmoj [Determination of the elements of wine by the method of spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma]. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo, 2012; 6:27-29.
8. Zhirova VV, Carev AA, Danilovceva AB, [i dr.]. Issledovanie ehlementnogo sostava fruktovyh vin metodom mass-spektrometrii s induktivno svyazannoj plazmoj [The study of the elemental composition of fruit wines by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma]. Pivo i napitki. 2018; 4:26-31.
9. Ivanova-Petropulos V, Balabanova B, Bogeva E, [et al.]. Rapid Determination of Trace Elements in Macedonian Grape Brandies for Their Characterization and Safety Evaluation. Food Analytical Methods. 2017; 10 (2):459-468.
10. Adam T, Duthie E, Feldmann J. Investigations into the Use of Copper and Other Metals as Indicators for the Authenticity of Scotch Whiskies. Journal of Institute of Brewing. 2002:108 (4):459-464.
11. Hopfer H, Gilleland G, Ebeler SE, [et al.]. Elemental Profiles of Whisk (e) y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region. Beverages. 2017; 3 (8): 1-12; doi:10.3390/beverages3010008/.
12. Iwegbue ChMA, Overah LC, Bassey FI, [et al.]. Trace metal concentrations in distilled alcoholic beverages and liquors in Nigeria. Institute of Brewing & Distilling. 2014;120:521-528; doi 10.1002/jib. 174.
13. Balcerek M, Pielech-Przybylska K, Dziekonska-Kubczak U, [et al.]. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch. Molecules. 2016; 21 (1320): 1-19; doi:10.3390/molecu­les2110132.
14. Navarro-Alarcon M, Olalla M, Mejia Lopez H. Copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium content of alcoholic beverages and byproducts from Spain: Nutritional supply. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2007:1-21; doi: 10.1080/02652030601185063.
Authors
Abramova Irina Mikhailovna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Medrish Marina Jeduardovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Savel'eva Vera Borisovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Gavrilova Dar'ya Alekseevna
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal research Center of Food, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4-B, Samokatnaya Str., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zhirova Vera Vladimirovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky,
73, Zemlyanoy Val Str., Moscow, 109004, Russia



Peschanskaya V.A., Dubinina E.V., Andrievskaya D.V., Rotaru I.A., Oganesyants L.A.Quality Assessment of White Dry Table Wine Materials for the Sparkling Wines Production

P. 52-56 Key words
white dry table wine materials; additional indicators of physical and chemical composition; sparkling wines.

Abstract
Improving the quality of domestic wine production, including sparkling wines, is an important task of scientific research. This paper is devoted to assessing the quality indicators of white dry table wine materials used by domestic enterprises for the production of sparkling wines. 31 samples of wine materials from different manufacturers were used as objects of the research. The values of additional indicators were determined in check samples in addition to the indicators subject to mandatory control under the current regulatory documentation. pH, redox potential, mass concentration of ash and its alkalinity, dynamic stability of a two-sided film, mass concentrations of glycerol, amine and ammonia nitrogen, qualitative and quantitative composition of carboxylic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds were used as additional quality indicators. The study was performed using standardized methods of analysis. The results show significant differences in the quality characteristics of the studied wine materials. According to the results of the organoleptic analysis, all samples were divided into three quality groups. Wine materials with a high organoleptic assessment made up only 16?%. It was established that the pH value in the studied wine materials was in the range of 2.8-3.8, and the redox potential value ranged from 145.6 to 282.1 mV. It was established that in 50?% of the studied samples the ratio of malic and lactic acids was 2:1-5:1, which indicates the absence of biological acid reduction. Wine materials with a ratio of tartaric and malic acids from 1.3:1 to 5.0:1 and a ratio of tartaric and citric acids from 5.0:1 to 12.7:1 had the most balanced composition of organic acids. The paper substantiates the concept of determining the authenticity and quality of wine materials for sparkling wines based on the analysis of the values of the proposed additional indicators of physical and chemical composition. The obtained analytical data showed the necessity to determine the limits of variation of these indicators in wine materials in order to assess their suitability for the production of high-quality sparkling wines.

References
1. Sarishvili NG, Rejtblat BB. Mikrobiologicheskie osnovy texnologii shampanizacii vina. Moscow: Pishhepromizdat, 2000. 364 p.
2. Duteurtre B. Le Champagne de la tradition ? la science. Paris: Lavoisier, 2010. 347 р.
3. Oganesyanc LA, [i dr.]. Povyshenie kachestva igristy"h vin na osnove ispol'zovaniya produktov destrukcii vinnyh drozhzhej. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2011, no. 1, pp. 28-30.
4. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina EV. Sovershenstvovanie ocenki kachestva stolovyx vinomaterialov dlya igristyx vin. Pivo i napitki. 2018, no. 3, pp. 72-75.
5. GOST 33410-2015. Produkciya bezalkogol'­naya, slaboalkogol'naya, vinodel'cheskaya i sokovaya. Opredelenie soderzhaniya organicheskix kislot metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj xromatografii. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 18 p.
6. FR. 1.31.2012.13428. Metodika izmerenij massovoj koncentracii svobodnyx aminokislot v napitkax alkogol'nyx i bezalko­gol'nyx metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj xromatografii. Svidetel'stvo ob attestacii no. 01.00225/205?48?12.
7. GOST 33409-2015. Produkciya alkogol'naya i sokovaya. Opredelenie soderzhaniya uglevodov i glicerina metodom vysokoeffektivnoj zhidkostnoj xromatografii. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 10 p.
8. Oganesyanc LA, [i dr.]. Vliyanie sostava organicheskix kislot v vinomaterialax na kachestvo i texnologicheskie osobennosti proizvodstva igristyh vin. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2008, no. 1, pp. 8-9.
9. Aristova NI, [i dr.]. Aprobaciya arbitrazhnogo metoda opredeleniya massovoj koncentracii glicerina v suslah i vinah. Magarach. Vinodelie i vinogradarstvo. 2008, no. 3, pp. 32-33.
10. Asche (gravimetrisch bestimmt; aus Mineralstoffen berechnet, Alkalitat der Asche). URL: www.institute-heidger.de/en/asche-summe-aller-mineralstoffe (Дата обращения: 04.03.2019).
11. Pohl P. What do metals tell us about wine? Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2007, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 941-949.
Authors
Peschanskaya Violetta Aleksandrovna;
Dubinina Elena Vasilievna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Andrievskaya Dar'ya Vladislavovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Rotaru Irina Andreevna;
Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academic of RAS
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Eliseev M.N., Emelyanova L.K., Belkin Yu.D., Kosareva O.A.Chinese Oolong - tea perfection

P. 58-62 Key words
antioxidants; flavorings; tannins; quality characteristics; caffeine; organoleptic quality assessment; tannin; Oolong.

Abstract
For a large part of the world's population, tea is the most important component of their life. Almost nobody refuses a cup of fragrant tea, this drink is very popular among the absolute majority of Russian citizens. As is known, tea is not only an invigorating drink, it is credited with many useful properties, it is often recommended by doctors. Therefore, consumers pay special attention to the quality of this subgroup of taste products. In the face of increasing competition in the tea consumer market, manufacturers are producing more and more varieties of tea, trying to please all categories of consumers. Oolong tea relatively recently appeared on the domestic market. They are intermediate between green and black teas. A significant part of domestic consumers, subject to a huge selection of drinks, prefers tea. In this paper, we studied the main characteristics of semi-fermented Chinese tea from different growing regions. The quality of seven samples of tea was assessed for organoleptic, physico-chemical parameters and composition of volatile components. A score was developed to determine the quality category of Oolong tea. Studies of the composition of volatile compounds of two tea samples allowed us to detect 68 components, among which the following chemical classes were identified: alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes and their derivatives, heterocyclic aromatic compounds, unsaturated hydrocarbons, amides, nitriles, furans. It is established that the basis of tea flavoring substances are terpenes and their derivatives, which form different shades of aromas and flavors.

References
1. Wei Pan. Oolong-Tee: bewerten Sie chinesischen Tee. - Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2014. 157 p.
2. WeiSin U. Enzyklopadie des medizinischen Tees. Saint-Petersburg: Newa Publishing House, 2008. 120 p.
3. Tsocyashvili II, Bokuchava MA. Chemie und teetechnologie. Moscow: Agropromisdat, 2010. 361 p.
4. Emelyanova LK, Eliseev MN, Alekseeva ОМ, [et al.]. Chinese Tea Pu-Erh. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological And Chemical Sciences. 2017; 8(1): 2038-2043.
5. Zheng Lisheng. The Appreciation of Oolong Tea. Beijing: China Light Industry Press, 2009.
Authors
Eliseev Mikhail Nikolayevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Emelyanova Lydia Konstantinovna, Candidate of Technical Science,
Belkin Yury Dmitrievich, Candidate of Technical Science
Plekhanov Russian Economic University,
36 Stremyanny lane, Moscow, 117997, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kosareva Olga Alekseevna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow University for Industry and Finance "Synergy",
9/14, p. 1, Meshchanskaya Str., Moscow, 129090, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RAW AND OTHER MATERIALS

Borodulin D.M., Reznichenko I.Yu., Shalev A.V., Prosin M.V.Comparative Analysis of the Quality of Different Types of Malt for Production of Malt Whiskey Distillates

P. 64-69 Key words
whiskey distillate; organoleptic indicators; quality assessment; malt; physical and chemical indicators.

Abstract
One of the main factors affecting the quality of the finished whiskey is malt. Distillates are generally produced from imported malt, differing in the type of grain, processing technology, quality indicators and price. The objects of research were samples of barley light malt from different manufacturers: "Altaiskiy Krai", Barnaul; "Kurskiy solod", Kursk; malt "Chateau Distilling" produced by Malting S. A. Rue de Mons, Belgium. Researches were conducted in the Kemerovo State University, in the laboratory of the Institute of Engineering Technologies and production conditions at LLC "BirLine". Researches were conducted using standard test methods. In the studies, whiskey distillate was prepared by fermentation of malt wort from a cereal crop - barley. A preliminary organoleptic and physic-chemical analysis of the raw materials used in research has been carried out. A technological chart and equipments for the production of whiskey distillates is presented. The production was carried out as follows. The malt was crushed, then sent for mashing. The mashing was carried out on a new design of a steam-water boiler (SWB), including a wort filtering system. Filtered wort cooled and sent for fermentation. After, the fermenting mash was sent to the double distillation. The results of studies of malt quality indicators are presented. Quality indicators obtained from analyzed malt samples and whiskey distillates are characterized. Organoleptic indicators of the quality of whiskey distillates samples are presented. The use of native malt allows obtaining high-quality whiskey distillate for the production of whiskey in Russia was shown.

References
1. GOST 33281-2015. Viski. Tekhnicheskiye usloviya [Whiskey. Technical conditions]. Moscow: Standartinform, 2015. 16 p.
2. Borodulin DM, Potapov AN, Prosin MV. Investigation of Influence of Oxygen on Process of Whiskey Ripening in New Design of Extractor. Advances in Engineering Researc. 2018;151:578-583.
3. Fayner AA. Intensifikatsiya protsessa izvlecheniya tselevykh komponentov iz dubovoy shchepy pri proizvodstve napitkov tipa viski [Conference proceedigs]. Pishchevyye innovatsii i biotekhnologii: materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii. Kemerovo; 2016.
4. Osman'yan RG. Vliyaniye usloviy brozheniya na kachestvo viskovykh spirtov. Pishchevaya i pererabatyvayushchaya promyshlennost'. Referativnyy zhurnal. 2007; 2: 532.
5. Panakhov TM, Shafizade DA. Issledovaniye protsessov transformatsii aromaticheskikh komponentov dubovoy klepki v period yestestvennoy sushki-sozrevaniya. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya. 2017; 2-3: 72-77.
6. Borodulin DM, Salishcheva OV, Fayner AA. Intensifikatsiya protsessa izvlecheniya tselevykh komponentov iz termicheski obrabotannoy dubovoy shchepy s distillyatami pri prigotovlenii viski [Conference proceedigs]. Pishchevyye innovatsii i biotekhnologii. Materialy V Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii, 25 April 2017. Kemerovo; 2017.
7. Korostelev AV, Novikova IV, Palishkin DA. Modelirovaniye i optimizatsiya protsessa polucheniya solodov dlya prigotovleniya spirta-viski [Conference proceedigs]. Materialy XLIX otchetnoy nauchnoy konferentsii za 2010 god. Voronezhskaya gosudarstvennaya tekhnologicheskaya akademiya, 22-23 March 2011. Voronezh; 2011.
8. Korostelev AV, Vostrikov SV, Novikova IV. Fiziko-khimicheskiye i organolepticheskiye pokazateli spirtov-viski iz razlichnogo syr'ya. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdeliy. 2010; 1: 30-31.
9. Korostelev AV. Razrabotka intensivnoy tekhnologii krepkikh alkogol'nykh napitkov "Viski" [Abstract of Ph. D. thesis]. - Voronezh; 2011.
10. Yeliseyeva MN, Osipova VP, Mironova MA. Krepkiy alkogol'nyy napitok - tipa viski na osnove pivovarennogo soloda [Conference proceedigs]. Perspektivnyye biotekhnologicheskiye protsessy v tekhnologiyakh produktov pitaniya i kormov VII Mezhdunarodnyy nauchno-prakticheskiy simpozium. Moscow, 2014.
11. Chetverikov VI. Analiz syr'ya i polucheniye zernovykh distillyatov dlya alkogol'nykh napitkov tipa "Viski" [Conference proceedigs]. Problemy, perspektivy biotekhnologii i biologicheskikh issledovaniy. Materialy VIII Regional'noy konferentsii studentov mladshikh kursov, 18 November 2017. Biysk; 2018.
12. GOST 29294-2014. Solod pivovarennyy. Tekhnicheskiye usloviya. Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. 18 p.
13. Poznyakovskiy VM, Pomozova VA, Kiseleva TF, Permyakova LV. Ekspertiza napitkov. Kachestvo i bezopasnost': ucheb.?sprav. posobiye. Novosibirsk: Siberian University Publishing, 2007. URL: http://www.studentlibrary.ru/book/.
Authors
Borodulin Dmitriy Mikhailovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Reznichenko Irina Yur'evna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Shalev Aleksey Vladimirovich;
Prosin Maksim Valer'evich, Candidate of Technical Science
Kemerovo State University,
6, Krasnaya Str., Kemerovo, 650000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Krikunova L.N., Peschanskaya V.A., Osipova V.P., Zakharov M.A., Obodeeva O.N.Influence of the Race of Yeast on the Process of Fermentation of Wort from Returnable Waste of Bakery Production

P. 70-74 Key words
returnable waste of bakery production; the dynamics of fermentation; the concentration of volatile compounds; the strength of fermented wort.

Abstract
The article, the stage of fermentation of the wort obtained from an unconventional type of starch-containing raw material - returnable waste of bakery production, generated both in the production of bakery products and as a result of the return of products from retailers. The use of returnable waste of bakery production as a raw material for the production of distillates will expand the raw material base of the wine-making and make rational use of the country's grain resources. The purpose of the research was to determine the influence of the dry spirit yeast race on the main physical and chemical parameters of fermented wort: strength, actual extract content, concentration of the main volatile compounds when using wheat bread or a mixture of wheat and rye-wheat bread as a raw material. The efficiency of the fermentation process was evaluated by a number of indicators, including the dynamics of carbon dioxide emission, the degree of accumulation of ethyl alcohol in the fermented wort, and the content of volatile compounds in it, which were carried out by gas chromatographic method of analysis. It has been established that the process of fermentation of the wort from returnable waste of bakery production is most intensive in the case of using the yeast Fermiol and Turbo-24. It is shown that the use of returnable waste from wheat bread allows obtaining samples of fermented wort with greater strength than samples obtained from the mixture. The maximum strength was found for fermented samples using Fermiol and Turbo-24 spirit yeast, the minimum - for Angel and Alcotec Whisky Turbo yeast. The use of returnable waste of bakery production is characterized by a high yield of alcohol, in the best options at the level of 63.25-63.79 dal. from a ton of conditional starch raw materials. A comparative analysis of the samples of fermented wort according to the content of volatile compounds made it possible to reveal the influence of both the type of raw material and the yeast race on the process of digestion. Regardless of the type of raw material, the use of the yeast Fermiol and Turbo-24 allows you to get fermented wort with a minimum concentration of acetaldehyde; processing a mixture of wheat and rye-wheat bread allows you to get fermented wort with a high content of enanthic ether and phenylethyl alcohol. In general, the analysis of the obtained data gave grounds to recommend fermentation of Fermiol and Turbo-24 races for fermentation of the wort from bakery production, the use of which allows to obtain fermented wort with maximum strength and high levels of individual volatile compounds.

References
1. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina ЕV, [et al.]. Sposob polucheniya shelkovichnogo distillyata. Patent RF no. 2560266, C12G 3/12; 20.08.2015. (In Russ.)
2. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina ЕV. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz chernoj smorodiny. Patent RF no. 2609659, C12G 3/12; 02.02.2017. (In Russ.)
3. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN, [et al.]. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz zernovogo syr'ya. Patent no. RF 2557397, S12G 3/00, S12G 3/12, S12G 3/10; 20.07.2014. (In Russ.)
4. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN. Sposob proizvodstva distillyata iz inulinsoderzhashchego syr'ya. Patent RF no. 2608502, S12R 7/06; 18.01.2017. (In Russ.)
5. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Krikunova LN. Tekhniko-ekonomicheskoe obosnovanie effektivnosti proizvodstva distillyatov iz vozvratnyh othodov hlebopekarnogo proizvodstva. Pivo i napitki. 2018; (2): 66-69. (In Russ.)
6. Krikunova LN, Peschanskaya VA, Zaharov MA. Mineral'nyj sostav vozvratnyh othodov hlebopekarnogo proizvodstva. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishchevyh produktov. 2018; (2): 25-29. (In Russ.)
7. Krikunova LN, Dubinina ЕV. Issledovanie belkovogo kompleksa vozvratnyh othodov hlebopekarnogo proizvodstva. Tekhnologiya i tovarovedenie innovacionnyh pishchevyh produktov. 2018; (4): 63-66. (In Russ.)
8. Krikunova LN, Peschanskaya VA, Zaharov MA. Issledovanie processa polucheniya osaharennogo susla iz vozvratnyh othodov hlebopekarnogo proizvodstva. Pivo i napitki. 2018; (3): 20-23. (In Russ.)
9. Rimareva LV. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie osnovy biotekhnologii drozhzhej. Moscow: DeLi print, 2010. 252 p. (In Russ.)
10. Sumina LI, Krikunova LN. Vliyanie uglevodnogo sostava susla na razvitie spirtovyh drozhzhej. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnyh izdelij. 2009; (3): 10-11. (In Russ.)
11. Oganesyanc LA, Peschanskaya VA, Dubinina ЕV, [i dr.]. Podbor ras drozhzhej dlya sbrazhivaniya fruktovoj mezgi, prednaznachennoj dlya distillyacii. Pivo i napitki. 2017; (6): 26-30. (In Russ.)
12. Yarovenko VL, Marinchenko VA, Smirnov VA, [i dr.]. Tekhnologiya spirta. Moscow: Kolos, 2002. 464 p. (In Russ.)
Authors
Krikunova Ludmila Nikolaevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Peschanskaya Violetta Aleksandrovna;
Osipova Valentina Pavlovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Zakharov Maksim Aleksandrovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Obodeeva Olga Nikolaevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industry - Branch of Gorbatov Research Center for Food Systems of RAS,
7 Rossolimo Str., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION

Balkan drive in the heart of Moscow

Ermolaeva G.A. XXI Specialized Exhibition "Food. Drinks - 2019"