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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №1/2018



THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Kravchenko S.N., Miller E.S., Plotnikova I.O., Popov A.M.Improvement of the Extraction Process in the Production of Instant Drinks

P. 5-10 Key words
biologically active agents; dry soluble substances; extraction; fruit and berry raw materials; rational parameters; stability of technological system.

Abstract
Today multicomponent products which allow to compensate problems of food enjoy wide popularity and show the expressed medicinal and preventive properties thanks to enrichment by dietary supplements. As perspective ingredients by production of functional products, in particular instant drinks, vegetable raw materials extracts can act. For receiving quality competitive products it is necessary to consider influence of a set of factors on extraction process. The device is developed for dispergating and extraction of fruit and berry and vegetable raw materials. As the extracted raw materials were used 12-14?% of berry which are previously dried up at a temperature of 50...55 °C to humidity and a pressing of a cranberry, blueberry, cowberry and bilberry growing in the Tomsk region. As ekstragent were applied: ultrafiltrate of cottage cheese serum; water, ethanol and their solutions. Content of dry soluble and biologically active agents in extracts was determined by the standard techniques. Rational parameters of process of extraction at which an exit of dry soluble substances and the sum of biologically active agents, is close to maximum are determined, and the received extracts had harmonious taste and aroma. It is established that the greatest exit of vitamin C is reached when using as the ekstragent - an ultrafiltrate of cottage cheese serum, bioflavonoids and tannins - 30 and 60?% by aqueous-alcoholic solution respectively. On the basis of the developed device the block diagram of technical system of process of production of the instant granulated drinks is offered. The comparative analysis of a subsystem with a traditional way of extraction and the modernized subsystem of extraction has shown increase in stability of functioning with 0,64 to 0,92 that has led to substantial increase of level of integrity of a technological stream in general. Use of the developed device promotes increase in efficiency of process, increase in an exit of dry soluble and biologically active agents from vegetable raw materials, to decrease in material, power and labor inputs.

References
1. Pilipenko, T. V. Obogashhennye tvorozhnye produkty / T. V. Pilipenko, O. Ju. Orlova // Pererabotka moloka. - 2008. - № 4. - S. 58-60.
2. Kravchenko, S. N. Formirovanie potrebitel'skogo povedenija na rynke produktov funkcional'nogo naznachenija / S. N. Kravchenko, G. S. Drapkina, M. A. Postolova // Pishhevaja promyshlennost", 2008. - № 4. - S. 42-43.
3. Kravchenko, S. N. Nauchnoe obosnovanie razrabotki tehnologicheskih potokov i ocenki kachestva bystrorastvorimyh granulirovannyh produktov: diss. … d­ra tehn. nauk: 05.18.15 i 05.18.12 / S. N. Kravchenko. - Kemerovo, 2011. - 322 s.
4. Beloborodov, V. V. Problemy jekstragirovanija v pishhevoj promyshlennosti / V. V. Beloborodov // Izvestija vuzov SSSR. Pishhevaja tehnologija. - 1986. - № 3. - S. 6-11.
5. Kravchenko, S. N. Proizvodstvo obogashhennyh produktov s ispol'zovaniem jekstraktov i ih tovarovednaja ocenka / S. N. Kravchenko, S. S. Pavlov. - Kemerovo: Kuzbassvuzizdat, 2006. - 151 s.
6. Panfilov, V. A. Diagnostika tehnologij pri razrabotke sistemy oborudovanija dlja proizvodstva syrov / V. A. Panfilov, L. A. Ostroumov, M. P. Shhetinin // Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja. - 1997. - № 10. - S. 6-9.
Authors
Kravchenko Sergei Nikolaevich, Doctor of Technical Science;
Miller Ekaterina Sergeevna, Graduate Student;
Plotnikova Irina Olegovna, Graduate Student;
Popov Anatolii Mikhailovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Kemerovo State University,
6 Krasnaya st., Kemerovo, 650043, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Koptelova E.K., Kuzmina L.G., Lukin N.D. Influence of the Moisture Heat and Extrusion Heat Treatment of Corn Starch on Its Resistance

P. 11-14 Key words
amylolytic enzymes; starch hydrolysates; liquid chromatography; resistant starch; glucose content; enzymatic resistance.

Abstract
To maintain a healthy lifestyle of a person in the make-up of some dietary products starch is included which is not split by amylolytic enzymes in the digestive tract of a person. Such starch is considered amiloresistant, or just resistant. Resistant starch improves peristalsis of the small intestine of a person, improves cell sensitivity to insulin, reduces cholesterol level in blood, promotes emergence of early feeling of being full of food therefore it can promote for the decrease of his weight. Ordinary starches have low resistance; however, using separate types of its modification, it is possible to receive starch with the increased resistance. In the All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products there is developed the technique of estimation of the starch resistance degree, which is used for researches in this work. In this article there are given the results of the estimation of an amiloresistanсe of extrusion corn starches of different producers and the definition of their carbohydrate composition. It is known that at the influence of amylolytic enzymes mainly the regulated part of amylose chains in starch is split therefore the degree of starch resistance is estimated the glucose yield. The results of the estimation of the corn starches resistance subjected to a moisture heat treatment on a roller drier and changed after extrusion are given in the article. Enzyme hydrolysis of tested starches was carried out using the Fluca pig pancreatic alfa-amylase having the activity of 16 mg/cm3 and the amiloglucosidase of 3,000 unit/cm3. The hydrolysis was carried out at 37 °C, fermentation process was within 2-60 min. The carbohydrate composition of hydrolysates was estimated with a liquid chromatograph. Data on the glucose content in hydrolysates of swelling and extrusion starches at the identical time of fermentation are obtained. It is defined that swelling corn starch differs in the increased resistance; the glucose content in hydrolysates of this starch does not exceed 9.8-21?%. It is noted that addition in the course of drying of some substances, for example, of sodium orthophosphates, increases viscosity of starch and reduces its resistance. Extrusion starches are highly cold water soluble, but have lower resistance in comparison with swelling starch.

References
1. Englist H. N., Kingman S. N., Cummings J. H. Classificftion and measurement of nutritional important starch fractions // Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. - 1992. - P. 33-46.
2. Lee Kw. et al. Influence of storage temperature and autoclaving cycles on slowly and resistant (RS) formation from partially debranched rice starch // Starch­St?rke. - 2013. - 65. - P. 694-701.
3. Patel Bh., Seetharaman K. Effekt of heating rate at different moistnure contents on starch retrogradation and starch­water interactions during gelatinization // Starch­St?rke. - 2010. - 62. - P. 538-546.
4. Son Trinh K., Jun Choi S., Wha Woon T. Structure and digestibility of debranched and hydrothermally treated water yam starch // Starch­St?rke. - 2013. - 65. - P. 679-685.
5. Koptelova, E. K. Ocenka amiloliticheskoj ustojchivosti krahmalov razlichnogo proishozhdenija i modifikacii / E. K. Koptelova, L. G. Kuz'mina, N. D. Lukin // Innovacionnye tehnologii v pishhevoj promyshlennosti. Materialy XV Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno­prakticheskoj konferencii 5-6 oktjabrja 2016. - Minsk, 2016. - S. 59-62.
Authors
Koptelova Evgenia Kuzminichna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Kuzmina Lyubov Grigoryevna;
Lukin Nikolay Dmitriyevich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
The All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products - branch FNTs of Food Systems of V. M. Gorbatov of RAS,
11 Nekrasov St., Kraskovo, Moscow Region, 140051, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Skobelskaya Z.G., Butin S.A., Lubenina I.A.Storage of Functional Marmalade Containing Flaxseed Oil

P. 16-19 Key words
gelatin-based marmalade; functional properties; storage life.

Abstract
The work considers functional marmalade prepared by two methods: direct flaxseed oil injection, and encapsulation method. The research objective was to study physico-chemical and microbiological processes occurring during storage of marmalade with different flaxseed oil portions (1 and 4?%). The research has been carried out in Moscow State University of Food Production. During marmalade storage the following quality parameters have been studied: organoleptic estimation, mark, moisture content, %; omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids content, %; total deformation, mm; elastic deformation-to-plastic deformation ratio (m), microbial attributes. It has been found that within 8 weeks storage the marmalade with different flaxseed oil portions keeps perfect quality, but within 12 weeks storage - good one. The marmalade storage life recommended by authors is 12 weeks. Expiry date corresponds to 16 weeks storage. During the indicated storage life (12 weeks) the above-mentioned marmalade quality parameters slightly decrease while marmalade quality remains good. The relative change of moisture content is 5.9?%; the dynamics of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs content does not exceed 8.0?%. Сhange in the value of the total deformation and elastic deformation-to-plastic deformation ratio in marmalade obtained by the encapsulation method is less significant than in marmalade with direct flaxseed oil injection. During 12 weeks storage such microbiological points as Quantity of Mesophillc Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic. Microorganisms, CFU/G; coliform bacteria, g; yeast, CFU/G; mold, CFU/G, meet the requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. The received data can betaken by specialists of confectionary industry as a basis for setting storage life of functional marmalade.

References
1. Skobel'skaja, Z. G. Marmelad funkcional'nogo naznachenija, soderzhashhij l'njanoe maslo / Z. G. Skobel'skaja [i dr.] // Konditerskoe proizvodstvo. - 2017. - № 6. - S. 16-21.
2. Butin, S. A. Sovremennaja tehnologija hranenija zhevatel'nogo marmelada / S. A. Butin, Z. G. Skobel'skaja // Konditerskoe proizvodstvo. - 2015. - № 2. - S. 26-29.
3. Panfilov, V. A. Tehnologicheskie linii pishhevyh proizvodstv (teorija tehnologicheskogo potoka) / V. A. Panfilov. - M.: Kolos, 1993. - 228 s.
4. Zubchenko, A. V. Vlijanie fiziko­himicheskih processov na kachestvo konditerskih izdelij / A. V. Zubchenko. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986. - 296 s.
5. Olejnikova, A. Ja. Tehnologija konditerskih izdelij: uchebnik / A. Ja. Olejnikova, L. M. Aksenova, G. O. Magomedov. - SPb.: RAPP, 2010. - 672 s.
6. Lur'e, I. S. Tehnologija i tehnohimicheskij kontrol' konditerskogo proizvodstva / I. S. Lur'e. - M.: Legkaja i pishhevaja promyshlennost', 1981. - 328 s.
7. Skobel'skaja, Z. G. Tehnologija proizvodstva saharnyh kondi­terskih izdelij / Z. G. Skobel'skaja, G. N. Gorjacheva. - M.: IRPO; ProfObrIzdat, 2002. - 416 s.
8. Mel'kina, G. M. Vvedenie v tehnologii produktov pitanija. Laboratornyj praktikum / G. M. Mel'kina [i dr.] - M.: KolosS, 2005. - 248 s.
9. Shapovalova, E. N. Hromatograficheskie metody analiza / E. N. Shapovalova E. N., A. V. Pirogov. - Moskva, 2007.
10. Maksimov, A. S. Reologija pishhevyh produktov. Laboratornyj praktikum / A. S. Maksimov, V. Ja. Chernyh. - SPb: GIORD, 2006. - 176 s.
11. Butin, S. A. Optimizacija receptur zhevatel'nogo marmelada, soderzhashhego raznye antikristallizatory / S. A. Butin, I. A. Ljubenina, Z. G. Skobel'skaja // Konditerskoe proizvodstvo. - 2017. - № 4. - S. 18-22.
12. SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. Gigienicheskie trebovanija bezopasnosti i pishhevoj cennosti pishhevyh produktov.
Authors
Skobelskaya Zinaida Grigorievna, Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor;
Butin Sergey Anatolevich, Post-graduate Student;
Lubenina Irina Alekseevna, Master
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Osadchenko I.M., Gorlov I.F., Sivkov A.I., Nikolaev D.V., Mosolova N.I. Innovative Approach to Electrical Processing of Dairy Drinks

P. 20-22 Key words
yogurt; dairy drink; ORP; titratable acidity; electrical processing; energy balance.

Abstract
The article describes in detail the mechanism of the treatment of dairy beverages using diaphragm cell. The aim of this work is to improve the quality of milk beverages by reducing titratable acidity and redox potential (ORP) due to processing in the field of electric current in a cathode chamber of a diaphragm electrolytic cell processing. For carrying out experimental researches we selected a sample of dairy drink (kefir) (330 ml with fat content of 1?%) of production of LLC "Lyubimy Gorod", Kamyshin, the Volgograd region and 660 ml of an electrolyte solution of Na2SO4 concentration 1g/l. For experimental studies we selected a sample of yoghurt (330 ml) (manufacturer "Cow from Korenovka" Krasnodar Krai) TU 9222 1001 00419795-14. For laboratory studies, fermented milk drinks had been heated to a temperature of from 20 to 25 °C. Electroprocessing of milk beverages was carried out on the installation "MELESTA" (Ufa) with the diaphragm cell and rectifier with improved elements. The comparison of active acidity pH and ORP, mV, relative to the silver chloride electrode was carried out with the help of "Nitron" ionomer (Russia). As a result of the carried out researches sour - milk drinks (kefir-and yoghurt-catholyte) having higher qualities in comparison with received on standard technology are received.

References
1. Bredikhin S. A. Tekhnologiya i tekhnika pererabotki moloka / S. A. Bredikhin [et al]. M.: Kolos, 2001, 400 p.
2. Volodin D. N. Razrabotka tekhnologii molochno­fruktovykh napitkov s reguliruemoi kislotnost'yu / D. N. Volodin // avtoreferat dis. ... kand. tekhn. nauk. Stavropol', 2009.
3. Osadchenko I. M. Sposob elektroaktivirovaniya vodnykh rastvorov solei natriya. Patent RU 2548967 / I. M. Osadchenko [et al] // Zayavka RU no. 2013129199 ot 25.06.2013, opubl. 27.12.2014, byul, no. 36.
4. Osadchenko I. M. Sposob elektroobrabotki kislomolochnykh napitkov. Patent RU 2592676 / I. M. Osadchenko [et al] // Zayavka RU no. 2015109187 ot 16.03.2015, opubl. 27.06.2016, byul. no. 21.
Authors
Osadchenko Ivan Mikhailovich, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor;
Gorlov Ivan Fedorovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Sivkov Alexander Ivanovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Nikolaev Dmitry Vladimirovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences;
Mosolova Natalia Ivanovna, Doctor of Biological Sciences
Povolzhsky Research Institute of Production and Processing of Meat and Dairy Products,
6 Rokossovsky st., Volgograd, 400131, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Cherepanov I.S.To the Problem of Possibility of Bioactive Aryl Amines Bonding by the Carbohydrate's Termodestruction Products

P. 23-27 Key words
D-glucose; bioactive aryl amines; caramelization; non-enzymatic browning; spectroscopy; ethanolic media.

Abstract
In recent years, the problem of the nitrogenous aromatic compounds with mutagenic activity forming in Maillard reaction is intensively studied, at the same time some researchers note the counter characteristics of non-enzymatic browning products such as their ability to binding of mutagenic amines. The inconsistency of literature data is explained by insufficient amino-carbonyl interaction studying in systems with aryl amines. In this regard the purpose of paper was the studying a reactivity of D-glucose thermal degradation products in acidic ethanolic media in condensation with the substituted aryl amines of various basicity (p-toluidine, p-amino benzoic acid) in the conditions of non-enzymatic browning reaction by UV-Vis spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It is shown that heating of the glucose ethanolic solutions leads to forming non-reactive O-ethyl glycosides with low yield of caramelization products. Adding of aryl amine to reactive system after thermostatting of carbohydrate solutions during the given time shows interaction with amino component in various intensity, at the same time the nature of binding is similar to regularities of Maillard reaction in the studied systems, and the reaction rate is slightly higher in compare with Maillard browning because of reactive reductones formation. Studying of D-glucose caramelization product's interaction with aryl amines allows to conclusion about slight degree of toluidine binding and practically the absence of interaction with p-amino benzoic acid that it is probably bound to formation of high molecular weight caramel structure with a trace amount of active carbonyl functions owing to condensation and glycosylation processes. The direction of researches in present area is represented perspective as will allow to develop techniques and to carry out target synthesis of products based on carbohydrates, capable to regulate quantity of toxic amino components in agricultural and food raw materials.

References
1. Kato, H. Dismutagenicity of melanoidins against mutagenic pyrolysates / H. Kato, S.­B.Kim, F. Hayase // Agric. Biol. Chem,1985, vol. 49, no. 11. P. 3093-3095.
2. Wu, M.­C. The formation of IQ type mutagens from Maillard reaction in ethanolic solution / M.­C. Wu [et al] // Food Chem, 2011, vol. 125, №. 2. P. 582-587.
3. Cherepanov, I.S. Amino­karbonil'nye vzaimodejstvija uglevodov s zameshhennymi aromaticheskimi aminami [Amino­carbonyl interactions of carbohydrates with substituted aromatic amines] / I.S. Cherepanov, A.V. Trubachev, G.M. Abdullina // Himicheskaja fizika i mezoskopija, 2016, no. 2. P. 310-315.
4. Golon, A. Unraveling the chemical composition of caramels / A Golon, N. Kuhnert // J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012, vol. 60, no. 22. P. 3266-3274.
5. Kroh, L.W. Caramelisation in food and beverages / L.W. Kroh // Food Chem, 1994, vol. 51, no. 2. P. 373-379.
6. Shen, S.­C. Maillard browning in ethanolic solution / S.­C. Shen, J.S.­B. Wu // Food Sci., 2004, vol. 69, no. 2. P. 273-279.
7. Rosatella, A. 5­Hydroxymethylfurfural as a building block platform: biological properties, synthesis and synthetic applications / A. Rosatella, S. Simeonov, R. Frade // Green Chem., 2011, vol. 13, no. 5. P. 754-793.
8. Golon, A. Characterization of "caramel­type" thermal decomposition products of selected monosaccharides including fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and ribose by advanced electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods / A. Golon, N. Kuhnert // Food & Function, 2013, vol. 4, no. 10. P. 1040-1050.
9. Marshall, C.P. Combined micro­Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro­Raman spectroscopy of Proterozoic acritarchs: A new approach in Palaeobiology / C.P. Marshall [et al] // Precamb. Res., 2005, vol. 138, no. 1. P. 208-224.
10. Setianingsih, T. The effect of caramelization and carbonization temperatures toward structural properties of mesoporous carbon from fructose with zinc borosilicate activator / T. Setianingsih, I. Kartiani // Indo. J. Chem., 2014, vol.14, no. 1. P. 253-261.
11. Cutzach, I. Influence of storage conditions on the formation of some volatile compounds in white fortified wines (vins doux naturel) during the aging process / I. Cutzach, P. Chatonnet, D. Dubourdier // J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, vol. 48, no. 11. P. 2340-2345.
Author
Cherepanov Igor Sergeevich, Candidate of Chemical Sciences
Udmurt State University,
1 Universitetskaya st., Izhevsk, 426024, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zobkova Z.S., Fursova T.P., Zenina D.V.Complex Application of Hydrocolloids and Transglutaminase for Improving of Fermented Dairy Products Technology

P. 28-33 Key words
water-holding capacity; hydrocolloids; yoghurt; organoleptic characteristics; structural-mechanical; transglutaminase; storage.

Abstract
Such methods aimed at improving the consistency, stabilization of ageing processes and prevention or retardation of syneresis in fermented dairy products as usage of hydrocolloids stabilizers possessing thickening and gelating power and fermentative legation of the product milk base by transglutaminase are known. The efficiency of the mentioned methods depends on the additives dosage which is limited due to arising texture problems. The results of the studies confirming the reasonability of the mentioned complex additives usage follow yoghurt example are presented in the article. The impact of transglutaminase in the combination with different hydrocolloids on structural-mechanical, organoleptic characteristics, water-holding capacity of yoghurt produced by the set method during storage was studied. The joint usage of enzyme modification of protein milk base of yoghurt produced with hydrocolloids influences more positively the product consistency showing the essential increase of structural-mechanical characteristics (viscosity efficiency up to 59?%), water-holding capacity (by 35?%), point sensory evaluation (by 1 point) during 21 days of storage that makes it possible to reduce the used hydrocolloids dosage (by 12-25?%) and reduce the costs without the product quality losses. In the yoghurt samples produced with transglutaminase and pectin the efficiency of the joint increase of the impact on the yield value of the both factors has been registered: stabilizing additive and protein enzyme cross-link that was by 16-22?% higher than at the simple summation of the results. The dependences of the effective viscosity of the yoghurt produced with transglutaminase on the stabilizing additive dose on the 1st and 21st day of storage and the scale of conformity of the consistency scores for the range of the effective viscosity values of the yoghurt samples (deviation value ?10?%) have been received. The rational hydrocolloids dosages providing the finished product high quality stable within the long period of its storage have calculated. The obtained results were considered during the receipts development and yoghurt technology using modified milk protein and stabilizing food additives consistence.

References
1. Bonisch, M. P. Transglutaminase cross­linking of milk proteins and impact on yoghurt gel properties / M. P. Bonisch, M. Huss, K. Weitl, U. Kulozik // International Dairy Journal. - 2007. - № 17. - P. 1360-1371.
2. Qureshi, M. A. Enzymes used in dairy industries / M. A. Qureshi, A. K. Khare, A. Pervez, S. Uprit // International Journal of Applied Research. - 2015. - № 10. - P. 523-527.
3. Erwanto, Y. Microbial Transglutaminase Modifies Gel Properties of Porcine Collagen / Y. Erwanto, S. Kawahara, K. Katayama, S. Takenoyama, H. Fujino, K. Yamauchi, T. Morishita, Y. Kai, S. Watanabe and M. Muguruma // Asian­Aust. J. Anim. Sci. - 2003. - Vol. 16, no 2. - P. 269-276.
4. Dickinson, E. Enzymatic crosslinking as a tool for food colloid rheology control and interfacial stabilization/ E. Dickinson // Trends in Food Science and Technology. - 1997. - № 8. - P. 334-339.
5. Patent WO 2003007733 A1 A21D8/04, A23C19/06, A23C19/076 and etc. Protein­containing rood­stuff comprising a cross­linking enzyme and a hydrocolloid / Peder Edvard Degn, Vries Jacob Ailko De, Merete Faergeman, J?rn Borch S?E (DK); applicant Danisco A/S, Copenhagen (DK). - Appl. PCT/IB2002/003388; filled 15.07.2002; publ. 30.01.2003. - 32 p., 22 fig., 5 table.
Authors
Zobkova Zinaida Semenovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
Fursova Tatyana Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Zenina Darya Vyacheslavovna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute Dairy Industry,
35-7 Lyusinovskaya, Moscow, 115093, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gadzhieva A.A.Carbohydrate of Fruits Acca Sellowiana (O. Berg)

P. 34-37 Key words
reducing substances; carbohidrate; feijoa; fractionation; chromatography.

Abstract
From the points of view of modern recommendations on the normalization of physiological needs in biologically active substances in the theory of rational nutrition, special attention is paid to the use in the diet of the population of fruits of subtropical cultures and products of their processing. Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) (feijoa) fruits growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan are predominant among these cultures. These citrus fruits by taste, nutrition, and also by their medicinal properties are raw materials for the production of various types of food products from them in the industrial level. As studies on the chemical composition of feijoa fruits show, they contain various multicomponent chemical substances that determine the biological value of this raw material. Basically, the number of the main role belongs to carbohydrates. A qualitative and quantitative study of the carbohydrates of these fruits once again are showed their importance in nutrition of the population. The fractional composition of carbohydrates is represented by glucose, fructose, sucrose, galactose, rhamnose. xylose and arabinose were detected as pentoses. It should be noted that glucose and galactose is present in all fractional formulations of the carbohydrate complex, but glucose predominates in terms of quantity. The final products of this composition were beta-D-cellulose, lignin and minerals. Along with this, the sensory properties of fruits-consistency and storage stability are determined by the content of individual fractions of carbohydrates, and their structural features. The taste of tropical crops in feijoa fruits is formed due to a peculiar combination of organic acids, carbohydrates, polyphenols, minerals. According to the fractional composition of carbohydrates in combination with other chemical components, the fruits of feijoa can act as a source of raw materials in the production of canned food for dietary and children purposes.

References
1. Isaeva, E. V. Gruppovoj sostav uglevodov pochek topolja / E. V. Isaeva, T. V. Rjazanova // Himija rastitel'nogo syr'ja. - 2006. - № 1. - S. 33-36.
2. Golubev, V. N. Uglevody plodov Diospyros kaki / V. N. Golubev, L. I. Kostinskaja, M. A. Halilov // Himija prirodnyh soedinenij. - 1987. - № 1. - S. 135-136.
3. Shlejkin, A. G. Biohimija. Laboratornyj praktikum. Chast' 3. Uglevody. Lipidy: Ucheb. posobie / A. G. Shlejkin, N. N. Skvorcova, A. N. Blandov. - SPb.: Universitet ITMO, 2015. - 64 s.
4. Zlobin, A. A. Pektinovye polisaharidy rjabiny obyknovennoj Sorbus aucuparia L. / A. A. Zlobin, i dr. // Himija rastitel'nogo syr'ja. - 2011. - № 1. - S. 39-44.
5. Kljukvina, E. Ju. Uglevody: Uchebnoe posobie / E. Ju. Kljukvina, S. G. Bezrjadin. - Orenburg: Izdatel'skij centr OGAU, 2012. - 106 s.
6. Kas'janov, G. I. Teoreticheskoe i jeksperimental'noe obosnovanie tehnologii glubokoj pererabotki subtropicheskogo syr'ja / G. I. Kas'janov, E. I. Mjakinnikova, I. E. Sjazin. - Krasnodar: KubGTU, 2012. - 170 s.
Authors
Gadzhieva Aygun Arif gizi, Doctor of Philosophical Sciences
Azerbaijan Technological University,
103 Sh. I. Khatan, Ganja city, AZ 2011, Azerbaijan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kostyleva E.V., Sereda A.S., Tsurikova N.V., Velikoretskaya I.A., Aisina A.M., Mikhailichenko E.A. A Study of the Effectiveness of an Enzyme Preparation Obtained from a New Mutant Trichoderma Reesei Strain in the Cereal Mixtures Hydrolysis

P. 38-40 Key words
cereal mixtures; fodder enzyme preparations; xylanase; Trichoderma reesei; endoglucanase.

Abstract
Most of the farm animals feeds in Russia are produced on the basis of grain raw materials with a high content of non-starch polysaccharides, which have an adverse effect on the organism of monogastric animals and poultry. Therefore, the bulk of feed enzymes comprise endoglucanases and xylanases capable of destroying the anti-nutritional carbohydrate components of the grain raw materials - cellulose and arabinoxylan, respectively, with the formation of digestible sugars and prebiotic oligosaccharides. In order to increase the economic indicators of the enzyme preparations production and the effectiveness of their use in the feed industry, studies are being conducted to obtain high-producing strains. In VNIIPBT using UV-mutagenesis T. reesei 28 U-12 strain was obtained with increased xylanase and endoglucanase activity. Samples of dry concentrated preparations based on the initial and mutant strains were produced. The purpose of the work was to determine the effectiveness of the preparations in processing of rye meal and wheat / barley meal mixture. The hydrolysis of the substrates was carried out in shaking flasks at 220 rpm at 40 °C. Substrate concentration was 50 mg/ml; preparations were added at dosages of 1, 3, and 5 mg per 1 g of raw materials. Soluble protein and reducing sugars content was determined in supernatants of the obtained hydrolysates. The use of endoglucanase and xylanase preparations increased the yield of reducing sugars by 2-3 times on all types of raw materials. Increased activity of key enzymes in the mutant strain allowed to reduce the consumption of the preparation by 35-40?% compared to the preparation from the original strain. The use of the preparation on the basis of a mutant strain also contributed to an increase in the yield of soluble protein by 10-15?%.

References
1. Bedford M. R. Enzymes in farm animal nutrition / M. R. Bedford, G. G. Partridge. UK: CAB International, 2010, 319 p.
2. Bogomolova I. P. Nauchnoe issledovanie dinamiki i tendentsii razvitiya otechestvennoi kombikormovoi promyshlennosti / I. P. Bo­­gomolova, I. N. Vasilenko, S. D. P. D. Silva// Vektor ekonomiki, 2016, no. 6 (6), p. 46.
3. Kononenko S. I. Fermentnyi preparat v kormlenii svinei / S. I. Kono­nenko // Nauchnyi zhurnal KubGAU, 2012, no. 78 (04), p. 1-23.
4. Khattak F. M. Enzymes in poultry nutrition / F. M. Khattak [et al] // J. Anim. Pl. Sci, 2006, vol. 16 (1-2), p. 1-7.
5. Peterson R. Trichoderma reesei RUT­C30 - Thirty years of strain improvement / R. Peterson, H. Nevalainen // Microbiology, 2012, no. 158 (1), p. 58-68.
6. Gupta V. G. Biotechnology and biology of Trichoderma / V. G. Gupta [et al] // Newnes, 2014.
7. Sinitsyn A. P. Fermentnye novshestva / A. P. Sinitsyn, O. A. Sinitsyna, O. G. Korotkova // Agrobiznes, 2016, vol. 38, no. 4, p. 88-92.
8. Meng X. Degradation of Cell Wall Polysaccharides by Combinations of Carbohydrase Enzymes and Their Effect on Nutrient Utilization and Broiler Chicken Performance / X. Meng [et al] // Poultry Science, 2005, vol. 8, p. 37-47.
9. Sajith S. An Overview on Fungal Cellulases with an Industrial Perspective / S. Sajith [et al] // J Nutr Food Sci, 2016, vol. 6 (1): 461.
Authors
Kostyleva Elena Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Sereda Anna Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Tsurikova Nina Vasil'evna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Velikoretskaya Irina Aleksandrovna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the FRC of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4b Samokatnaya st., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Aisina Alina Menirovna, Student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Mikhailichenko Elizaveta Alekseevna, Student
Moscow Polytechnic University,
38 Bolshaya Semionovskaya st., Moscow, 107023, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Arifullina L.R., Volkova G.S.Consortium of Bacteria as a Basis for Creating Probiotic Additives for Livestock Production

P. 41-45 Key words
animal; bacteriocins; feed supplement; microflora of intestine; probiotics; probiotic feed additive.

Abstract
Currently, one of the conditions for the intensification of animal husbandry in Russia is the application of the concept of rational feeding of animals that require the application of complete feed ensuring optimum utilization of the genetic potential productivity of animals and to receive their quality products, safe in veterinary and sanitary relation. This article discusses information about the growing popularity of biological drugs for animal - probiotic supplementation to animal feeds with antibiotic substances of protein nature peptide - bacteriocins. Currently studying ways and means of directed synthesis of bacteriocins, with the aim of obtaining biologically different modifications of known bacteriocins, but with more valuable properties, or new natural balanced bacteriocinogenic complexes, safe to use as preservatives. The aim of this work is the design of a consortium of lactic and propionic acid bacteria with the highest production of bacteriocins production of additives for feed purposes. The work was carried out in VNIIPBT. In this study, we investigated antimicrobial activity of the selected probiotic strains, the dynamics of crop development Lactobacillus plantarum 578/25 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii VKM 103/27 investigated the feasibility and benefits of joint cultivation of microorganisms Lactоbacillus 578/25 plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii VKM 103/27 along with their single cultivation. The experimental data on the joint cultivation of monocultures and the consortium confirmed the need for the stage of selection of bacterial cultures to create complex additives with probiotic properties, to improve the overall biosynthetic activity of the consortium. The research results are preliminary and will be supplemented with new experimental data in the subsequent work.

References
1. Ishakova, A.R. Jeffektivnost' ispol'zovanija probiotikov pri vyrashhivanii gusjat­brojlerov [Efficient use of probioyics in gosling broiler breeding]. Ufa: Rossijskij jelektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal Publ., 2016, no. 1 (19), pp. 230-238.
2. Sverchkova, N. Probioticheskie preparaty dlja veterinarii i kormoproizvodstva [Probiotic preparations for veterinary and feed production]. Belarus': Nauka i innovacii Publ., 2016, no. № 159 (5), pp. 38-39.
3. Ivanova, A.B. Farmakologicheskaja harakteristika probiotikov na osnove Bacillus subtilis i jeffektivnost' ih primenenija v pticevodstve: dis. d­ra vet. nauk [Pharmacological characteristics of probiotics based on Bacillus subtilis and their efficacy in poultry. SPb, 2008, p. 3.
4. Nurushev, M.Zh. O proekte sozdanija prirodnogo konservanta pishhevyh produktov na osnove bakteriocinov molochnokislyh bakterij v Kazahstane [About the project of creating a natural food preservative based on bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria in Kazakhstan]. Astana: Vestnik ENU im. L.N. Gumileva Publ., 2011, no. 4, pp. 175-180.
5. Volkova, G.S. Razrabotka i vnedrenie biotehnologii obogashhennyh belkovyh kormovyh produktov [Developing and Implementing Biotechnology of Protein Enriched Feedstuff]. Moscow, Pishhevaja promyshlennost' Publ., 2012, no. 7, pp. 12-13.
Authors
Arifullina Lilija Ravilevna, Student
Moscow state university of food production,
11 Volokolamskoe sh., Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Volkova Galina Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Sciences
The All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology - branch of Federal State Budgetary Institution of Science of the Federal Research Center of Food and Biotechnology and Food Safety,
4B Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Agafonov G.V., Kulneva N.G., Putilina L.N. On Technological Qualities of Sugar Beet Affected by Vascular Bacteriosis

P. 46-50 Key words
bactericidal agents; sugar beet; vascular bacteriosis; technological quality.

Abstract
Technical and economic indices of sugar factories work depend on quality of processed beet. Incorrectness of cultivation agrotechnics and prevalence of foreign hybrids susceptible to local pathogens in sugar beet assortment in combination with unfavorable weather conditions promote large scale development of root system diseases including vascular bacteriosis. It has been revealed that domestic hybrids are more resistant to bacterial wilt in comparison with the foreign ones, average indices of disease frequency of occurrence for them being 11.7 and 21.6?%, accordingly. It has been determined that, as the number of diseased beet roots and degree of their affection in beet mass increases, sugar content is reduced by 0.8-2.3 absolute %, content of reducing substances increases 1.3- to 3.4 fold, and content of alfa-amine nitrogen increases 1.3- to 2.8 fold. Forecasted sugar yield decreases by 1.2-3.9 absolute % and its extraction coefficient is lowered by 3.8-14.5 absolute %. Variants of using beet row material with different degree of bacterial wilt at sugar factories have been suggested. It has been found that, during storage of row material affected by vascular bacteriosis, there is a considerable increase of various non-sugars due to high intensity of metabolic processes of attendant microflora. The bactericidal agents reducing intensity of destructive microbiological processes during beet root storage are presented. The analysis of efficiency of their application has been carried out. It has been determined that, before storage, it is advisable to spray beet with benzoic acid solution of 0.1?% concentration, its consumption being 3.0?% of beet mass.

References
1. Kul'neva, N. G. Sanitarno­gigienicheskoe obespechenie produkcii saharnogo proizvodstva / N. G. Kul'neva, V. A. Golybin, V. A. Fedoruk // Gigiena i sanitarija. - 2015. - 94 (9). - S. 57-61.
2. Putilina, L. N. Tehnologicheskaja ocenka saharnoj svekly, inficirovannoj vozbuditeljami sosudistogo bakterioza v period vegetacii / L. N. Putilina [i dr.] // Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta inzhenernyh tehnologij. - 2016. - № 3. - S. 239-247.
3. Apasov, I. V. Izmenenie tehnologicheskih kachestv korneplodov saharnoj svekly, porazhennyh sosudistym bakteriozom / I. V. Apasov, L. N. Putilina, G. A. Selivanova // Sahar. - 2014. - № 9. - S. 35-38.
4. Loseva, V. A. Metody issledovanija svojstv syr'ja i gotovoj produkcii (teorija i praktika) / V. A. Loseva, A. A. Efremov, I. V. Kvitko // Voronezh. gos. tehnol. akad. - Voronezh: VGTA, 2008. - 247 s.
5. Sviridov, A. V. Faktory, vlijajushhie na mikroklimat v kagatah saharnoj svjokly / A. V. Sviridov, E. I. Doroshkevich, V. V. Prosvirjakov // Zashhita i karantin rastenij. - 2013. - № 11. - S. 17-20.
6. Kul'neva, N. G. Dinamika kachestva saharnoj svekly, porazhennoj sosudistym bakteriozom / N. G. Kul'neva, L. N. Putilina, I. G. Selezneva // Aktual'naja biotehnologija. - 2015. - № 4 (15). - S. 12-16.
Authors
Agafonov Gennadii Vyacheslavovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences;
Kulneva Nadezhda Grigor'evna, Doctor of Technical Sciences,
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19 Revolution Ave., Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Putilina Lyudmila Nikolaevna, Candidate of Agricultural Science,
The A. L. Mazlumov All-Russian Research Institute of Sugar Beet and Sugar,
86 VNIISS, Ramonsky district, Voronezh region, 396030, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



CONTROL OVER QUALITY ANDSAFETY OF AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Pugachev I.O., Solovatova E.T., Volozhaninova S.Yu., Ruban N.V., Suvorov O.A.Preserving the Quality and Extending the Shelf Life of Fresh Fish

P. 51-55 Key words
Anolyte; cryotechnology; microbial attributes; fish; shelf life; electrochemical treatment.

Abstract
Priority in the technology of fish storage in recent years is the use of low temperatures. To improve microbiological safety and extend the shelf life of fish products, new technologies are used, one of which is the technology of using electrochemically activated aqueous solutions. In connection with this, the objective of the study is to develop effective methods for the application of electrochemically activated (ECA) aqueous solutions to preserve the quality and extend the shelf life of fresh fish. This work was performed at the Moscow State University of Food Production at the Department of Technology of the Food Industry. To carry out the experiments, three types of bactericidal ice were used, obtained from the new generation of ECA solution anolyte ANK SUPER: ice cubes, liquid ice, and gel-like ice. Ice cubes were obtained with the help of an ice maker. The water-ice mixture was prepared by adding the crushed ice to the ECA solution in an amount of 50?% of the mixture. Gel-like ice was obtained by adding crushed ice to a size of 1-2 mm. As an object of research, rainbow trout (Salmo irideus) with a fat content of 8?% and carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a fat content of 4?% were used. Organoleptic and microbiological indicators were identified (coliforms, total viable count). It has been found that the influence on the organoleptic properties of neutral and microbial attributes isn't increased. It is shown that the processing does not deteriorate the quality, appearance, color, odor. It is established that the samples processed in this way retain quality and safety in comparison with the control sample, which was stored in ordinary ice. It is proved that the best way to cool and store fresh fish is to use an ice-water mixture from anolyte. The carried out experiments confirm the possibility of applying ice from the new generation ECA solution in the food industry, not only to preserve quality, but also to ensure microbiological safety of raw materials. This technology requires additional research, but even now one can judge the high potential of the use of antibiotic ice from anolyte in the food industry.

References
1. Borisochkina, L. I. Antiokisliteli, konservanty, stabilizatory, krasiteli, vkusovye i aromaticheskie veshhestva v rybnoj promyshlennosti / L. I. Borisochkina. - M.: Pishhevaja promyshlennost', 1976. - S. 93.
2. Patent № 2145405 RF. F25C1/00, A23B4/06, F25D3/02. Sposob prigotovlenija baktericidnogo l"da i sposob sohranenija svezhesti pishhevogo produkta. Andreev M. P., Melehin D. V. Zajavl. 10.03.1999. Opubl. 10.02.2000. - 2 s.
3. Patent № 2286518 RF. F25D3/02 (2006.01), F25C1/00. Sposob sohranenija pishhevyh produktov. Beckij O. V., Lebedeva N. N., Posmitnyj S. V. Zajavl. 14.03.2001. Opubl. 27.10.2006. - 2 s.
4. Patent № 2442937 RF. F25C1/12, C02F1/78, A23B4/06, A23B7/04. Sposob poluchenija antisepticheskogo l'da. Voro­nin M. I. [i dr.] Zajavl. 17.05.2010. Opubl. 20.02.2012. - 5 s.
5. Dezinficirujushhee sredstvo "Anolit ANK SUPER", "Del'fin Akva", Rossija [Jelektronnyj resurs] - Jelektron. dan. - 2017. - Rezhim dostupa: http://delfin­aqua.com/equipment4, svobodnyj.
6. Ryba zhivaja. Tehnicheskie uslovija: GOST 24896-2013. - Vved. 2015 07 01. - M.: Izd­vo standartov, 2014. - 12 s.
7. Mikrobiologija. Produkty pishhevye. Obshhie pravila mikrobiologicheskih issledovanij: GOST R 51446-99 (ISO 7218-96) - Vved. 1999 12 22. - M.: Izd­vo standartov, 2005. - 31 s.
8. Produkty pishhevye i vkusovye. Metody kul'tivirovanija mikroorganizmov: GOST 26670-91 - Vved. 1993 01 01. - M.: Izd­vo standartov, 1992. - 8 s.
9. O bezopasnosti pishhevoj produkcii: Tehnicheskij reglament Tamozhennogo sojuza TR TS 021/2011. - utv. 2011 12 09. - 242 s.
Authors
Pugachev Igor Olegovich;
Solovatova Ednara Tagirovna;
Volozhaninova Svetlana Yurievna;
Ruban Natalia Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Suvorov Oleg Aleksandrovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Moscow State University of Food Production
11 Volokolamskoe highway, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



USING SECONDARY RESOURCES AND NEW TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS

Lukina S.I., Ponomareva E.I., Peshkina I.P., Botasheva H.Ju.The Use of Non-traditional Raw Materials in the Production of Biscuit-chopped Biscuits

P. 56-59 Key words
antioxidant activity; biscuits; non-traditionalraw materials; nutritional value.

Abstract
Biscuits represent an important part in the basic diet of Russian population. However, this product belongs to a high-calorie food group that leads to misbalance in food nutrients and energy value in the case of excessive consumption. That is why, including in biscuits formulation non-traditional raw materials, which are rich in vitamins as well as macro and micronutrients, could allow getting the product with better chemical composition. As non-traditional raw materials pecan and carob could be used. The aim of the paper is to study the impact of non-traditional raw materials on product quality ratings and food value characteristics of sponge-aerated biscuits. The studies were conducted in Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology. Product samples were made in laboratory environment. The biscuit "Forget-me-not" (Technical Conditions 9131-403-02068108-2017) was chosen as the confirmation sample. The influence of pecan and carob dosages on product quality ratings was estimated. During the preparation of product samples grinded pecan and carob in 15-30 % and 5-15% proportion to total flour weight respectively were added at the doughing stage. Organoleptic and physicochemical quality ratings were determined and presented. The recommended dosages of non-traditional enrichers were established. The nutrition value characteristics of the proposed biscuit were determined. A chemical composition analysis showed that the digestible carbohydrates quantity of the studied samples was lower as compared to those of the confirmation sample whereas the minerals and vitamins quantity was higher. Pecan and carob positive influence on sponge-aerated biscuits quality ratings and nutrition value characteristics was established in terms of the conducted studies. Developed products are recommended to mass consumption designed to enrich the food allowance with protein, vitamins and minerals.

References
1. Jenciklopedija marketinga: Analiz rynka konditerskih izdelij [Jelektronnyj resurs].­Rezhim dostupa: http://www.marketing.spb.ru/mr/food/confectioneries.htm. (data obrashhenija: 10.01.18).
2. Gorjacheva G. N. Tehnicheskaja baza konditerskoj otrasli: sovremennoe sostojanie i puti razvitija [Technical base of the confectionery industry: current state and development pathways]. Mosсow, Konditerskoe i hlebopekarnoe proizvodstvo Publ., 2012, no. 10, p. 6.
3. Peshkina I. P. Razrabotka racional'nogo sostava biskvitno­sbivnogo pechen'ja povyshennoj pishhevoj cennosti [ Development of a rational composition of biscuit­churned cookies of increased nutritional value]. Sbornik. statej nauch. praktich. konf [Modern trends in the development of science and production]. Kemerovo, 2017, no. 4, pp. 80-82. (In Russ.)
4. Magomedov G. O. Nut saratovskoj selekcii v tehnologii hlebobulochnyh i muchnyh konditerskih izdelj [Nut Saratov selection in the technology of bakery and flour confectionery]. Voronezh, 2015, 175 р.
5. Oreh pekan: pol'za i vred dlja zdorov"ja cheloveka [Jelektronnyj resurs]. - Rezhim dostupa: http://prodgid.ru/poleznye­svoystva/nuts­and­seeds/orex­pekan. (data obrashhenija: 03.12.17).
6. Portal zdorovogo pitanija: Kjerob [Jelektronnyj resurs]. - Rezhim dostupa: http://foodandhealth.ru/zdorovoe­pitanie/kerob. (data obrashhenija: 19.12.17).
Authors
Lukina Svetlana Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Ponomareva Elena Ivanovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Peshkina Irina Petrovna, Student
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology,
19 Revolution avenue, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Botasheva Halima Jusufovna, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences
North Caucasus State Humanitarian-Technological Academy,
36 Stavropol st., Cherkessk, 369001, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND?EQUIPMENT

Shevcov A.A., Bunin E.S., Tkach V.V., Serdjukova N.A., Fofonov D.I.Effective Introduction of a Steam Compression Heat Pump Into a Line for Complex Processing of Oilseed Seeds

P. 60-64 Key words
protein; spew; vegetable oil; seeds; production method; heat pump; processing line; fractions.

Abstract
The current trends in development of the theory of thermal processes when processing vegetable raw materials prepared conditions for scientific approach to creation of new energy saving and ecologically safe technologies of complex processing of oilseeds with use of heat pumps. Efficient replacement in the systems of heat supply of fossil types of fuel in processes of food heat technology on warmth of renewable and secondary sources by means of heat pumps is one of the most important principles of energy saving and environmental protection. In this regard the work purpose - development of energetic and ecologically safe way of complex processing of seeds of oil-bearing crops at the expense of the maximal recuperation and utilization of secondary energy resources in closed thermodynamic cycles on the material and heat fluxes is formulated. Important conceptual task was use of the modern inventory with immediate involvement in a production line of a vapor-compression heat pump when training power supplies. The production cycle of complex processing of oilseeds with receiving vegetable oil, soluble and insoluble fraction from mix of the crushed spew with heated water is explained; a protein from soluble fraction, the dried-up insoluble fraction. The borders of operation of the capital and accessory equipment providing the continuity of a production line are defined. Characteristics of the compressor and condenser unit working in the mode of the heat pump providing the rational technological modes of complex processing of soy, colza and flax in the field of admissible properties of the received main and intermediate products are provided. Introduction of a heat pump creates actual conditions for increase in ecological safe technology of complex processing of seeds of oil-bearing crops and will allow to reduce energy consumptions per unit mass of the processed seeds on 15-20?%.

References
1. Savchenko, T. V. Upravlenie proizvodstvom maslichnyh kul'tur na osnove klasternogo podhoda / T. V. Savchenko, A. V. Ulez'ko, N. N. Kravchenko. - Voronezh: VGAU, 2013. - 160 s.
2. Britikov, D. A. Jenergosberezhenie v processah sushki zernovyh kul'tur s ispol'zovaniem teplonasosnyh tehnologij [Tekst]: monografija / D. A. Britikov, A. A. Shevcov - M.: DeLi pljus, 2012. - 328 s.
3. Shevcov, A. A. Rezervy jenergojeffektivnosti konvektivnoj sushki dispersnyh materialov pri peremennyh rezhimah [Tekst] / A. A. Shevcov [i dr.] // Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta inzhenernyh tehnologij. - 2017. - № 2. - S. 91-99.
4. Frolova, L. N. Linija proizvodstva rastitel'nogo masla / L. N. Fro­lova [i dr.]. - Patent na izobretenie RUS 2619278; zajav. 06.11.2015; opubl. 15.05.2017.
5. Shevcov, A. A. Matematicheskoe opisanie processa sushki semjan rapsa v oscillirujushhih rezhimah [Tekst] / A. A. Shevcov [i dr]. // Hranenie i pererabotka sel'hozsyr'ja. - 2011. - № 10. - S. 73-75.
6. Processy i apparaty pishhevyh proizvodstv: Ucheb. Dlja vuzov: v 2 kn. [Tekst] / A. N. Ostrikov [i dr.]; pod red. A. N. Ostrikova. - Kn. II. - SPb.: GIORD, 2007. - 608 s.
7. Mashiny i apparaty pishhevyh proizvodstv: V 2 kn. [Tekst] / S. T. Antipov [i dr.]; Pod red. V. A. Panfilova. - Moskva: Vysshaja shkola, 2001. - 680 s.
8. Cvetkov, O. B. Teoreticheskie osnovy teplo­ i hladotehniki. Osnovy termodinamiki i teplomassoperenosa [Tekst] / O. B. Cvetkov, Ju. A. Laptev. - CPb.: Universitet ITMO: IHiBT, 2015. - 56 s.
Authors
Shevcov Aleksandr Anatol'evich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Bunin Evgenij Sergeevich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology,
19 Prospect Revolution, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tkach Vladimir Vladimirovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Serdjukova Natal'ja Alekseevna;
Fofonov Dmitrij Igorevich
The Air Force Academy named after the professor N. E. Zhukovsky and Y. A. Gagarin
54 A Starykh Bolshevikov St., Voronezh, 394064, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zheludkov A.G., Beletsky S.L., Potrakhov N.N.Automation of X-ray Method for Analysis of Seed Quality and Commercial Grain of Cereals

P. 65-70 Key words
apparatus; contamination; introscopic indices; distortions; compensation; large defects; food grain; radiography; seeds; photography; fracturing.

Abstract
The X-ray method is often indispensable in the rapid analysis of a number of indicators of seeds and food grains, expressed in a change in the internal structure of the grain. The application of the X-ray method for the analysis of seed quality by introscopic indices (latent insect infestation) is reflected in domestic and international standards and is already widely used. However, it is obvious that in addition to hidden contamination, this method allows to effectively identify a number of other defects and grain quality parameters. In the process of automation of this method and numerical evaluation of radiographic indices, it becomes obvious that for an exact, adequate and well-grounded application of this method it is necessary to solve a number of theoretical and practical problems that are considered in this article. The characteristics of the equipment and the survey process-the spectral composition of the radiation, the focal length, the intensity of radiation, and the size of the focal spot of the X-ray tube-should provide an operative acquisition of X-ray diffraction patterns sufficient for detecting the analyzed details of the object. Features of the application of this equipment are given on the example of the mobile X-ray diagnostic complex PRDU-02 in conjunction with the DIGORA X-ray plate scanner. In addition to the obvious advantages (simplicity and speed of shooting, satisfactory visual quality of the images), this method has a number of drawbacks, including a high level of noisiness, errors in the distribution of the light flux, and the presence of additional details and visual artifacts in the photograph. Compensation of distortions caused by errors and design features of the survey equipment is a necessary stage of preliminary digital image processing in order to obtain an adequate digital image of the grain. Distortion of luminance values can be caused both by the unevenness of the light flux for different shooting sessions and for different sections of one X-ray diffraction pattern, and by the unevenness of the substrate on which the grains are located. The proposed methods allow to effectively solve these problems and apply the radiographic method in a variety of problems of assessing the quality of seeds and grains.

References
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2. Beletskii S. L., Ivanova E. V., Feshina T. V. Sovremennye rentgendiagnosticheskie kompleksy dlya ekspress­otsenki kachestva syr'ya: Sb. dokladov nauchno­prakticheskogo seminara "Prakticheskie aspekty issledovaniya i monitoringa kachestva syr'ya i produktov pitaniya dlya obespecheniya prodovol'stvennoi bezopasnosti Rossii". M.: FGU NIIPKh Rosrezerva, 2010, p. 78-83.
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Authors
Zheludkov Alexander Gennadievich, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Agrophysical Research Institute,
14 Grazhdanskiy pr., Saint-Petersburg, 195220, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Beletsky Sergey Leonidovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
Scientific Research Institute of Storage Problems Federal Agency of State Reserves,
40 bldg. 1 Volochaivskaya st., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Potrakhov Nikolai Nikolaevich, Doctor of Technical Sciences
St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University "LETI",
5 Professor Popov st., St. Petersburg, 197022, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



ECONOMICS PROBLEMS OF STORAGE AND PROCESSING FARM PRODUCTS

Kuznetsova S.N., Kuznetsov V.P., Egorova A.O.Modern Logistic Systems of Industrial Sites

P. 71-74 Key words
сosts; logistics; industrial sites; warehouse; technology; management.

Abstract
In the article the authors address the issue of modern logistics systems. The absence of a systematic approach to the formation of logistics infrastructure, including the connection to the public railway infrastructure, is a limiting factor for the development of modern industrial sites. The authors of the article point out the importance of the introduction of modern logistics systems in industrial sites. The main system logistics solutions are: optimization of supply chains and distribution networks; optimization of necessary land resources of Park residents; the ability to provide a full range of logistics services with added value; a synergistic effect. The authors point out that the success of logistics systems is realized by increasing the efficiency of work in integrated workplaces. The authors point out that due to the logistics systems the volume of operations and services is expanding, while improving the quality and efficiency of service to residents. WMS-technologies used in industrial sites, manage inventory, personnel, equipment and area. The criterion of efficiency and increase of competitiveness of industrial sites is automation. WMS system will enable industrial sites to increase the level of automation of business processes. The implementation of WMS technology is considered on the example of industrial-logistic Park "Nizhny Novgorod". The authors consider the economic efficiency of this project. The authors highlight the results of the project: a harmonious balanced development of the regions; improving the efficiency of the transport system; reducing dependence on imports; the improvement of the demographic situation, the optimization of migration flows; the reduction of the level of logistics costs in GDP; the creation of an effective modern production facilities; intensive development of the consumer market and the market of logistics services; acceleration of the economic integration processes; creating new jobs; increasing of income level of the population.

References
1. Egorova A. O. Promyshlennye parki kak platforma razvitiya promyshlennosti / A. O. Egorova, S. N. Kuznetsova // Vestnik NGIEI, 2017, no. 6 (73), p. 87-93.
2. Karpova N. P. Sovremennye tendentsii upravleniya skladom / N. P. Karpova, V. O. Korolev // Molodoi uchenyi, 2015, no. 19, p. 381-384. URL https://moluch.ru/archive/99/22142/.
3. Potashnik Ya. S. Sostoyanie i tendentsii v investitsionnoi i innovatsionnoi sferakh promyshlennosti Nizhegorodskoi oblasti / Ya. S. Potashnik, S. N. Kuznetsova // Ekonomika i predprinimatel'stvo, 2017, no. 10­2 (87­2), p. 1078-1082.
4. Romanovskaya E. V. Organizatsiya proizvodstva na predpriyatiyakh otrasli: ucheb. posobie / E. V. Romanovskaya, V. P. Kuznetsov, V. P. Agafonov. N. Novgorod, 2016, 269 p.
5. Yashin S. N. Otsenka perspektivnosti i realizuemosti protsessnykh innovatsii na promyshlennom predpriyatii: monografiya / S. N. Yashin, V. P. Kuznetsov, G. M. Okhezina. N. Novgorod: Mininskii universitet, 2016, 152 p.
6. Kuznetsova S. N. Industrial parks formation as a tool for development of long­range manufacturing sectors / S. N. Kuznetsova [et al] // Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, 2017, vol. 12, no. 2 (48), p. 391-401.
7. Mizikovsky I. E. Basic Accounting and Planning Aspects of the Calculation of Intra­Factory Turnover of Returnable Waste / I. E. Mizikovsky [et al] // International Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 10, Issue 4, December 2016.
Authors
Kuznetsova Svetlana Nikolaevna, Сandidate of Economic Sciences;
Kuznetsov Viktor Pavlovich, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor;
Egorova Anastasia Olegovna, Candidate of Economic Sciences
Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University named after Kozma Minin (Mininsky University),
1 Ulyanova st., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.