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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №7/2017

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Gurkovskaya E.A.Biological Systems and Synchronization Phenomenon as the Factor Transformation of by Biopolymers

P. 5-10 Key words
proteins; biological systems; molecular vibrations; thin-layer gel-chromatography; chromatographic zone; synchronization phenomenon.

Abstract
The article considers the peculiarities of oscillatory processes of macromolecules of proteins, describes the synchronization phenomenon, which is one of the important factors of influence on livelihoods and intra-molecular transformation in the study of vegetable proteins in the chemical and biological processes. One of the conditions of existence of the biopolymers is their continuous movement that can be characterized as occurring within the structure of macromolecules and the continuing transformation of these structures, and similar conditions are satisfied by only an oscillatory form of movement of all elements included in the composition of the macromolecule. With the help of the oscillations is explained some features of the process of separation (decomposition) of the protein molecule, without resorting to quantitative evaluations. Application of the theory of oscillations on the example of the near-empirical description of the oscillatory process in biological systems, gives a visual representation of the behavior of the molecules of biopolymers in the embodiment gel-chromatography in a thin layer (TSGH) and the number of phenomena arising in the process of analyzing proteins. It is shown that synchronization, as an integral part of intramolecular transformations in biological systems is clearly defined and programmed. For the first time summarizes the results of research of oscillatory processes in biological systems in terms of TSGH, provides a convincing rationale and describes the features and characteristics of the phenomena dependent on the structure of these environments and conditions synchronization in chemical and biological systems, are shown to be intrinsically vital link of the phenomenon of synchronization in the functioning and changes in such environments. Due to the degree of participation of the phenomenon of synchronization in the analysis of vegetable proteins in the process (TSGH) and the factors that determine the regularities of formation of chromatographic zones of proteins.

References
1. Blyumenfel'd L. A. Problemy biologicheskoi fiziki [Problems of Biological Physics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977.
2. Moiseev N. N. Asimptoticheskie metody nelineinoi mekhaniki [Asymptotic methods of nonlinear mechanics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969.
3. Strutt John (Lord Rayleigh). Teoriya zvuka [The Theory of Sound], vol. 2. Transl. from Engl. Moscow, Gostekhizdat, 1944.
4. Panovko Ya. G. Vvedenie v teoriyu mekhanicheskikh kolebanii [Introduction to the theory of mechanical oscillations]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980.
5. Blekhman I. I. Sinkhronizatsiya dinamicheskikh sistem [Synchronization of dynamic systems]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971.
6. Vol'kenshtein M. V. Struktura i stabil'nost' biologicheskikh molekul [Structure and stability of biological molecules]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1973.
7. Shnol' S. E. [Conformational vibrations of molecules]. In: "Kolebatel'nye protsessy v biologicheskikh i khimicheskikh sistemakh" [Vibration processes in biological and chemical systems]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1967. (In Russ.)
8. Gurkovskaya E. A., Gruzinov E. V., Petrenko A. A. Kolebatel'nye protsessy i konformatsiya belkovykh molekul v tonkosloinoi gel'­khromatografii [Oscillatory processes and conformation of protein molecules in thin­layer gel chromatography]. Moscow, "Khlebprodinform" Publ., 2012, 204 p.
9. Gurkovskaya E. A., Klyachko Yu. A. [Comparison of the dynamics of thin­layer exclusion chromatography and mechanical sieve separation]. Sorbtsionnye i khromatograficheskie protsessy, 2005, vol. 5, issue 1, pp. 45-54. (In Russ.)
10. Gurkovskaya E. A. Opredelenie molekulyarnykh mass rastitel'nykh belkov metodom gel'­khromatografii v tonkom sloe [Determination of the molecular weights of plant proteins by gel chromatography in a thin layer]. Moscow, Khlebprodinform Publ., 2011. 194 p.
Authors
Gurkovskaya Elena Alexandrovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky,
73 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Blinnikova O.M., Novikova I.M., Eliseeva L.G., Ilyinsky A.S.Covering on the Basis of Chitosan for Preserving the Quality of Strawberries

P. 11-15 Key words
biological efficiency; organic production; "food" coating; gray rot; shelf life; commercial quality; weight loss; chitosan; strawberry berries.

Abstract
Strawberries have a short period of realization, because of with the vegetative characteristics of this culture. In this regard, there is a need to find a way to preserve the quality of favorite berries. The purpose of the research: development of technology for creating a "food" polymer coating for berries of organic production method intended to prolong the storage time maximally maintaining its initial quality. Research of organic production of berries was carried out in LLC "Snezhetok", creating a "food" coating - in the laboratory of progressive storage of fruits and vegetables of the Research Center of the Federal state budget educational institution Michurinsky GAU. Organic production provided for the use of a water-soluble chitosan form to protect strawberries from pests and diseases, without pesticides treatments. To create a "food" coating a 1.0?% solution of chitosan was used: pre-cooled strawberry berries were immersed in a solution for 5 minutes followed by "drying" in a cold room with low relative humidity, and irrigated berries on plants 1 hour before berries were harvested. The control samples were berries without coating. It was found that "food" coating on the surface of berries reduced losses. After 15 days of storage in all the variants there were 13.4-27.7?% more sound berries than in the control, 8.1-22.9?% less berries were effected by, and water lass less. The biological efficacy of chitosan coating was 24.4-69.1?% by the end of the storage period. Application of chitosan by the irrigation could be a simple and effective method for the strawberry producing farms.

References
1. Devlieghere, F., Vermeulen A., Debevere J. Chitosan: antimicrobial activity, interactions with food components and applicability as a coating on fruit and vegetables. Food Microbiol., 2004, vol. 21, pp. 703-714.
2. Hernandez­Munoz P., Almenar E., Ocio M. J., Gavara R. Effect of calcium dips and chitosan coatings on postharvest life of strawberries (Fragaria?ananassa). Postharvest Biol. Technol., 2006, vol. 39, pp. 247-253.
3. No H. K., MeyersS. P., Prinyawiwatkul W., Xu Z. Application of Chitosan for Improvement of Quality and Shelf Life of Foods. Journal of Food Science, 2007, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 87-100.
4. El Ghaouth A., Arul J., Ponnampalam R., Boulet M. Use of chitosan coating to reduce water­loss and maintain quality of cucumber and bell pepper fruits. Food Processing and Preservation, 1991, 15, pp. 359-368.
5. Jiang Y. Ì., Li Y. B. Effects of chitosan coating on postharvest life and quality of longan fruit. Food Chemistry, 2001, 73, pp. 139-143.
6. Kittur F., Saroja N., Habibunnisa Tharanathan R. N. Polysaccharide­based composite coating formulations for shelf­life extension of fresh banana and mango. European Food Research and Technology, 2001, 213, pp. 306-311.
7. Bautista­Banos S., Hernandez­Lauzardo A. N., Velazquez­del Vallea M. G., Hernandez­Lopez M., Ait Barka E., Bosquez­Molinac E., Wilsond C. L. Chitosan as a potential natural compound to control pre and postharvest diseases of horticultural commodities. Crop Protection, 2006, 25, pp. 108-118.
8. Slin' kova Ya. R., Malinkina O. N., Shipovskaya A. B. Sozdanie polimernogo pokrytiya na osnove khitozana dlya uvelicheniya sroka godnosti produktov pitaniya [Creation of a polymer coating based on chitosan for increasing the shelf life of food products]. Stendovyi doklad. Saratov, Saratov State University, 2013. 4 p.
9. Hernandez­Munoz P., Almenar E., Del Valle V., Velez D., Gavar R. Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria ? ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 2008, 108, pp. 428-435.
10. El Ghaouth A., Arul J., Grenier J., Asselin A. Antifungal activity of chitosan on two post­harvest pathogens of strawberry fruits. Phytopatholog, 1992, 82, pp. 398-402.
11. Ribeiro C., VicenteA. A., Teixeira J. A., Miranda C. Optimization of edible coating composition to retard strawberry fruit senescence. Postharvest Biology & Technology, 2007, 44, pp. 63-70.
12. Blinnikova O. M., NovikovaI. M., Eliseeva L. G. [Assessment of the possibility of using the Alirin­B biological product in the organic production of wild strawberry berries]. Innovatsionnye podkhody k razvitiyu agropromyshlennogo kompleksa regiona: Materialy 67 oi mezhdunar. nauchno­prakt. konf. (18 maya 2016 g.) [Innovative approaches to the development of the agro­industrial complex of the region: Proc. of the 67th International Scientific­practical. conf. (May 18, 2016)]. Ryazan, Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, 2016, part 1, pp. 40-45. (In Russ.)
13. Blinnikova O. M., Novikova I. M., Eliseeva L. G. [Evaluating the effectiveness of a biological preparation "Fitosporin­M" in organic production berries strawberry]. Sovremennye problemy tovarovedeniya, ekonomiki i industrii pitaniya: Materialy I zaochnoi mezhdunar. nauchno­prakt. konf. (30 noyabrya 2016 g) [Modern problems of commodity science, economics and food industry: Proc. of the 1st Correspondence Intern. Scientific­practical. conf. (November 30, 2016)]. Saratov, 2016, pp. 35-42. (In Russ.)
14. Blinnikova O. M., EliseevaL. G., Novikova I. M. [Evaluating the effectiveness of use of the biological product "Gliokladin" in the organic production of wild strawberry berries]. Tovaroved prodovol' stvennykh tovarov, 2016, no. 12, pp. 5-8. (In Russ.)
Authors
Blinnikova Olga Mikhailovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Novikova Irina Mikhailovna
Michurinsky State Agrarian University,
101 International St., Michurinsk, Tambov region, 393760, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Eliseeva Lyudmila Gennadievna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Russian Economic University named after GV Plekhanov,
36 Stremyannyi per., Moscow, 117997, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ilyinsky Alexander Semenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Federal Scientific Center named after IV Michurin,
30 Michurina St., Michurinsk, Tambov region, 393774, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Bukhtoyarov V.A., Bychkov A.L., Lomovsky O.I., Bychkova E.S.Influence of Humidity on the Efficiency of Mechanochemical Processing of Vegetable Raw Materials

P. 16-19 Key words
room humidity; mechanochemical methods of processing; particle morphology; wheat straw; storage.

Abstract
Recently, one of the promising areas in the field of healthy nutrition is the development of functional and enriched food products with the addition of natural biologically active additives of vegetable origin. Applying progressive methods of mechanochemical technologies, it becomes possible to obtain mechanocomposites with high biological activity, which are widely used in the development of functional products. An important stage in the development of new natural additives is the storage of raw materials and the possibility of subsequent processing. The work was carried out at the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of the SB RAS jointly with the Department of Technology and Organization of Food Production of the Novosibirsk State Technical University. For experiments on storage and determination of the effect of moisture on the efficiency of mechanochemical processing, wheat straw was chosen as the test material. A granulometric analysis of the product was carried out at different moisture indices and processing intensity. It has been established that when the moisture content of the processed raw materials increases, the efficiency of its grinding in all the technological regimes studied is reduced. With a water content of more than 12?% in raw materials, there is a sharp decrease in the expediency of grinding, associated with the formation of large aggregates from smaller product particles. Also, the article presents data on the annual experiment for storage of feedstocks and the product of mechanochemical processing in conditions with reduced and natural moisture content. It is established that in case of storage of materials at natural humidity of air in the autumn-winter period it is necessary to dry the raw materials before mechanochemical processing. For more effective grinding, high-intensity modes of mechanochemical treatment (rotor rotation speed of 1500 rpm) and raw materials with a moisture content of less than 12?% should be used.

References
1. Federal Law No. 264 FZ of December 29, 2006 (as amended on 12.02.2015) "On the development of agriculture" (with amendment and addendum, entered into force on August 13, 2015). (In Russ.)
2. Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Fede­ration No. 31 of 14.06.2013 "On measures to prevent diseases caused by micronutrient deficiency, development of production of functional and specialized food products". (In Russ.)
3. Lovosky O. I. Mechanochemically assisted extraction Enhancing Extraction Processes in the Food Industry. Contemporary food engineering series. Ed. by N. Lebovka et al. Taylor&FrancisGroup, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011, pp. 61-398.
4. Vorob'ev N. P., Nikol'skii O. K. [Problems of controlling the parameters of technological processes of the agroindustrial complex and ways to solve them]. Polzunovskii vestnik, 2002, no. 1, pp. 65-78. (In Russ.)
5. Severnev M. M., ed., Terpilovskii K. F., Maionov V. V. Mekhanicheskoe obezvozhivanie i termicheskaya sushka vysokovlazhnykh kormov [Mechanical dehydration and thermal drying of high moisture feed]. Moscow, Kolos Publ., 1980. 149 p.
6. Bychkov A. L., Bukhtoyarov V. A., Lomovskii O. I. [Denaturation of cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of water]. Khimiya v interesakh ustoichivogo razvitiya, 2011, no. 19, pp. 479-483. (In Russ.)
7. Fedoseeva G. M., Mironovich V. M., Golovnykh N. N. Tovaro­ved­cheskii analiz lekarstvennogo rastitelnogo syrya. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii [Commodity analysis of medicinal plant material. Guidelines]. Irkutsk, IGMU Minzdrava Rossii, 2008. 87 p.
Authors
Bukhtoyarov Vladimir Alexandrovich;
Bychkov Alexey Leonidovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Lomovsky Oleg Ivanovich, Doctor of Chemistry, Professor
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS,
18 Kutateladze St., Novosibirsk, 630?128, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Bychkova Elena Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science
Novosibirsk State Technical University
20 Karl Marx avenue, Novosibirsk, 630?073, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS?PRODUCTS

Gudkovsky V.A., Kozhina L.V., Gocheva R.B.Increase the Resistance of Apple Fruits to Sunburn and Subcutaneous Spotting

P. 20-25 Key words
scald; protection mechanism; bitter pit; storage methods; farnesene and products of its oxidation; ethylene; apples.

Abstract
Scald and bitter pit are the main physiological diseases of apple fruit at storage resulting in 50?% losses and a huge economic decline of an enterprise. The research deals with studying the protection mechanisms and revealing the reason of losses resulted from scald and bitter pit (BP) and possibilities fov resistance increase by means of various methods and technologies of storage (in air, regulated atmosphere (RA), regulated atmosphere with ultra low level of oxygen (ULO), the dynamic atmosphere (DA), and postharvest techniques effect. The level of antioxidants and hormones significantly effects fruit resistance to scald and bitter pit. Increase of risk of disorder development is registered in fruit lots with a high (stress load) resulting from preharvest factors (nitrogen excess, severe pruning, sharp fluctuations of soil and air humidity etc), due to 1 MCP treatment (inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis) of oxygen level in storage atmosphere provides maximum efficiency of regulated atmosphere in reduction of losses from scald and bitter pit. Storage in air, RA, ULO, DA + 1 MCP, low oxygen stress results in high efficiency. Mechanism of fruit protection against diseases involves. Inhibiting ethylene and farnesene synthesis by low O2, increasing ethanol level in fruit and atmosphere, enhance activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, pectin-methyl-esterase and CO2 level in fruit.

References
1. Freitas S. T., Mitcham E. I. 3 Factors Involved in Fruit Calcium Deficiency Disorders. Horticultural reviews, 2012, vol. 40, pp. 107-146.
2. Moggia C. et al. Effect of DPA [Diphenylamine] and 1 MCP [1 methylcyclopropene] on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2010, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 178-187.
3. Zanella A. Control of apple superficial scald and ripeningsa comparison between 1 methylcyclopropene and diphenylamine postharvest treatments, initial low oxygen stress and ultra­low oxygen storage. Posthar Vest Biol. Technol., 2003, 27, pp. 69-78.
4. Gudkovskii V. A., Kozhina L. V. [Influence of storage conditions on the damage by sunburn and the quality of apple fruits in the middle zone of Russia]. Plody iovoshchi - osnova struktury zdorovogo pitaniya cheloveka: Materialy mezhdunar. nauch. prakt. konf. [Fruits and vegetables - the basis of the structure of healthy human nutrition: Proc. of the Intern. Scientific­practical. conf.]. Michurinsk, 2012, pp. 105-136. (In Russ.)
5. Gudkovskii V. A., Kozhina L. V., Nazarov Yu. B. [Existing and promising technologies for protecting the fruit from sunburn]. Vestnik Rossiiskoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi nauki, 2017, no. 2, pp. 28-31. (In Russ.)
6. Lurie S., Watkins C. B. Superficial scald, its etiology and control. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 2012, vol. 65, pp. 44-60.
7. Ju Z., Bramlage W. J. Cuticular Phenolics and Scald Development in Delicious' Apples. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 2000, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 498-504.
8. Blankenship S. M., Dole J. M. 1 Methylcyclopropene: a review. Postharvest biology and technology, 2003, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1-25.
9. Rakitin V. Yu., Rakitin L. Yu. [Determination of gas exchange and the content of ethylene, carbon dioxide and oxygen in plant tissues]. Fiziologiya rastenii, 1986, vol. 33, issue 2, pp. 403-413. (In Russ.)
10. Morozova N. P., Sal'kova E. G. [Spectrophotometric determination of the content of farnesene and its oxidation products in plant material]. Biokhimicheskie metody, Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980, pp. 107-112. (In Russ.)
11. Lukovnikova R. A., Yarosh N. P. [Determination of vitamins of other biologically active substances]. In: Metody biokhimicheskogo issledovaniya rastenii [Methods of biochemical research of plants],ed. by A. I. Ermakov. Leningrad, VO "Agropromizdat", 1987, pp. 111-119. (In Russ.)
Authors
Gudkovsky Vladimir Aleksandrovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor, Academician of RAN;
Kozhina Liudmila Vladimirovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science
I. V. Michurin Federal Scientific Center,
30 Michurin St., Michurinsk, Tambov Region, 393774, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Gocheva Ruzana Bagovna
LLC "Baksan's Gardens",
121 Evgazhukova St., Islamey, Baksansky district, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, 361520, Russia



Khonova M.B., Gesheva M.V. Influence of Mineral Nutrition for Protein Content in Grain Barley

P. 26-30 Key words
moisture supply of the year; quality; mineral nutrition; winter barley; protein content; technological properties; yield.

Abstract
Fertilizing plants is a factor that is easily controlled by man and exerting a strong influence on yield and quality, that is, fertilizers exert a great influence not only on the yield, but also on the quality of agricultural products, in particular, the protein content of the grain. With increasing protein content in the grain, the starch content usually decreases. There is an inverse relationship between the content of these two main reserve substances of the grains. This work is devoted to the effect of mineral nutrition on yield and technological properties of winter barley grain. Studied varieties of winter barley - Mikhailo, Kozyr. It is determined that, under unfavorable growing conditions, leading to inhibition of growth and yield reduction, an inverse relationship exists between the grain yield and the protein content in it. It is established that the grain of barley is quite suitable for its technological properties for brewing, if it is grown under favorable conditions. The best quality of barley grain for brewing is noted when applying to the soil P45K45 in autumn before plowing. Taking into account the parameters of filminess, grain color, extractivity and protein content in the grain, it can be concluded that in wet years, when the hydrothermal coefficient during vegetation of plants is higher, the introduction of nitrogen into the soil of up to 75 kg ai. Per hectare, together with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, provide an increase in the yield of barley grain. With the best moisture supply of the plant, developing a large vegetative mass and forming a large grain yield requires more nutrients, so they lack nitrogen and give grain with a reduced protein content. In areas or in years when the hydrothermal coefficient during plant development is higher, the protein content in the grain is lower. It should also be noted that, under unfavorable growing conditions, leading to inhibition of growth and yield reduction, there is an inverse relationship between the grain yield and the protein content in it. This confirms the statements of many researchers that it is in arid conditions that a grain with a high protein content is produced, which contributes to inhibition of starch deposition in the grain. Such grains are of little use for brewing.

References
1. Meledina T. V. Syr'e i vspomogatel'nye materialy v pivovarenii [Raw materials and auxiliary materials in brewing]. St. Petersburg, Professiya Publ., 2003. 304 p.
2. Tikhonov N. I. Sovershenstvovanie elementov tekhnologi i vozdelyvaniya yarovogo yachmenya Ergeninskii 2 na pivovarennye tseli v stepnoi zone chernozemnykh pochv Volgogradskoi oblasti: Dis. kand. s­kh nauk [Perfection of the elements of technology of spring barley Yergeninsky 2 cultivation for brewing purposes in the steppe zone of chernozem soils of the Volgograd Region: Cand. Diss. (Agricul. Sci.)].Volgograd, VSAU, 2005. 208 p.
3. Khokonova M. B. Rol' predshestvennikov v povyshenii produktivnosti yachmenya [The role of precursors in increasing the productivity of barley]. St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg Institute of Project Management Publ., 2015, pp. 231-233.
4. Ermolaeva G. A. Spravochnik rabotnika laboratorii pivovarennogo predpriyatiya [Directory for worker of brewery laboratory]. St. Petersburg, Professiya Publ., 2004. 176 p.
5. Khokonova M. B., KarashaevaA. S., Zavalin A. A. Quality of brewing malt depending on the storage conditions of barley. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 2015, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 488-491. (DOI: 10.3103/S1?068?367?415?060?099).
6. GOST 5060-86 "Brewing barley. Technical conditions". Moscow, Standartinform, 2010. (In Russ.)
Authors
Khonova Madina Borisovna, Doctor of Agrarian Science, Professor;
Gesheva Marianna Valerievna, Undergraduate
Cabardino-Balcarian State Agrarian University by B. M. Kokov
1a Lenina prosp., Nalchik, Cabardino-Balcaria, 360030, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Litvinenko O.V., Skripko O.V.Sort Diversity of Biochemical Composition Soybean Seeds of Amur Breeding 31

P. 31-34 Key words
protein; biochemical composition; fat; ash; cellulose; soybean sort; carbohydrates.

Abstract
Soybean and soybean products today occupy a worthy place among products intended for healthy nutrition. At the same timeparticularly important factor is the quality of soybean raw materials intended for processing. Considering that soy is product of plant originthe biochemical composition of which is significantly influenced by both the genetic characteristics of sort and the weather conditions during the growing and harvesting period, it is necessary constantlyto study the sort differences in the biochemical composition and the selection and variety of sorts of those which correspond requirements for use in food production is necessary. In addition, in the Amur region, which is the main producer of soybean grain, new sorts are constantly breeding, which demand deep studying. Results of the researches on 23 soybean sorts made in the Amur region by method of traditional selection are presented in article. As a result of conducted researches it is established that soybean seeds of studied sorts, have a good oil percentage (from 18.11 to 19.94?%), sufficiently high level of protein content (from 37.57 to 43.43?%), relatively low total carbohydrates (18.81-20.44?%) and celluloses (2.62-6.11?%). Absence of significant differences between sorts on the content of fat and general carbohydrates, and significant differences on protein content, soybean cellulose and its share in composition of general carbohydrates is established; dependence of ash content on biological featuresof sortbut significant influence of a sort on level of contents potassium and phosphorus in soybean seeds was not noted.

References
1. The strategy of improving the quality of food products in the Russian Federation until 2030, approved by Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of June 29, 2016, No. 1364 r. Access mode: http://government.ru. (In Russ.)
2. Petibskaya V. S. Soya: khimicheskii sostav i ispol'zovanie [Soy: chemical composition and use]. Ed. by V. M. Lukomets. Maikop, Poligraf­YuG Publ., 2012. 432 p.
3. Petibskaya V. S. [Soy - raw materials for the creation of functional food products]. Nauchno­tekhnicheskii byulleten' VNIIMK, Krasnodar, 2002, issue 126, pp. 76-83. (In Russ.)
4. Skripko O. V., Litvinenko O. V., Pokotilo O. V. [Variety of soybean characteristics of Amur selection and the possibility of its use for food production]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2016, no. 7, pp. 12-15. (In Russ.)
5. Zaitseva E. V. [Soy as a food and medicinal product]. Pishchevye ingredienty. Syr'e i dobavki, 2005, no. 1, p. 44. (In Russ.)
6. Ustyuzhanin A. P. [Domestic soy - a valuable food culture]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 2009, no. 2, pp. 46-47. (In Russ.)
7. Skurikhin I. M., Volgarev M. N., eds. Khimicheskii sostav pishchevykh produktov: Spravochnye tablitsy soderzhaniya aminokislot, zhirnykh kislot, vitaminov, makro­ i mikroelementov, organicheskikh kislot i uglevodov [Chemical composition of food products: Reference tables for the content of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, macro­ and microelements, organic acids and carbohydrates]. Moscow, Pishchevaya promyshlennost' Publ., 1987. 360 p.
8. Efremova E. G., Lebedeva N. A., Nadykta V. D. [Assessment of the safety of different varieties of soybean and its products]. Materialy regional'noi nauch. prakt. konf. aspirantov i studentov "Nauka XXI veku" [Proc. of The regional scientific­practical conf. of graduate students and students "Science - XXI century"]. Maikop, 2001, pp. 29-30. (In Russ.)
9. Skripko O. V., Litvinenko O. V., Pokotilo O. V. [Research of biochemical seeds composition of soybean of Amur selection for use in food industry]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2015, no. 8, pp. 32-35. (In Russ.)
Authors
Litvinenko Oksana Viktorovna, Candidate Veterinary Science;
Skripko Olga Valerievna, Doctor of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean,
19 Ignatevskoe shosse, Blagoveshchensk, 675?027, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Krikunova L.N., Osipova V.P., Lazareva I.V.The Influence of Succinic Acid on Nitrogen Metabolism During Development of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

P. 35-39 Key words
amino acidcomposition; fermentation; grain wort; yeast metabolism.

Abstract
Fermentation is one of the main stages in the production of alcoholic beverages. During fermentation the initial formation of the qualitative indicators of the product comes under the action of the enzyme complex of yeast. Intensification of the process of fermentation using different technological methods contributes to more complete using of raw materials, increase the fortress fermented wort and, consequently, increases the yield of the final product from one unit of raw material. At the same time purposeful change of the metabolism of yeasts can improve the physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of alcoholic beverages. The studies showed differences in the amino acid composition of the malt and rye wort and the dynamics of amino acid consumption during the fermentation. Has been established that using of succinic acid at the stage of getting the rye wort has virtually no effect on its original amino acid composition. It was noted that in the first six hours from the start of fermentation in the test samples when using rye wort the total amino acid content decreased by 11.4-15.2?% and in the control (without addition of succinic acid) - 5.7?%. Valine, leucine, serine, threonine, and phenylalanine are consumed most intensively. This was marked by the synthesis several of amino acids: alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid and tyrosine. A further increase in the duration to 12 hours and 24 hours, in contrast, was characterized by some reduction in the intensity of consumption of amino acids in the test samples obtained using succinic acid. The conclusion, was drawn by results of researches, that the addition of succinic acid in the process of getting the rye wort led to change in metabolism of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and intensification of the fermentation process.

References
1. Gorelov S. S. et al. [Effect of yeast extracts on the process of fermentation of wort from starch­containing raw materials]. Proizvodstvo spirta i likerovodochnykh izdelii, 2005, no. 1, pp. 22-23. (In Russ.)
2. Baronov G. A., Zemlyanoi A. V., Onikeenko S. B., Khu­kha­rev V. V. Sposob aktivatsii drozhzhei [Way of yeast activation]. Patent RF ¹ 2?272?420. 2001.
3. Polandova R. D., Shestakov S. D., Volokhov T. P. Sposob aktivatsii khlebopekarnykh drozhzhei [Method of activation of baking yeast]. Patent RF ¹ 2?184?145. 2002.
4. Pomazova V. A. et al. [Activation of brewer's yeast]. Pivo i napitki, 2002, no. 2, pp. 26-27. (In Russ.)
5. Grebenshchikov V. A., Gernet M. V. [Use of yeast activators in the production of kvass]. Pivo i napitki,2003, no. 3, pp. 34-37. (In Russ.)
6. ShishkovYu. I., Polyakov I. V., Lavrova V. L., Oganesyants L. A., Mikhailovskaya E. N. Sposob aktivatsii drozhzhei [Way of yeast activation]. Patent RF ¹ 2?350?647. 2009.
7. Krikunova L. N. et al. [The effect of succinic acid on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]. Pivo i napitki, 2015, no. 1, pp. 36-38. (In Russ.)
8. Rimareva L. V. Teoreticheskie i prakticheskie osnovy biotekhnologii drozhzhei [Theoretical and practical bases of biotechnology of yeast]. Moscow, DeLiprint, 2010. 252 p.
9. Ryabova S. M., Krikunova L. N. [The effect of succinic acid on the activity of endogenous and microbial amylases]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2013, no. 12, pp. 7-11. (In Russ.)
Authors
Krikunova Lyudmila Nikolaevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Osipova Valentina Pavlovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Lazareva Irina Valerievna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries,
7 Rossolimo St., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



CONTROL OVER QUALITY ANDSAFETY OF AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Voronina P.V., Nikitushkina M.Yu., Tsirlin A.M.Control of Dynamically Unstable Technological Objects in Food Production

P. 40-44 Key words
pure time delay; dynamic behavior; control objects; food production; industrial controllers' robust settings; robust control systems; degree of stability.

Abstract
Purpose of the study: Improvement of quality of technological objects control in food production through securing of required stability margin in an automatic control system under object's possible dynamic behavior variations in course of its functioning. It is known, that technological control objects in question feature substantial dynamic behavior changes in course of their functioning as a result of work material physical-and-chemical characteristics changes, as well as of material and energy consumption fluctuations, characteristics time drift due to different substances deposition on device's walls, etc. These changes can result in considerable reduction of control system stability margin, which causes increment of correction time right up to total loss of control. At the same time control objects in question, as well as many technological objects in other industrial sectors, feature significant pure time delay in control signal transit. This singularity prevents from presenting a closed-loop control system characteristic equation, composed of the technological object and process controller, as an algebraic polynomial. This, in turn, precludes from employing automatic control theory classic methods, such as Routh-Hurwitz and Mikhailov stability criterions, Bode diagram and space state method etc., for control systems analysis and synthesis. A problem is posed and resolved in the article of developing a new method of robust control systems calculation, i. e. calculation of such systems that remain properly stable under all object's possible dynamic behavior variations. An approach is proposed towards industrial controllers' settings' calculation, which is based on application of extended Nyquist stability criterion derived through introduction of stability indicator variable into closed-loop control system's gain-phase characteristic. In this context the closed-loop control system characteristic equation is presented as a quasipolynomial, percipient to object's time delay. Formulae are derived and an algorithm is designed for industrial controllers' robust settings' calculation. An example is given of the algorithm's application for settings' calculation of automatic control system, consisting of first order astatic object with time delay and of PI controller. Peculiarities are noted of the algorithm's application for PID controller settings' calculation.

References
1. Polyanskaya P. V. Algoritmicheskoe obespechenie robastnykh sistem regulirovaniya protsessov teploobmena v pishchevykh proizvodstvakh: Avtoref. diss. kand. tekhnich. nauk [Algorithmic support of robust systems of regulation of heat transfer processes in food industries: Cand. Diss. (Techn. Sci.)]. Moscow, MGUPP, 2007.
2. Rotach V. Ya. Teoriya avtomaticheskogo upravleniya: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Theory of automatic control]. Moscow, ID MEI Publ., 2008. 396 p.
3. Polyak V. T., Shcherbakov P. S. Robastnaya ustoichivost' i upravlenie [Ro­bust sustainability and management]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2002. 303 p.
4. Ulyanov S. V. et al. Intellektual'noe robastnoe upravlenie: tekhnologii myagkikh vychislenii [Intelligent Robust Control: Soft Computing Technologies]. Moscow, VNIIgeosistem Publ., 2011. 408 p.
5. Tatarinov A. V., Tsirlin A. M. [The Limiting Degree of Linear System Aperiodic Stability and the Choice of Industrial Regulator Parameters]. Modelirovanie i analiz informatsionnykh system, 2012, vol. 19 (2), pp. 87-96. (In Russ.)
6. Popov A. Yu., Pukhov S. S. and Tsirlin A. M. Minimization of the Least Upper Bound of the Real Parts of Quasipolynomial Roots and the Limit Stability Degree of Linear Dynamic Feedback System, Automation and Remote Control, 2015, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 1137-1155. Original Russian Text © A. Yu. Popov, S. S. Pukhov, A. M. Tsirlin, 2015, published in Avtomatika i Telemekhanika, 2015, no. 7, pp. 3-25.
7. Davydov E. G. Issledovanie operatsii [Investigation of the operation]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1990. 384 p.
Authors
Voronina Polina Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Nikitushkina Marina Yurievna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoye Shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Tsirlin Anatoly Mikhailovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Institute of Software Systems named after AK Ailamazyan of RAS,
4a Petra I St., Veskovo, Pereslavsky District, Yaroslavl Region, 152021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Soprunova V.E., Dolganova N.V., Bairambekov Sh.B.Quality and Consumer Properties of Potatoes Which are Grown up with a Prototype of a Biological Product Based on Bacteria of the Genus Bacillus

P. 45-49 Key words
biological product; potatoes; quality; consumer properties.

Abstract
Potato is one of the most important crops. At the same time potatoes refers to crops that are highly affected by diseases and pests. Substantially it is caused by features of plant biology of this culture. Rich in carbohydrates and water tops and tubers are a favorable environment for the development of the most different causative agents of diseases and insects. Potatoes can be affected by disease at all stages of the life cycle: before emergence, during vegetation and during storage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop such methods of potato protection that allow it to be more effectively protected from various diseases, as potatoes are not only a valuable food product, but also used in various industries. One of efficient and perspective ways of fight against defeat of potatoes diseases is application of biological products. The purpose of these researches was studying control of the quality and consumer properties of potatoes "Red Scarlett", which are grown up with a prototype of a biological product based on bacteria of the genus Bacillus developed at the department "Applied Biology and Microbiology" FSBEI HE "ASTU". The samples of potato varieties "Red Scarlett", are grown up in Kamyzyaksky district of the Astrakhan region. The study was conducted on biometric, physical and chemical indicators and indicators of the safety. Based on the results obtained, that application of a biological product based on a corn increases the yield and keeping quality of products, and also contributes to the quality and the improvement of consumer properties of potatoes.

References
1. The magazine "Potato system" [Electronic resource]. Available at: http://potatosystem.ru?/?, 2017, http://potatosystem.ru?/?kartofelevodstvo­astrakhanskoj­oblasti?/?(In Russ.)
2. Agrosbornik. Ru [Electronic resource]. Available at: https: //agrosbornik.ru, 2011-2017, https: //agrosbornik.ru?/?drygoe?/?377 2011 10 27 17 37 19.html (In Russ.)
3. Bruev P. S. Rezhimy i sposoby dlitel'nogo khraneniya ochishchennogo kartofelya: dissertatsiya [Modes and methods of long­term storage of refined potatoes: Diss.]. Moscow, 1985. 182 p.
4. Chupakhina G. N. Fiziologicheskie i biokhimicheskie metody analiza rastenii: praktikum [Physiological and biochemical methods of plant analysis]. Kaliningrad, Kaliningradskii universitet Publ., 2000. 59 p.
Authors
Soprunova Vera Evgenievna, Post-graduate Student;
Dolganova Natalia Vadimovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Astrakhan State Technical University,
16 Tatishcheva St., Astrakhan, 414056, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Bairambekov Shamil Bairambekovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigation Vegetable and Melon Crops,
16 Lyubich St., Astrakhan Region, Kamyzyak, 416341, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND?EQUIPMENT

Vasiliev A.M., Machikhin S.A., Strelyukhina A.N., Ospanov A.B.Oscillatory Displacement in Case of Non-harmonic Law of Work Surface Oscillation

P. 50-55 Key words
oscillatory displacement of particle; non-harmonic surface oscillation; separation; separating equipment.

Abstract
Development of new high-performance separating equipment for cereal-processing enterprises, complying with modern requirements to process efficiency and quality of output product, is based on the development of theory of processes and machine dynamics. Promising are the works, addressing the issues of choosing work tool motion law, optimal kinematic and dynamic parameters, providing high performance of equipment service. Application of non-harmonic oscillations gives significant technical advantages and sometimes the design ones in comparison with application of harmonic oscillations. These advantages can compensate necessity of implication of more complex driving devices. Practicability of non-harmonic oscillation transmission to machine work tools stems from the fact that in case of work tools asymmetric oscillation law, operating procedure of sieve separation in the machine can be performed on horizontal work surface. Process of flat sieve separation is in sieving through the sieve surface particles of sizes less than the sieve holes. It is possible to ensure averagely directed motion of granular medium against horizontal uniformly rough surface that makes horizontal oscillations, through transmission of asymmetric (non-harmonic) oscillations to the surface. The article is related to theoretical study of material particle oscillatory displacement along uniformly rough horizontal surface that makes horizontal oscillations in accordance with non-harmonic law. We have suggested the study procedure for oscillatory displacement in case of non-harmonic oscillations of work surface with application of analytical variant of task solution by gradual integration method. At the first stage of task solution, dependence of work surface acceleration for extremums shall be studied. Then values of these extremums shall be determined. This allows us to specify the area of kinematic and setting parameters of the work surface at which oscillatory displacement, i. e. averagely directed motion of processing material against oscillating surface, is possible. Let us consider that the motion against the surface in forward and backward direction begins from the state of rest. For these conditions, we shall determine phase angles (time points) of the ending of these motions. If necessary, correcting initial conditions, resulting in specific steady motion shall be done. Suggested analytical study procedure for oscillatory displacement allows using advantages of computing machinery to the full extent - calculation accuracy and quickness when task solution algorithm is known.

References
1. Blekhman I. I. Vibratsionnoe peremeshchenie [Vibrational movement]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964.
2. Vasil'ev A. M. et al. [Vibrational movement with non­harmonic vibrations of the working bodies of separating machines]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2013, no. 10, pp. 43-45. (In Russ.)
3. Gortinskii V. V., Demskii A. B., Boriskin M. A Protsessy separirovaniya na zernopererabatyvayushchikh predpriyatiyakh [Separating processes at grain processing enterprises]. Moscow, Kolos Publ., 1980.
Authors
Vasiliev Alexander Mihailovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Machikhin Sergey Alexandrovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Strelyukhina Alla Nikolaevna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Ospanov Asan Bekeshovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture
312 Rayimbek avenue, Almaty, 055050, Kazakhstan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Sidorkin V.Yu. Rheological Properties of the Mash for Ethanol Production Using Cooking at Excessive Pressure

P. 56-60 Key words
pressure; shear stress; mash; shear rate; temperature; effective viscosity.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the study of the rheological properties of the mash for alcohol production from wheat with solids concentration of 22,2?% under excessive pressure at temperatures from 120 to 150?°Ñ. Data concerning mash rheological characteristics, shear stress, shear rate and its effective viscosity are necessary for hydraulic, heat and mass exchange calculations of equipment, pipelines and automation tools for alcohol distillery process. Most of the publications in this field describe determination of the conditional viscosity of the mash. It makes possible to evaluate only the technological changes as a function of temperature and solids concentration. Current research was carried out in the temperature range from 30 to 90?°Ñ at atmospheric pressure. In industrial conditions, the equipment operates at temperature from 110 to 150 ?°Ñ and the corresponding vapor pressure. Due to the fact that the most of viscometers for measuring of the liquids rheological properties operate at atmospheric pressure, a scheme of an experimental setup has been developed that allowed to investigate the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids under excess pressure. The main instrument of the installation was an automatic capillary viscometer AKV-2M modernized for measuring of the rheological properties of liquids at temperatures up to 150? °Ñ and corresponding pressure. The investigation was carried out in the Russian research institute of food biotechnology. The results of the study are presented in the form of graphs of the dependence of the shear rate on the shear stress in double logarithmic coordinates. The obtained dependences are straight lines. It allows to attribute mashes to pseudoplastics, the course of which is described by a power function. It is also shown that the strength properties of the mash decrease with increasing of the temperature. Mathematical processing of the study results allows to obtain analytical dependencies for calculation of the shear stress and effective viscosity values versus shear rate. The effective viscosity varied from 0.016 to 0.009 Pa?s in the investigated variation range of the shear stress from 800 to 1900 Pa and shear rate from 7,000 to 19?,000 Pa?s-1. Results of the research are useful for understanding of the rheological processes taking place in the mash during its cooking. Data of the research also can be used for hydraulic, heat and mass exchange calculations of technological equipment of alcohol industry. It is possible to use this data for the development of control devices and process control systems.

References
1. Yarovenko V. L. Tekhnologiya spirta [Technology of alcohol]. Moscow, Kolos­press, 2002. 464 p.
2. Kirkunova L. N., Sumina L. I. [Ethanol technology based on the preparation and fermentation of concentrated wort from IR­treated barley]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2009, no. 2, pp. 51-54. (In Russ.)
3. Sidorkin V. Yu. [The study of the rheological properties of the digested mass produced by the production of edible ethyl alcohol]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'skokhozsyr'ya. 2004, no. 10, pp. 13-15. (In Russ.)
4. Machikhin Yu. A., Machikhin S. A. Inzhenernaya reologiya pishchevykh materialov [Engineering rheology of food materials]. Moscow, Legkaya i pishchevaya promyshlennost' Publ., 1981. 215 p.
5. Technological instruction for the production of alcohol, food starch, bakery and fodder yeast and carbon dioxide in distilleries. Moscow, CSRIITERFI, 1972. 143 p. (In Russ.)
6. Ponomareva E. I., Zhuravlev A. A., Alekhina N. N. [Modeling structural and mechanical properties of dough from bioactivated wheat grain]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2009, no. 4, pp. 66-69. (In Russ. )
Authors
Sidorkin Vladimir Yurievich, Candidate of Technical Science
Institute of Food Biotechnology - a branch of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition and Biotechnology,
4 b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111?033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ahmedov M.E., Demirova A.F., Kasyanov G.I., Gonchar V.V., Zagirov N.G., Shakhmirzoyev R.A.Use of Saturated Steam for Thermal Sterilization of Compote from Apples in Autoclaves

P. 61-64 Key words
quality; canned; saturated steam; pasteurization; fruits; sterilization mode; sterilization; temperature.

Abstract
The work is devoted to research on improving the technology of production of compote from apples using a new technological process - preheating fruits packed in cans with saturated steam and accelerated modes of thermal sterilization. The work assesses the process of thermal sterilization of canned products and outlines the main directions for improving this process. It was found that the most perfect of them is an increase in the temperature level of the products before pasteurization with the use of a variety of technological methods based on thermal and physical influences, and at the same time increasing the temperature level of the product in cans before pasteurization has a positive effect on the thermophysical and microbiological aspects of the pasteurization process. A new method of preliminary preparation of fruits is presented, based on the fact that the fruits laid in a jar heat for a certain time (60-120 s), by cyclic feeding of water vapor at a temperature of 105...110 °C directly into the jars. The time of steaming depends on the volume of the can used, the steam being supplied to the cans cyclically, with a cycle time of 8-10 s. It is revealed that the use of pulsed heating of fruits with water vapor, promotes more even heating of the fruit, which is characterized by a certain internal resistance to heat transfer, and prevents overheating of the surface layers. At the same time, the process of the thermal effect on the fruits by water vapor is maintained. It is established that the temperature of the product in the can after sealing with the application of this technological method reaches up to 80 °C, in contrast to 42 °C by the traditional method. New modes of thermal sterilization of compote from apples in autoclaves are established, which provide a significant reduction in the duration of heat treatment. The curves of warming up and actual lethality are given, which confirm that the regimes provide the required lethality, confirming their safety. It has been revealed that the organoleptic properties of compotes sterilized according to the developed regimens meet the requirements of GOSTs for finished products.

References
1. Collection of technological instructions for the production of canned food. Vol. 2. Moscow, 1977. (In Russ.)
2. Flaumenbaum B. L., Tanchev S. S., Grishin M. A. Osnovy steri­lizatsii pishchevykh produktov [Basics of Food Sterilization]. Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1986.
3. Akhmedov M. E., Ismailov T. A. [Modes of rotary sterilization of canned goods "Compote from cherry" in a stream of hot air with air­water evaporative cooling]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2006, no. 3, pp. 18-20. (In Russ.)
4. Akhmedov M. E. [Intensification of the technology of thermal sterilization of canned goods "Compote from apples" with preheating of fruits in EMF microwave]. Izvestiya vuzov. Pishchevaya tekhnologiya, 2008, no. 1, pp. 15-16. (In Russ.)
5. Akhmedov M. E., Ismailov T. A. [Heatability of canned food during sterilization in a stream of heated air]. Produkty dlitel'nogo khraneniya, 2007, no. 2, pp. 9-10. (In Russ.)
6. Akhmedov M. E., Ismailov T. A. [Modes of rotational heating of compotes in the container SKO 1 82 1000 with thermal sterilization in the heated air flow]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2007, no. 11, pp. 36-38. (In Russ.)
7. Akhmedov M. E., Ismailov T. A. Matematicheskoe planirovanie eksperimenta pri rotatsionnoi sterilizatsii konservov v potoke nagretogo vozdukha. Khranenie i pererabotka sel'khozsyr'ya, 2009. no. 1.
8. Akhmedov M. E. et al. [High­temperature rotary sterilization of compotes]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost', 2009, no. 7, pp. 30-31. (In Russ.)
9. Akhmedov M. E., Demirova A. F., Akhmedova M. M. Sposob konservirovaniya kompota iz grush i aivy. [A method of preserving compote from pears and quinces]. Patent RF ¹ 2?545?047, byul. no. 9, 20.03.2015.
10. Akhmedov M. E., Demirova A. F., Akhmedova M. M. Sposob konservirovaniya kompota iz grush i aivy. [A method of preserving compote from pears and quinces]. Patent RF¹ 254?5048, byul. no. 9, 20.03.2015.
Authors
Ahmedov Magomed Eminovich, Doctor of Technical Science;
Demirova Amiyat Feyzudinovna, Doctor of Technical Science
Dagestan State University of National Economy,
5 D. Ataeva St., Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367008, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Kasyanov Gennady Ivanovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Gonchar Viktoria Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Kuban State Technological University,
2 Mosckovskaya St., Krasnodar, 350072, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Zagirov Nadir Geibetulaevich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor;
Shakhmirzoyev Ruslan Abuzarovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Dagestan Research Institute of Agriculture them F. G. Kisriev,
Akushinsky Prospect, Scientific Town, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367008, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.