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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №6/2017

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Sorochinskiy V.F., Priezjeva L.G., Koval A.I., Odincova A.A.Isotherms of Sorbtion of Wheat Flour

P. 5-8 Key words
sorption isotherms; acid number of fat; gluten; wheat flour; equilibrium moisture.

Abstract
The work is devoted to the study of the equilibrium moisture content of wheat flour of different varieties: higher, first and whole grain at storage temperature 30 °C. The obtained experimental and published data are generalized in order to obtain the dependence of the equilibrium moisture content of wheat flour on storage conditions - temperature and relative humidity of air. The article gives a brief literature review of the equilibrium moisture content of wheat grain and wheat flour in the temperature range from 0 to 25 °C and relative air humidity from 10 to 100 %. It is established that earlier studies in a relatively small temperature range do not allow to determine the equilibrium moisture content of flour at elevated storage temperatures and relative humidity, which is typical for many regions of the Russian Federation, and to determine the terms of its safe storage and shelf life. The methods and methods of the research are outlined. Experimental data on the determination of the equilibrium moisture content of wheat flour of the first grade and whole wheat flour in the form of sorption isotherms are given at relative air humidity from 30 to 100 % at an air temperature of 30 °C. It was found out that the equilibrium moisture content of the flour of the first and the first grade has similar values and differ from and from whole-grain flour. Comparison of the equilibrium moisture content of the flour of the first and first grades and whole grains with analogous literary data on wheat grain is made. It has been established that at a relative humidity of more than 75 %, the equilibrium moisture content of wheat grains is significantly higher than that of wheat flour, while the values of the equilibrium moisture content of whole-grain flour occupy intermediate values. The regression equation for calculating the equilibrium moisture content of wheat flour stored at a temperature of 0 to 30 °C and relative humidity of 40 to 80 % is obtained. Such storage conditions are characteristic for the storage of flour in most regions of the Russian Federation. For high-temperature storage conditions, the character of the change in the acid value of the fat of wheat flour of the highest grade and whole grain from the relative humidity of the air is revealed. Changes in the quantity and quality of gluten for wheat flour of the highest grade are determined. Confirmed earlier established fact about the effect of acid fat on the strengthening of gluten of wheat flour. The correlation coefficient of changes in wheat flour and idol gluten meal for different values of relative air humidity was minus 0.97.

Authors
Sorochinskiy Vladimir Fedorovich, Doctor of Technical Science;
Priezjeva Lyudmila Gennadievna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Koval Anna Ivanovna
All-Russian Research Institute of Grain and its Processing Products,
11 Dmitrovskoe Shosse, Moscow, 127434, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Odincova Arina Alexandrovna, Student
Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy,
49 Timiryazevskaya St., Moscow, 127550, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Zavialov M.A., Kuhto V.A., Filippovich V.P., Morozov A.O., Prokopenko A.V.Research of Micronized Substance Processes of Wheat in Installations of Microwave Power Engineering

P. 9-14 Key words
grain; caramelization; micronization; heat; wheat; property; microwave energy; temperature; installation.

Abstract
The work shows the prospects of using microwave energy for heating loose food products. Investigations of micronized processes of wheat were carried out at five microwave installation. The research was carried out on microwave ovens for household and industrial use operating at an industrial frequency of 2.45 GHz with a microwave power of 0.83 kW and 1.8 kW, respectively, as well as at the industrial installation of a microwave conveyor dryer UCS-2M produced byJSC "SPE "Etna" in Saratov. USK-2M is multi magnetron installation with a total microwave power of 16.8 kW. Industrial installations series of "Dextrin" produced by JSC "SPE "Magratep" in Fryazino were used at this research. Installations operate at an industrial frequency of 915 MHz with microwave power from 10 to 25 kW. In the presented installations, studies of various operating modes have been performed to obtain the effect of micronization of wheat grain withtypical moisture content less than 18 %. Analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of the treated grain showed a reduction in bulk density from 0.75 g?/?cm3 to 0.5 g?/?cm3 and humidity from 15 % to 4-7 %. An increase in geometric dimensions of grain was detected with their opening over the hem. Decrease in the time of grinding grain was observed. Also, the effect of partial caramelization of wheat grains expressed in a change in its color was observed. It was shown that the effect of micronization of grain can be obtained using conventional microwave ovens. However, they cannot be used to create industrial production. Studies carried out using conveyor microwave dryer USK-2M showed weak efficiency of this installation in the mode of micronization of grainand effect of caramelization is virtually not observed. The work on the micronization of wheat grains performed on industrial installations operating at 915 MHz was shown the possibility of using them to create industrial technologies for high-intensity processing of cereals. The best results on micronization of wheat grain was achieved at "Dextrin-2".

Authors
Zavialov Mikhail Aleksandrovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuhto Valeriy Aleksandrovich;
Filippovich Vitaliy Pavlovich
Russian Research Institute of Canning Technology,
78 Shkol'naya St., Vidnoye, Moscow Region, 142703, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Morozov Aleksandr Olegovich
JSC "SPE "Magratep",
2A Vokzal'naya St., Fryazino, Moscow Region, 141190, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Prokopenko Aleksandr Valer'yevich
National Research Nuclear University - Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,
31 Kashirskoye Shosse, Moscow, 115409, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gurkovskaya E.A.Significance pH of the Eluent and Optimization of Division of Vegetable Proteins in Conditions of Thin-layer Gel Chromatography (TSGX)

P. 15-20 Key words
buffer system; pH of the eluent; vegetable proteins; Sephadex; thin-layer gel-chromatography.

Abstract
The article deals with topical issues of the analytical study of vegetable proteins in connection with the problems of their quality, technology, industrial processing and utilization in the appropriate sectors of the food industry, and presents the results of the study of vegetable proteins in conditions of thin-layer gel chromatography on Sephadex sorbents in a wide range of pH values of the eluent. Shown optimal resolution of the method thin-layer gel chromatography for vegetable proteins at neutral, acidic and weak alkaline regions of pH. The functional dependence of the number of defined fractions of water - and salt-soluble protein relative to the pH of the medium. The results obtained in the study of division of total proteins, as well as water-, salt-soluble and high molecular weight (spare) proteins of cereals and products of their processing allow to assert that the pH value of the eluent has a significant impact on resolution and efficiency of the process TSGH and allows us to offer conditions optimization of the separation of plant proteins under conditions of gel chromatography in a thin layer. The results of the research have determined the functional dependence of the number of defined fractions of water-and salt-soluble proteins in relation to pH. Given this influential factor can be used to propose optimal values of pH of elution solution as in the study of water-, salt-soluble and high molecular weight (spare) proteins of cereals and in determining the overall composition of plant proteins the main crops of our country. This factor allows the optimization to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative characteristics between the low and high molecular weight components of the protein, depending on varietal facilities and adaptive control of technological process.

Authors
Gurkovskaya Elena Alexandrovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky,
73 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Boyko B.N., Dumskaya N.S., Chernykh V.Ya., Godunov O.A.The Study of Thermodynamics of Plant Powders Biopolymers Interaction Processes with Water

P. 21-24 Key words
differential scanning calorimetry; leaking containers with vegetable powders samples; the free and bound water in the banana powder.

Abstract
By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) the correct interpretation of thermal processes occurring in the plant powder in a closed volume in sealed containers can only be based on knowledge about these processes at constant pressure, what means using leaky containers. Therefore expansion of the methodological possibilities of DSC by the use of controlled containers with prepared samples of vegetable powders, for example, banana powder leak is proposed. Leaking containers provide a constant air pressure above the powder samples, which allows to obtain the thermogram with two clearly authorized peaks, reflecting the content of the fractions of free and bound water. Thermograms, in the long term, after working out the appropriate calibration techniques can allow to determine separately the amount of free and bound water, using non-overlapping thermal effects.

Authors
Boyko Boris Nikiforovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Dumskaya Natalia Sergeevna
Institute for Biological Instrumentation of RAS,
7 Institutskaya St., Moscow Region, Pushchino, 142290, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Chernykh Valery Yakovlevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Godunov Oleg Alexandrovich
State Research Institute of Baking Industry,
26a B. Cherkizovskaya St., Moscow, 107553, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Zaytseva L.V., Yudina T.A., Ruban N.V.The Effect of Chia Flour on Nutritional Value and Freshness Rye Flatbread

P. 25-28 Key words
enzymatic interesterification oil product; Chia flour; nutritional value; rye flatbread; freshness.

Abstract
Currently, throughout the world, including Russia, there is a lack in consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. One solution of this problem is the enrichment of different bakery products. Russia produced only 6.4 % enriched bakery products that shows the relevance of the development of new formulations, particularly enriched Chia flour as a source of omega-3 fatty acids. Objective: to investigate the effect of Chia flour containing 33 % fat, and 61.6 % of omega-3 fatty acids from the amount of the fatty acid, on nutritional value and preservation of rye flatbread (24.5 % of fat) with replacing the margarine (GOST 32188-2013) on enzymatic interesterification oil product (GOST 31648-2012). The work was performed at Moscow State University of Food Production. Rheological properties of crumb were analysed according to standard procedures. The lipid content in the product was determined by Folch method, the fatty acid composition of lipids was analysed by GLC method (GOST R 51483-99). Antioxidant capacity was determined by TEAC method (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity). Chia flour was added in amounts of 1.5 % and 2 % by weight of flour, respectively reducing the amount of wheat flour in the formulation from 10 % to 8.5 % and 8.0 % by total weight of flour (90 % rye flour). In the result, it was found that the enrichment of the rye flatbread with Chia flour in an amount of 1.5-2.0 % by weight of flour with using of enzymatic interesterification oil product allows to obtain flatbread with a high content of omega-3 fatty acids (0.44-0.52 g?/?100 g) and vitamin E (20.7-21.6 mg?/?100 g), without containing dangerous trans fatty acids isomers (less than 0.5 g?/?100 g). The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids amounted to 8-9, in line with the recommendations of health authorities. Lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of samples of rye flatbreads had a high antioxidant capacity, which also has a positive effect on the human organism by reduction of the negative influence of reactive oxygen species that are known to cause various diseases. Thus, addition of Chia flour and enzymatic interesterification oil product in the rye flatbread formulation complies with the principles of healthy nutrition, and these rye flatbreads can be classified as enriched bakery products. Additionally, application of Chia flour with 22 % dietary fiber promotes the preservation of the rye flatbread, reducing the friability of the product and improving the hydrophilic properties of the crumb during storage. The authors believe that the enrichment of the rye flatbreads with Chia flour (1.5-2 %), and the replacement of margarine by enzymatic interesterification oil product increases the nutritional value of the product and improves its freshness.

Authors
Zaytseva Larisa Valentinovna, Doctor of Technical Science
Union of Food Manufacturers of the Customs Union,
21 building 1 Noviy Arbat St., Moscow, 119019, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yudina Tamara Alekseevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Ruban Natalya Viktorovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoye Shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Litvinenko O.V., Skripko O.V., Pokotilo O.V.Research of Sortal Features of Amino-acid and Fatty Acid Structure of Soybean Seeds of the Amur Selection

P. 29-32 Key words
amino acid and fatty acid composition; sort; soybean.

Abstract
Soybeans due to the diversity of their chemical composition represents of special interest as a food crop. Its distinctive feature is that soybean grain is a source of full valuable protein and fat. Numerous researches confirm that the sort is one of the factors influencing not only on protein and fat content of soybean, but also in general on its biochemical structure which in turn, determines quality of food products derived from soybean raw materials and first of all their functionality. As a result of carrying out comparative analysis of 23 soybean sorts of the Amur selection, sortal differences in amino-acid and fatty acid structures of seeds are established. From amino acids the content of histidine and valine varied significantly, depending on the sort, respectively, within 2.12 and 1.76 g/100 g, from fatty acids - oleine (8.09) and Linoleic (3.62 %). In soybean seeds of all studied sorts it is noted: deficiency of methionine+cystine and glutamic acid, high content of asparagine acid, valine, linoleic and oleine fatty acids. An optimally balanced ratio of essential fatty acid which are a part of most of the Amur sorts is established. Considering specifics of amino-acid and fatty acid structures of seeds, it is more preferable to use soybean sorts of the Amur selection to receiving multicomponent food which production technology provides introduction of additional ingredients of a vegetable or animal origin.

Authors
Litvinenko Oksana Viktorovna, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences;
Skripko Olga Valeryevna, Doctor of Engineering Sciences;
Pokotilo Olesya Vladimirovna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Soybean,
19 Ignatevskoe shosse, Blagoveshchensk, 675027, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



CONTROL OVER QUALITY ANDSAFETY OF AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Savenkova T.V.Questions of Scientific Provision of Safety Indicators and Quality in the Implementation of Innovative Solutions in the Production of Confectionery Products

P. 33-35 Key words
innovation development strategy; food safety system; quality of confectionery products.

Abstract
The publication examines the role of introducing a food safety management system in strengthening the position in the market for the production of confectionery products in modern conditions. The necessity of introducing an integrated product tracking system along its entire path from the producer to the end user is confirmed. The formation of the Customs Union and Russia's accession to the WTO led to the expansion of the market space and, as a result, to changes in the legislative framework and increased competition in the production of confectionery. When Russia joins the WTO, a number of conditions have been adopted that affect the confectionery industry in harmonizing the regulatory and legislative bases of Russia with the requirements of foreign countries, replacing certified accreditation bodies with a single body, reducing import duties on raw materials, reducing the cost and time of customs clearance of goods, etc. The growth rate of the production of confectionery products leads to increased competition and shocks for small and weak companies. The presence of rapid product innovations in the industry shortens the life cycle of the product. Therefore, the most important condition for the successful competition of producers is the transition of production to an innovative investment way of development. In the confectionery industry of Russia, basic innovations, creating fundamentally new technologies and deep innovations, qualitatively developing already existing technologies - are the main and most effective instrument of technological development.

Authors
Savenkova Tatyana Valentinovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Confectionery Industry,
20 building 3 Electrozavodskaya St., Moscow, 107023, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



USING SECONDARY RESOURCES AND NEW TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS

Atakhanov Sh.N., Rakhimov U.Yu., Mallaboyev O.T.Investigation of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Jam Prepared from Juice Extracts of Jerusalem Artichoke

P. 36-38 Key words
bacteriological analysis; jam; healthy diet; organoleptical characteristics; dietary fiber; Jerusalem artichoke juice pomace; Jerusalem artichokes.

Abstract
With increase in production capacities in the food and processing industry, there is an increase in the volume of secondary raw materials. Many enterprises are faced with the problems of processing and recycling the resulting secondary resources. The authors of the article studied the nutritional, biological value, as well as the chemical composition of the recycled resources of secondary raw materials. Was developed the technology of jam from juices of Jerusalem artichoke preparation. To determine the qualitative characteristics of a new product, we investigated organoleptic, physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. Organoleptic parameters of jam quality were determined by the organoleptic method of GOST 8756.1-79. To determine the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of jam, standard techniques used in the canning industry were used. As experiments have shown, the juice extracts of Jerusalem artichoke have a high nutritional value, preserving carbohydrates such as pectin, dietary fiber, and also vitamins and minerals. The technology of jam from juices of Jerusalem artichoke is developed. According to the organoleptic indicators, the product met all the requirements of the standard, and according to bacteriological parameters - the requirements of SanRaC.

Authors
Atakhanov Shukhrat Nuriddinovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Rakhimov Umidzhon Yunuszonovich;
Mallaboyev Odiljon Tohirjanovich
Namangan Engineering Pedagogical Institute,
12 Dustlik St., Namangan, 160103, Republic of Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT

Semenov E.V., Slavjanskij A.A., Karamzin A.V.For the Calculation of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Disk-separator

P. 39-45 Key words
kinetic flows; conical plug; narrow gap; centrifugal separator.

Abstract
In conditions of line production the most progressive and highly productive way of separating mixtures of different density phases of heterogeneous systems of plant origin is the centrifugal method. Processes of mechanical separation of heterogeneous systems of biological origin, including by means of centrifugal liquid machines are the subject of comprehensive experimental and theoretical research in the food, meat, dairy and related industries. Kinetics of homogeneous flow fluid between two concentric rotating separator cones erect closely approximating models of flow of little concentrated suspensions. These patterns are important in connection with the problem of the quantitative analysis of the dynamic fluids of these flows and assessing the effectiveness of the process of separation of slurry in production volume machine. Study of characteristics of fluid flow regimes in the separator is devoted to a large number of works. But so far have not received adequate justification questions according the process kinetics of inertia liquid, estimate power and pressure acting on a stream, etc. The article offers more reasonable compared to known so far, quantitative analysis of fluid flow in the separator. The problem of calculating the effectiveness of centrifugal separation of dispersed systems is formulated as a problem of quantitative modelling mass transfer phenomena of the solid and liquid phases of the suspension. It is expected that the monitoring process is isothermal, density and viscosity does not depend on the concentration of the solid phase, and suspended particles in suspension (yeast cells, bacteria, fat balls and protein particles of milk, blood, etc.) are solid, have a spherical shape and move independently of the other. That paves the way to conditionally analyze "internal" and "external" hydrodynamics tasks independently. In line with this, first you define a field velocities and pressures of the undisturbed flow, and then the movement actually isolated solid particles in the stream, where the power of interphase interaction "liquid + solid" is using the formula Stokes. In the work on the basis of the conservation laws of momentum and mass for viscous incompressible fluid is formulated and solved problem for currents from a linear source on the axis of rotation of the two cones in the narrow gap between them, which simulates the flow of the liquid in the drum separator. Numerical by found effect of Coriolis force on the formation fluid flow velocity profiles. Case study evaluated fluid pressure in the drum cage and engine power, calculated critical trajectory fat particles in the plasma of milk during their deposition in the batch of plates.

Authors
Semenov Evgeniy Vladimirovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Slavjanskij Anatoliy Anatolievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Karamzin Anatoliy Valentinovich, Doctor of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K. G. Razumovsky (the First Cossacs University),
73 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Rodionova N.S., Popov E.S., Kolesnikova T.N., Myasnikovà E.N.Investigation of the Regularities of Hydration Processes in Plant and Animal Feeds in LT-processing

P. 46-49 Key words
vacuum packaging; animal raw materials; LT-processing; vegetable raw materials.

Abstract
One of the promising trends in the development of the food industry is the use of gentle heat treatment of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat-resistant film - LT processing. Objects of animal and vegetable origin, even with sparing ranges of heat treatment, undergo complex biochemical transformations associated with destruction, denaturation, hydrolysis of biopolymers that make up their composition. As a result, there is a redistribution of moisture between the components of polycomponent food systems, which requires the formation of an information base on the regularities of the processes of hydration and dehydration of animals and plant objects when processed under conditions of preliminary evacuation into polymeric material and a gentle temperature effect. The raw materials under investigation were vacuumed into polymer bags at a vacuum gradient of 1.5-2.0 % per second until 97.0 to 99.9 % were achieved with a final pressure of 200 Pa and heat treatment in the temperature range 80...100 °Ñ under conditions of vapor convection effect. In order to identify the proportions of the amounts of free and bound moisture, the kinetics of the change in humidity during drying of the vegetable and meat components of the formulations was studied using a moisture meter. The quantitative and qualitative changes in the form of the moisture bond were analyzed on the basis of experimental graphical depen- dences of dehydration and dehydration rate of vegetable or meat raw material treated with different LT regimes on the duration of drying. Analysis of the dehydration and kinetic characteristics of the forms of moisture binding of animal objects (beef, pork, poultry) And vegetable (onion, beetroot, carrots, white cabbage, potatoes) of raw materials in conditions of stationary supply of heat showed, Then in the process of LT treatment the mass of dehydration moisture decreases by 15-20 % with an increase in the proportion of bound moisture in the product (by 1.2-2.6 times), which helps to reduce losses of biologically active water-soluble substances and maximum preservation of the bio-potential of the final food Products. It was established that the duration of the dehydration process decreased with an increase in the mass transfer area by 1.7-21.3 times and the processing temperature from 80 to 100 °C in 1.3-2.1 and 2.8-4.5 times, respectively.

Authors
Rodionova Natalia Sergeevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Popov Evgeniy Sergeevich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Kolesnikova Tatyana Nikolaevna
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology,
19 Prospect Revolution, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Myasnikovà Elena Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics,
36 Stremyannyi per., Moscow, 117997, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.