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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №11/2016

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING
Gribova N.A.Effect of Sucrose on the Quality of the Frozen Fruits and Berries

P. 4-8 Key words
freezing; innovative approach; osmosis; fruit and berry raw materials.

Abstract
Processing osmotic agent - is one of the main methods of reducing water activity in the manufacture of products with intermediate moisture. Selection of sucrose as an osmotic agent based on the fact that the disaccharide is widely used in the food industry and is sufficiently strong osmotic agent. The essence of the proposed method consists in treating the preliminary partial dehydration osmotic berries concentrated sucrose solutions before freezing. Reducing the water content by dewatering sucrose, reduces water activity which makes inaccessible environment for microbial growth. The objects of the studies used the berries: strawberry, raspberry, blackberry and black currant. Osmoticum served sucrose solution 60?% concentration, prepared in two ways: without heat treatment and with the use of heat treatment. To determine the effect of concentration on the intensity of sucrose solutions in osmotic dehydration berries were weighed, immersed in a solution of sucrose and heated for a certain time, depending on the structure of the fruit, then removed, were dried and the change in mass measured. The degree and rate of raw materials in the dehydrated sucrose solutions depend on the type of fruit, and the extent and nature of the change berry weight - on the size, structure and osmotic processing. As a result of studies, it was found that the dehydration process of berries in sucrose solution using thermal processing is faster due to the higher density of the syrup, allowing a greater extent and maintain the integrity of the structure of the berries. Following osmoticum treatment berries were frozen using cryoscopic method. Studies have shown that the lowest temperature of the ice crystals in piercing berries treated osmotic agent with the heat treatment, wherein the initial crystallization temperature was between -6.7 °C to -8.9 °C to raspberry for strawberries. This suggests that the berries contain less moisture and freezing process takes place in a power saving mode, which favorably affects the quality of the finished product. Pre-osmotic dehydration has a number of advantages: reduced product contact materials with air, which prevents such undesirable processes as oxidation and change in composition of the product; water removal occurs without a phase transition; significant weight reduction is achieved, resulting in energy cost savings by freezing.

Authors
Gribova Nataliya Anatolievna, Candidate of Technical Science
Plekhanov Russian Economic University,
36 Stremyanniy Per., Moscow, 117997, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING
Aglomazov A.L., Yudaev V.F.The Analysis of the Intensity of the Dispersion Process

P. 9-13 Key words
dispersion; intensity; kinetics; coalescence; model; characterized diameter; emulsification.

Abstract
The article deals with the formulation of a general definition of technological process intensification, the speed or the intensity of substances migration process, which the fulfill the fundamental conservation laws (energy, mass, momentum, amount of substance).In the substance quality dispersion is proposed to adopt the surface area of the section of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. For the analysis of the intensity of the dispersion process introduces a single definition of the characteristic diameter, which is determined from theoretical or experimental distribution function of particles, in particular diameters. The process intensity is discussed as a vector quantity of the relative surface area increment per unit time. Data are given about examples of the calculation of several known rates of concentration change in the number of drops in the emulsion at a constant concentration of the dispersed phase. Firstly, the article gives the computed and analyzed emulsification process without taking into account the coalescence and the independence of the decay probability drops from its diameter (a simple model of the growth of concentration of particles by T. R. Malthus). The calculated intensity of the process of emulsification is constant, and the final concentration of the particles and the dispersity of the emulsion tend to ad infinitum. Secondly, we have analyzed the simultaneous processes of emulsification and coagulation, when the disintegration probability of the emulsion drops and their coalescence does not depend on the particle diameter. In this case, as in the first case, the concentration of the particles and the dispersion emulsion during the emulsification for a long period of continuous strive for an infinitely large speed. Thirdly, in the simultaneous processes of the emulsification and coalescence, it is considered that the decrease of particle diameter specific surface energy of the droplets increases, and the probability of its decay, respectively, decreases. The probability of coalescence with reduction of the droplets diameter increases as their speed increases chaotic motion and decreases the distance between the centers of the drops. The limiting cases are of adequate experience of the emulsion regardless of the mechanisms of the processes of fragmentation and coalescence of drops. Thus, the simultaneous processes speed or the intensity of emulsification and coalescence is correctly described only in the third case, if the probability of breakup and coalescence depend on the diameter in accordance with the mechanisms of breakup of droplets and their coalescence.

Authors
Aglomazov Alexey Lvovich, Post-graduate Student;
Yudaev Vasiliy Fyodorovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Moscow state University of technologies and management named after K. G. Razumovsky (First Cossack University),
73 Zemlyanoy Val St., Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS
Oganesyants L.A., Peschanskaya V.A., Dubinina E.V.Research of Physical and Chemical Composition of the Water-Alcohol Extracts of Leaves of Walnut

P. 14-17 Key words
antioxidant activity; biologically active substances; walnut leaves; extraction.

Abstract
The leaves of walnut (Juglans regia) are of great value as a raw material for biologically active food additives. Collection of leaves at different stages of the growing season was carried out in the south of the Rostov region. For extraction of biologically active compounds previously prepared raw materials used the method of extraction with 70?% aqueous alcohol solution. It was found that the highest concentration of biologically active substances contained in extracts of leaves collected in the period from 1 July to 30 August. The extracts examined correlation between the concentrations of the individual phenolic compounds, the total content of antioxidants and UV absorbance (UV) and visible spectrum. Increasing optical density marked by a number of extracts, against the backdrop of growing concentrations of the individual hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and p-coumaric) and the total content of antioxidants. The optical density in the UV and visible region of the spectrum peaks in extracts of leaves collected during ripening, which is a significant accumulation of this time the individual phenolic compounds. The results of determination of the composition of minerals found in the highest concentrations in the extracts contains potassium and magnesium. The quantitative ratio of individual sugars and organic acids greatly varies depending on the raw collection time. The maximum accumulation of carbohydrates is observed in extracts of the leaves collected in the middle of the growing period and during fruit ripening (July-August), while the maximum concentration of organic acids in the extracts of leaves collected at the beginning of the growing season and the flowering period - in May. Amino acids in the extracts submitted 18 compounds, among them - seven essential. The proportion of catechin polyphenols identified among more than 50?%. It is found that the high antioxidant activity of the extracts is due, inter alia, by the presence in the composition such as the polyphenol epicatechin gallate and quercetin.

Authors
Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Peschanskaya Violetta Alexandrovna;
Dubinina Elena Vasiljevna, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries,
7 Rossolimo St., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Eremeeva N.B., Makarova N.V., Bykov D.E., Bakharev V.V., Demidova A.V., Bykova T.O.Cellulose as a Component Edible Films of Apple Puree

P. 18-21 Key words
fiber; edible film; apple puree

Abstract
Permanent the increased use of non-biodegradable polymers have generated enormous problems of disposal of plastic waste and have a major impact on pollution and climate change, since polymeric materials have the property to accumulate in the ecosystem because of their resistance to microbial degradation. To address these problems in recent years more and more actual there is the possibility of packaging, degradable. Renewable and biodegradable films can be obtained from different polysaccharides. Among these polysaccharides is cellulose, as it has a number of unique properties: wide raw material base, low cost, high durability, has all the positive qualities of dietary fiber. The aim of our study is the influence of fiber content on the organoleptic properties, structure, water absorption, strength characteristics of edible films, obtained on the basis of applesauce. Three samples of edible films were prepared by adding 1.23% apple mash to mash fiber weight. Edible films have a yellowish tint, characteristic of applesauce. With increasing amount of plasticizer edible film becomes more transparent. Most enjoyable for chew the properties of edible film with a fiber content of 1?%. Was performed microscopy samples of the edible film. Structure of the edible films with the increase in the proportion of fiber becomes more uniform. Tests were carried out tensile edible film materials. The increase in the proportion of fiber in the composition of edible films causes improvement of mechanical properties. The water absorption ability has been defined for all edible films: samples only withstand immersion in distilled water at 23 °C for 30 min. At longer time and higher temperature the samples of edible film are destroyed. Continued research in the direction of creating and studying the properties of edible film is promising.

Authors
Eremeeva Nataliya Borisovna;
Makarova Nadezhda Viktorovna, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor;
Bykov Dmitriy Evgenievich, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor;
Bakharev Vladimir Valentinovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Demidova Anna Vladimirovna;
Bykova Tatiana Olegovna
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, 443100, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


BIOTECHNOLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Volkova T.N., Selina I.S., Sozinova M.S.Mycobiota of Malting Barley Grain: Survey During 2001–2015 (Part 1)

P. 22-29 Key words
grain; infestation load; mycotoxins; malting barley; contamination level; isolation frequency.

Abstract
Grain mycobiota of fresh malting barley (1-3 months after harvest) were analyzed during 2001-2015 for purpose of monitoring. The samples were collected from batches of barley purchased by Russian malting companies. Barley was harvested in following regions of Russia (in parenthesis - the number of samples): Voronezh (27), Kursk (24), Tambov (10), Belgorod (8), Lipeck (6), Orel (6), Rjazan' (4), Penza (2), Tula (1), Volgograd (1), Rostov-on-Don (1), Omsk (1), Tjumen' (1), Kurgan (1), Altay (2). Also 11 samples of imported barley from different European countries were examined. Mycobiota analysis were carried out in three parallel versions: native grains were placed on wet filter paper (1), on malt wort agar (2), and grains surface-disinfected with 1?% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by rinsing twice with sterile tap water were placed on malt wort agar (3). Characterization and identification of micromycetes in superficial and internal mycobiota of grain were performed. Contaminating level of the sample by each of species (%), the frequency of species isolation in different samples (%), and infestation load (in conventional units) were detected. During 2001-2008 38 barley samples were analyzed, and 58 samples - in 2009-2015. All the samples had high index of germinating ability (average 94.5-95.0?%). Data of contaminating levels of the dominant species (limits of variability and average) during 2001-2008 and in period 2009-2015 compared with the average data for microbiota of imported barley. It is found that the 5 genera of field fungi with 100?% incidence of isolation can be assigned to obligate: Alternaria spp., Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus), Epicoccum nigrum, Cladosporium spp., and Fusarium sporotrichioides. During the period 2001-2015 there was displacement domestic cultivars of malting barley and substitution them with imported ones. Some changes were detected during these years in species and quantitative content of barley grain mycobiota. In 2001-2008 Alternaria (max 98?%, average 65?%) and Bipolaris (max 98?%, average 51?%) were dominant in infestation level. In 2009-2015 Alternaria remained dominant (average 77?%), but the Bipolaris infestation level fell to 21?%. The negative correlation always observed between Alternaria and Bipolaris infestation levels: r = -0.92 in 2001-2008; r = -0.46 in 2009-2015. Increase of Epicoccum and Fusarium infestation levels also observed in 2009-2015 compared with 2001-2008. Fusarium was presented by species (in parenthesis - isolation frequency): F. sporotrichioides (100?%), F. verticillioides (57?%), F. poae (14?%), F. tricinctum (7?%). Storage fungi are not always detected and their infestation level does not exceed 35?%. Reduction of the species list of minor components in the field mycobiota also observed. The levels of 5 MT: Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), Zearalenone (ZEA), Aflatoxin (Afl B1, B2, G1, G2 sum) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) were measured in 2007-2011 in 39 randomly selected samples of malting barley by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using test systems RIDASCREEN FAST (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). MTs have been found in 6 samples (15?%), 7 cases: DON, T2 and Afl were identified - each in two cases, ZEA - in one case. OTA was never been detected. Exceeding the maximum permissible level observed in one case: T2 (150 ppb, exceeding 1.5 times). In conclusion, malt barley grain harvested in regions of Central European Russia and purchased by domestic malting companies can be considered good and acceptable in terms of mycological and mycotoxicological status and does not inferior to imported barley.

Authors
Volkova Tatiana Nikolaevna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Selina Irina Sergeevna;
Sozinova Marina Sergeevna
All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7 Rossolimo St., Moscow, 119021, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Voronin M.I., Babakin B.S.The Impact of Low-temperature Nonequilibrium Plasma Raw Material of Biological Origin, Materials and Environment

P. 30-34 Key words
bacteria; viruses; inactivation; low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma; selectivity; synergistic effect.

Abstract
Modern sterilization technology thermolabile materials and media have a number of significant drawbacks. Currently, one of the promising areas of raw material sterilization, materials and media is the use of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma. The paper deals with the processes occurring in low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma. In particular, the impact ionization of atoms and molecules, the formation of high level of the electrons in an electric field and the radiation in a wide range of wavelengths, leading to excitation of vibrational levels of the atoms and molecules of the medium. The factors provide an inhibitory effect on a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. Estimates show that in case of processing materials with dielectric properties in the field contribution inactivation process may be significant, otherwise it can be neglected. The selectivity of molecular dissociation in plasma is achieved by electron impact vibrational excitation of the ground state molecules. Forming a particular range of the electron energy distribution can be practically all the energy of discharge localized in a narrow range of energies, sootvetstvyuschih destruction of a group of macromolecules. For most of the atoms that make up the macromolecules in a cell, the ionization potential is between 10 and 15 eV, which is characteristic of the energy spectrum of electrons in a capacitive discharge plasma. When this energy penetration of the electrons in the processing facility (penetration) low. The formulas for calculating the electric field in the treated environment, taking into account the conduction currents and displacement transients allow account the effect of electric fields. Marked selectivity macromolecules dissociation temperature plasma and the presence of inhibitory factors in the latter having a synergistic effect on the processing of objects. The results obtained by the authors argue that low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma is effective in the inactivation of a wide range of viruses and bacteria.

Authors
Voronin Michail Iliyich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Babakin Boris Sergeevich, Doctor of Technical Science
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe Shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


CONTROL OVER QUALITY ANDSAFETY OF AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS
Podvolotskaya A.B., Tekutyeva L.A., Fishchenko E.S., Bobchnko V.I., Kirillov A.V.Histamine as an Indicator of Safety Frozen Fish

P. 35-38 Key words
security; histamine; micro-organisms; frozen fish; transportation; storage.

Abstract
The article investigates the effect of storage conditions on the content of histamine in fish of the salmon family, the comparison of Russian and European standards for this indicator, as well as the study of the relationship level of histamine and microbial contamination. As the object of study selected a type of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. It is known that all of the security parameters during the storage, if disregarded temperature processing and transportation, increases significantly quantitative microbiological parameters and the concentration of histamine. They can serve as markers of health and hygiene process of preparation of fish and fishery products to freeze, serve as a guarantor of stability storage conditions. Histamine is stored in the human body in an inactive bound state accumulates in the gut and the lung tissues of skin by participating in many metabolic processes. Under the influence of certain factors, such as stress, thermal, and traumatic lesions et al. Histamine is released and provokes a series of reactions in the body. The authors conducted a study of samples of fish showed a contradictory assessment results. Background determining histamine levels in five games, as measured by EU standards, will immediately identify a dangerous game, and in the course of the experiment, the storage of samples under extreme conditions confirms the discrepancy of all parties on the level of histamine. The ongoing evaluation of the safety standards in the Russian Federation at the background studies - recognizes that all parties are safe for the determined microbiological parameters. In studies of samples stored in critical conditions, the two parties declared irrelevant by the level of histamine, in another it was critical. Just two coliform bacteria were found in samples normability volume. The evaluation system adopted by the EU in the eyes of the authors more fully describes the party of fish quality and safety, as well as allows you to indirectly characterize the level of microbial contamination. Comprehensive assessment of the individual performance of nine fish, can be useful to the process side, since, greater amount of information obtained in the evaluation of a sample of nine fish, will allow the technician to choose a way to further process it and determine if it is stored.

Authors
Podvolotskaya Anna Borisovna, Candidate of Medical Science;
Tekutyeva Ludmila Alexandrovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Fishchenko Evgenia Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Bobchnko Viktoria Ivanovna;
Kirillov Alexander Viktorovich
Far Eastern Federal University,
Building G, Ayaks, o. Russkiy, Vladivostok, 690091, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Gomza M.M., Svyatkina L.I., Andrukhova V.Ya. Irkutsk Trout: Quality and Safety

P. 39-42 Key words
volume of output; organoleptic analysis; safety indicators; toxicological and microbiological research; trout; cold-water trout enterprise.

Abstract
Trout is considered to be the valuable species of fish and to be of great demand. The reason of such popularity is the meat of trout. It contains irreplaceable fatty acids, protein, trace elements and vitamins that have great importance for biologically valuable nourishing of human being. Trout is actively grown up in cold-water conditions. The main aim of the wok is to research the indictors of trout's quality and safety, which is grown on the enterprise "Irkutsk Trout" Ltd R&D production facility. The tests have already been carried out. Organoleptic estimation showed that the surface of the fish is clean, without artificial color, which is the characteristic of this species. It has the thin layer of mucus, with shining closely adjoined scales and without any mechanical injures and external signs of disease. The standard research methods of quality characteristics of trout samples were carried out. There were used the methods of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometer detector, gas-liquid chromatography, Gamma and beta spectrometric complex with program software "Progress". The experiment results of toxicological research on tetracycline antibiotics content, polychloride biphenyl, nitrozamin, pesticide, microbiological indicators and radionuclide have shown that the samples of trout are relevant to the technical regulations of Customs Union. The authors came to the conclusion that ecological conditions doesn't influence the trout's quality, the product is safe and fully satisfies the regulatory requirements. The enterprise is working cost-effectively, however, at the moment the main share of profit is being spent on the increase of fish livestock. Trout grows more slowly in cold Angara water than in warm basins, but the meat is of more high quality and doesn't have the taste of river fish due to the high purity of Baikal water.

Authors
Gomza Marina Matveevna;
Svyatkina Lyubov Ivanovna, Candidate of Chemical Science;
Andrukhova Valentina Yakovlevna, Candidate of Chemical Science
Irkutsk State University,
1 Karl Marx St., Irkutsk, 663003, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


DESIGNIING AND MODELLING THE NEW GENERATION FOODS
Gaponova L.V., Grigorjeva V.N., Polezhaeva T.A., Matveeva G.A.Soybean Seeds as a Raw Material for the Production of Therapeutic and Prophylactic and Baby Foods

P. 44-48 Key words
products for babies and treatment-preventive nutrition; seeds; species; soy-bean; standard.

Abstract
Soybean seeds are traditionally used in the oil industry for oil and protein products to produce a wide range of other products. But first of all soy products in Russia should be considered from the standpoint of prophylactic and therapeutic use. Long-term clinical studies have shown the need for soybean products in the prevention and treatment of allergic, endocrine and cardiovascular (metabolic syndrome), gastrointestinal and other disorders. Exposure of consumers to healthy lifestyle should lead to an increase in the production of dietary food products, including baby food. In the latter case there are special requirements for the performance of soybean seeds, primarily for safety performance. The article is based on the results of research and development requirements for the quality of soybean seeds intended for use in the manufacture of children and preventive nutrition products. The properties of the final product and process parameters selection of protein-lipid complex of soybean seeds is determined primarily by their biological and physico-chemical properties So, for the production of soy milk and on the basis of products (drinks, including fermented, tofu, bean curd and cheese, desserts, dry mixes for ice cream and cocktails, and so on) it is desirable to apply the seeds with high protein content (not less than 40?%), light color (lack of pigmentation of hilum) to avoid the appearance of product defects. This article provides information about the major soybean varieties grown in different regions (Far East, Krasnodar region, the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia and others.) Marked varieties that best meet the requirements of developed and can be used in the production of specialized food products. For this were researched physico-chemical parameters and safety parameters for these varieties. Average protein content in the seeds of the studied varieties of 35-43?%, a maximum protein content 48-50?%, the average lipid content 20-21?%. Expected expansion of soybean sowing areas in Russia in the coming years will increase the volume of preventive nutrition production of soy-based products, the relevant regulatory requirements.

Authors
Gaponova Liliya Valentinovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Grigorjeva Valentina Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Polezhaeva Tatiana Andreevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Matveeva Galina Alexeevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fats,
10 Chernaychovskogo St., Saint-Petersburg, 191119, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.