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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №6/2016

URGENT PROBLEM OF SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT IN AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Bogatyrev A.N., Lituev V.N.The Current Situation and Development of the Russian Agro-industrial Complex (The Experiment of Mathematical and Probabilistic Modeling). Part 1

P. 5-12 Key words
agro-industrial complex; descripts; inflation; constructs; mathematical model; national report; factors of development; finances.

Abstract
The national report "On the trends and the results of realization in 2014 of the State program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw material and provisions markets for 2013-2020". The fundamental information is contained not only in tables but in the text itself from which the hidden information is to be still retrieved. The hidden information can be retrieved only by calculation of interrelations between economic factors expressed as mass quantitative data as well as the information expressing the qualitative situation of agricultural production. This is actually the main point of our approach to the realization of the national report potential by means of diagnostics of the specified economic problems by the methods of probabilistic mathematical modeling. The first mathematical model is the cluster analysis promoting to define the structure of agriculture in Russia in the form of tree-like system of interconnections by the method of single tie measured by Euclidean distance between the defined values of probability values. The second mathematical model is the factor analysis which helped to define the basic force vectors of economic advancement of RF agricultural-industrial complex at interference of economic factors. The third type of the mathematical model is multiple regression. The results of the executed complicated mathematical investigations showed that the impact of the negative factors in economy is considerably but in the whole the positive trend is prevailing as far as in total range and measured factors 54.8?% function positively. This is significant and noticeably and disclosure and increase of agricultural production development in Russia in perspective is reduction of negative tendencies impact stated in the article.

References
Authors
Bogatyrev Andrey Nikolaevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Lituev Victor Nikolaevich, Doctor of Economic Science, Professor
Russian Academy of Sciences,
32a Leninskiy pr-t, Moscow, 119991, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Suvorov O.A., Shikova I.D., Kuznetsov A.L.Technological Methods of Prolonging Freshness of Raw Materials of Animal Origin

P. 13-17 Key words
antimicrobial solutions; food safety; quality; meat and meat products; decontamination; food industry; technologies; freshness; physico-chemical methods.

Abstract
Meat - one of the most valuable human food because of its high content of valuable protein and other important components. That is why it is so relevant research aimed at finding and developing modern technologies extending the freshness and prevent spoilage of meat and meat products. Jobs authors of the article was to study and analyze the published literature and to conduct their own investigations to determine the suitability of electrochemical activation of water solutions to preserve the freshness of food raw materials of animal origin and the results compared with the already used methods. The study examined and analyzed the experimental data demonstrating the benefit of using electrochemically activated solutions in relation to their safety, efficacy against a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, environmental friendliness, efficiency and versatility. In addition to this method, the article examines the popular modern methods and techniques of preserving and extending the freshness of meat raw materials, such as chilling, freezing and packaging technology. Their advantages - the maximum preservation of the original quality and disadvantages - high cost of equipment. Also examined are the physico-chemical methods of meat processing as ionizing radiation to which the advantages include the ability to save products for a long time at room temperature, and the shortcomings - the frequent appearance of foreign taste and odor, discoloration of meat products, increased lipid oxidation rate and vitamins and others. Processing pressure gentle method is considered as a nonthermal inactivate spoilage microorganisms manner, but it is expensive and often leads to a change in the color of fresh meat. Thus, the use of modern, efficient special tools, in particular electrochemically activated aqueous solutions, helps protect raw materials and products of animal origin from microbiological spoilage, prolong their freshness and shelf life. At the same time it is necessary to continue research and development work related to improving the ways to improve the technology preserve freshness of meat. In the view of the authors, promising direction is the development of technical and technological solutions and recommendations for the use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions of the new generation.

References
Authors
Suvorov Oleg Alexandrovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Shikova Irina Dmitrievna, Student;
Kuznetsov Alexander Lvovich, Post-graduate Student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Cherenkov A.A., Gunar L.E., Dorozhkina L.A., Hlopuk M.S., Knyazeva E.P.Increasing Retention of Seed Potatoes in the Original seeds

P. 18-22 Key words
protective-stimulant; processing; the original seed; seed potatoes; storage,

Abstract
The problem of obtaining potatoes and preserving their quality is of great national economic significance, because the potato is vital to the agricultural industry. Potato seed costs make up to 40?% of the total agricultural process. Therefore, the main tasks of modern research in the production and storage technology of this crop are to reduce the level of losses, and to improve the quality, safety and profitability of the process. The goal of this study was to develop a reception of up-retentive seed potato tubers, by treating them with protective stimulating agents during long-term storage. As a result, the study tested the reception processing of the tubers of super elite original potato seeds (the example varieties used were Udacha and Kolobok), adding immunomodulators, both individually and in a tank mixture, to a fungicide before storage. It was found that the greatest number of seed tubers were retained by the applying of fungicide tank mixture and Siliplanta. The total losses from natural weight loss for the entire storage period (3 years) of the contral samples of the potato varieties Luck and Bun were 5.1?% and 5.6?%. The lowest value of natural weight loss of the tubers of Udacha was observed with Kolobok tank mixtures with fungicide (3.6?%). Application of fungicide only improved the retention of Udacha potato varieties by 2.1?%, grade Kolobok, in comparison to 3.3?% with the control. Output of healthy tubers was 94.1?%, compared to 90.8?% in the control samples. When using Siliplanta, loss decreased by 1.0-1.5?% to 3.6-4.3?%, and the yield of seed potatoes increased to 95.1-95.6?%. Treatment of potato tank mixtures before storage reduced losses by 3.2-4.7?% after the introduction of the mixture Siliplanta. The yield of potato seeds was 95.5-96.2?%, compared to 90.8-92.0?% in the control group. Immunomodulators processed both separately and in a mixture with a fungicide at half the normal rate improved photosynthetic activity and contributed net reproduction rises of 13-53?%, while processing only the fungicide at the recommended application rate inhibited the figure significantly, with a rise of 18.4?%. This technique is only sustainable because the rate of application of the fungicide Maxim can be reduced twofold when required.

References
Authors
Cherenkov Anatoliy Anatolievich, Post-graduate Student;
Gunar Ludmila Eduardovna, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor
Russian State Agrarian University - Timiryazev Moscow Agricultural Academy,
49 Timiryazevskaya St., Moscow, 127550 Russian, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Dorozhkina Ludmila Alexandrovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Nonprofit Scientific and Industrial Partnership "NEST M",
Office 109, 31A Pryanishnikova St., 127550, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Hlopuk Mariya Semenovna, Honored Agronomist Russia
Knyazeva Elena Petrovna
Tula Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture,
7 Gardening St., pos. Dairy Yards, Plavsk district, Tula region, 301493, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Antipov S.T., Owsyannikov V.Yu., Sharov A.V.Modes Crushing Dried Raw Meat and Bones in a Disintegrator

P. 23-28 Key words
disintegrator; meat and bone grinding of raw materials; experiment planning; efficiency.

Abstract
Processes associated with the grinding of dried meat and bone materials are now an integral part in the development of complete feed, for almost all farm animals and poultry, as well as being the most valuable additive in pet nutrition - dogs and cats. Nevertheless, the processes of obtaining the ground raw material, remaining thoroughly unstudied, imperatively require further study, and technological equipment, correspondingly, for improvement. The article presents the results of a study of the process of grinding meat and bone material. For the study was used a composite rotatable uniforms planning for the four independent variables. As a result statistical processing of experimental data are obtained the equations of regression, which adequately describe the process under the effect of the parameters being investigated. It was found that specific productivity disintegrator for grinding products most affected by the relative humidity of the original raw meat and bones, the smallest - the magnitude of the gap between the pins of adjacent discs. On the specific energy consumption, mostly influenced by the ratio of the angular velocities of pin drives the smallest - the magnitude of the gap between the pins of adjacent discs. Mathematical processing and analysis of the results showed that the regression equations obtained describe in four-dimensional complex geometric body whose response surface is an ellipsoid, or a one- or two-way hyperboloid. Built engineering nomograms have practical value. Are found the suboptimal intervals of the variation in the relation of the angular velocities of pin disks, degree of the filling of the camera of disintegrator with the dried raw meat and bones material, the relative humidity of source dry raw meat and bones and gap length between the pins of the adjacent revolving disks of disintegrator, that ensure the maximum value of the specific productivity of disintegrator from the ground product and the minimum value of specific expenditures of energy for the realization of this process. The obtained results make it possible to formulate practical recommendations during crushing of raw meat and bones material with the use of disintegrators.

References
Authors
Antipov Sergei Tihonovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Owsyannikov Vitaly Yurevich, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor;
Sharov Aleksey Vasilevich, Post-graduate Student
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies,
19 Revolutsii Prospect, Voronezh, 394036, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Alexashina S.A., Makarova N.V.Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Antioxidant Activity of Carrots, Beets and Pumpkin

P. 29-32 Key words
vegetables; natural antioxidants; free radicals; flavonoids.

Abstract
Antioxidants slow down the negative effects of free radicals on the body, thereby protecting the person from premature aging and a large number of dangerous chronic diseases. Excess levels of free radicals in the human body, scientists called oxidative stress, which can be caused by radiation, bad ecology, pollution and poor quality food, stress, etc. The paper presents experimental data to determine the total content of phenols, flavonoids, free radical trapping ability of the method of DPPH (2,2?diphenyl-1?picrylhydrazyl), a restoring force on the iron FRAP method antioxidant activity of linoleic acid in the system. The studies were conducted in the Samara region with the local varietal vegetable raw materials. The basic technique for determining the phenolic compounds in the vegetable raw material served as a spectrophotometric reagent Folin-Ciocalteu. The extract was mixed with the reagent Folin-Ciocalteu, a saturated solution of sodium carbonate in the ratio 1: 1: 2. The final mixture measured the absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 715 nm to KFK-03-01. The total flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically based on the formation of a flavonoid-aluminum complex at 510 nm. Study DPPH test was carried out by spectrophotometry with an alcoholic solution of DPPH radicals at a wavelength of 517 nm. As a result of measurement of static tests were carried out in 30 minutes and the curves of% inhibition of DPPH radicals, concentration of the source of an antioxidant. antioxidants iron recovery method is based on the ability of antioxidants to suppress oxidative reaction effect particles generated in the reaction mixture. This method is simple, fast and low cost with performance. The method of determining antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system based on photocolorimetry zhelezotiatsianatnyh complexes. As a result, the spectrophotometric study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of vegetable raw materials Samara region found that the maximum content of natural antioxidants has beet Bordo 237 and Valja F1 varieties. These results allow us to recommend the beets Bordo 237 and Valja F1 varieties, as the most accessible and rich in natural antioxidants for food. Test food can be used for preparation of dry semi-finished products for use in the food industry.

References
Authors
Alexashina Sofia Anatolievna, Post-graduate Student;
Makarova Nadezhda Viktorovna, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, 443100, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Bychkova E.S., Menshova Yu.O., Lomovsky I.O., Lomovsky O.I., Beyzel N.F.Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Juice Functionality

P. 33-37 Key words
plant material; antioxidant activity; serotonin; mechanochemical activationæ the nutritional value.

Abstract
Investigations were carried out at the Department of Technology and organization of food production Novosibirsk State Technical University joint with the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry. The novel formulations of functional juices was developed using local food sources. The main used ingredients: apples, sea buckthorn, pumpkin, carrots, ginger, lemon. This ingredients are valuable food raw materials and contains a complex of essential nutrients. The choice of dietary supplements obtained by mechanochemical treatment of the flant materials for increasing of nutritional value of juices was justified. The green tea catechins and serotonin was used as active ingredients and additives. Catechinsare very reactive in oxidation and epimerization reactions. Therefore, the creating of products with a high catechins content it's need to pay attention to the oxidative degradation processes and processes that occurs in the extracts during storage. In this work the additives were subjected to mechanochemical treatment in the presence of ascorbic acid, resulting in improved in 2 times shelf life of the product and increase in 30?% of the yield of active substances in the extract. The source of serotonin was bark and shoots of sea buckthorn. The initial plant material was also subjected to mechanochemical treatment. It is leads to transformation of serotonin in the bio-available ascorbate salt. To improve the organoleptic and rheological quality indicators of samples the konjac gum was added. The addition of konjac gum can reach uniform distribution of functional additives without precipitation for long time. The nutritional values of conjac gum exist in ability to lower serum cholesterol and triglycerides as well as slow down the process of assimilation of glucose. New products ware investigated to the organoleptic and physicochemical indicators of quality. The functional properties of the resulting products were experimentally proved. When used during the day one serving of juice is replenished daily requirement for active substances (serotonin, catechin, vitamin C) is more than 15?%. The new products will be used in catering to enrich the diet by biologically active substances.

References
Authors
Bychkova Elena Sergeevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Menshova Yulia Olegovna
Novosibirsk State Technical University,
20 Karla Marksa Pr., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Lomovsky Igor Olegovich, Candidate of Chemical Science
Lomovsky Oleg Ivanovich, Doctor of Chemical Science, Professor
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS
18 Kutateladze St., Novosibirsk, 630128, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Beyzel Nina Fedorovna
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry
3 Akademika Lavrentieva Pr., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



DESIGNIING AND MODELLING THE NEW GENERATION FOODS

Babiy N.V.Methodological Approaches to Implementation of the Concept of Phytoprevention

P. 38-42 Key words
health; classification; concept; consumers; phytodrink; phytoprevention.

Abstract
In article the territorial model of phytoprevention allowing to optimize the actual food of separate groups of the population for elimination of deficiency micro and macronutrients, decrease in noninfectious diseases, increase of resistance of an organism is offered. The major backbone factor of phytoprevention is health of the individual, group, population that is provided with the interconnected concretized tasks. Based on it system and target approach in preventive application of phytoproducts is realized. According to this approach the concept "phytoproduct" and "phytodrink" is entered. Implementation of the concept of phytoprevention provides the corresponding systematization of phytodrinks. At the heart of the offered concept 3 types of phytodrinks are allocated: adaptogens, protectors and proofreaders who are systematized on such signs as appointment, a nutrition value, a price segment, selective action on a human body, expediency of application. The hierarchical principle was the basis for systematization of phytodrinks by the author of article. The dominating classification principle is expediency of application as a main objective of use is strengthening and preservation of a men's health taking into account differentiation on various signs for what criteria of a choice for optimum satisfaction of expectations of the consumer are offered. Use of the offered classification allows to form the range of phytodrinks for the solution of preventive tasks, to develop phytopreventive programs, to satisfy demand according to expectations of buyers. To developers and producers of drinks, relying on the offered classification, new opportunities of expansion of the range within the standard doctrines and concepts are given.

References
Authors
Babiy Natalia Victorovna, Candidate of Technical Science
Amur State University,
21 Ignatyevskoe shosse, Blagoveshchensk, Amur region, 675027, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



USING SECONDARY RESOURCES AND NEW TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS

Kravchenko I.K., Ulanova R.V.Vegetable Cakes as Source of Food Protein

P. 43-47 Key words
amino acids; detoxification; food protein; castor-bean cakes; cotton seed meal.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the most important direction of the food processing industry - the development of dietary protein technologies as one of the major food components. The article presents the results of experimental studies on the detoxification castor and cotton seed meal using lactic acid bacteria. The way of receiving qualitative protein from the cotton and castor-bean cakes, combining the physical and chemical and biological methods and allowing destroying completely poisonous gossypol and ricin was developed. It has found that optimal for the protein components extraction was the treatment of the cakes by 0.2?% alkali solution (1:6-1:8, v/v) at 60...90 °C for 20-30 min. The process should be carried out at constant stirring of the suspension, and after protein extraction, undissolved particles of the pulp should be removed. Protein settling was carried out by lactic acid bacteria, which is injected into a protein extract in an amount of 5 to 7?%; then the suspension was stirred and allowed to stand until complete fermentation in stationary conditions for 4-6 h, at 36...37 °Ñ. The fermented product was heated to 80...90 °C, the whey was removed and wet protein pasta was dried. For maximum efficiency of sedimentation and detoxication the ferment consisting of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, in the ratio 2:1 was created. These lactic bacteria are characterized by high proteolytic, antibiotic, acidogenesis and gas-production activity. Prototypes of proteins preparations were received by the developed way, and their organoleptic and physicochemical properties were studied. The protein in preparation obtained from cotton cake contained 18 amino acids and was well-balanced in essential amino acids content. The sum of essential amino acids in this protein preparation exceeds the standard values of FAO/WHO and protein preparation, obtained from the castor beans cakes. The Research Institute of sanitation, hygiene and occupational diseases of Ministry of health of the Republic of Uzbekistan has recommended the novel protein preparation for use in separate branches of the foodindustry, and the toxicological-hygienic passport was received.

References
Authors
Kravchenko Irina Konstantinovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Ulanova Ruzaliya Vladimirovna, Candidate of Biological Science
Institute of Microbiology named after S. N. Vinogradsky,
7 build 2 60-letiya Oktiabria St., Moscow, 117312, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ovsyannikov Yu.S., Bakulin V.M., Bakulin M.K., Leshchenko A.A.The Use of Perfluorocarbons in the Technology of Probiotic Microbial Cultures for Use in Veterinary Medicine

P. 48-51 Key words
biotechnology; deep cultivation; microorganisms; perfluorocarbons (PFC); populations; probiotics; probiotic cultures; streptococcus; strains.

Abstract
In the above article deals with the practical use of perfluorocarbons (PFC) for deep cultivation of probiotic microorganisms cultures. It is shown stimulating activity of specific microorganisms present in the complexes, which are called synbiotics. It was noted a stimulation of the growth and development of these organisms for the normal development of young pigs, poultry and cattle. It is shown that the restoration of intestinal biocenosis under stress produces positive results. It is known in the world that probiotics contain different species of microorganisms, which are antagonists of pathogenic microflora in the gastro-intestinal diseases. The most famous probiotic microbial cultures are different strains of Saccharomyces, Bacillus, Escherichia and others. It was noted that a large number of biochemical processes and functions of mammals can not do without the direct or indirect involvement of microorganisms, which are the determining factor in the health and development of diseases of animals, sincemany acute and chronic infectious diseases of animals are associated with violation of the normal microflora. It is shown that ÐFU possess haveà numberîf characteristics unique for biotechnology: to ability tî transport, chemical stability, ability tîmodify cell membranes and improve nutrients substances transporting. Addition îf ÐFU to the medium provides increase of growth rate îf probiotic microorganisms and increase of the desired product output.

References
Authors
Ovsyannikov Yuriy Stepanovich, Candidate of Biological Science
Vyatka State Agricultural Academy,
133 Oktiabskiy Pr-t, Kirov, 610017, Russia
Bakulin Vladimir Mihailovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Bakulin Mihail Konstantinovich, Doctor of Medical Science, Professor;
Leshchenko Andrey Anatolievich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
Vyatka Stató University,
36 Moskovskaya St,. Kirov, 610000, Russia



TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES, MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT

Begunov A.A., Rogozina E.A.To the Question of Measurement of Weight in Food Laboratories. Part 1: Measurement of Mass

P. 52-57 Key words
scales; measurement of mass; measurement error.

Abstract
In this article a comparison of means of mass measurements, not only used in practice, but also potentially suitable for research and product testing in industrial laboratories, is carried out. Recommended national standards for test methods of food raw materials and ready products are given. Device circuitry and operation of the most popular types of scales are described. The article shows, including experimental data, metrological error in normalizing the precision requirements for the measurement of the mass media and procedure adopted in practice by the mass measurement in the laboratory. The components of error results weight measurements for different types of measuring devices, and the reasons for vague answers when analyzing the composition of food raw materials and finished products are studied. It is known that while using laboratory scales methodological errors can be detected that materially affect the accuracy of measurement results. This leads to an unjustified underestimation of the values of mass measurement accuracy and other physicochemical parameters (humidity, oil content, acid number, and others) defined with their help. It is often taken as an indicator of the accuracy of single or, at most, double value of the scale interval. The terms and definitions of the main metrological characteristics of laboratory scales and their values for the most popular types and classes of precision scales are given. Techniques of mass measurement under laboratory conditions with different accuracy requirements of the measurement result are shown. The significance of the possible sources of error result precision mass measurements is analyzed. The conditions under which they should be taken into account are shown. Recommendations of application of laboratory scales in the measurement of the composition of food raw materials and finished products are given.

References
Authors
Begunov Alexander Andreevich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Fats
10 Chernyakhovskogo St., St. Peterburg, 191119, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Rogozina Elena Andreevna
St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics,
14 Sablinskaya St., St. Peterburg, 197101, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.