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Rambler's Top100

Storage and processing of farm products №3/2016

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTS STORAGE AND PROCESSING

Gudkovskiy V.A., Kozhina L.V., Nazarov Yu.B. The Impact of Volatile Compounds on Scald Development of Fruit of Different Apple Varieties

P. 5-9 Key words
scald; volatile compounds; fruit; varieties; storage; ethylene; appletree.

Abstract
Scald is the main physiological disease of apple fruit during storage. Processing fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduces the losses caused by scald. Losses from the disease (even when processing with 1-MCP) increased under conditions of limited air exchange (modified atmosphere, MA) compared to normal atmosphere (NA). The purpose of investigations was to study the influence of volatile compounds on scald development of fruit of varieties with different resistance to the disease in their separate and joint storage in the limited air exchange. The research work was made in the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after I. V. Michurin. The ethylene content in fruit and in the storage atmosphere, the content of farnesene and its oxidation products (trienes) in the cuticle of fruit peel were determined. The authors consider that under conditions of limited outer air exchange (MA) there is an intensive accumulation of not only ethylene but also of other volatile compounds including a-farnesene in the atmosphere and on the fruit surface, which stimulates the development of scald compared with storage under normal air conditions (NA). Increasing of the concentration of volatile compounds in MA stimulated synthesis of oxidation products of farnesene (KT281), its content in fruit cv. Martovskoye after three months of storage increased 2.5 times compared with NA and reached the highest possible value of 56 nmol /cm2, which resulted in 100?% scald defeat (losses in NA amounted to 68?%). Apple varieties susceptible to the disorder had higher intensity of biosynthesis of low-volatile compounds (including a-Farnesene) and initiate scald development in themselves (autocatalysis at separate storage) and in fruit of other varieties (at joint storage). At joint MA storage losses from scald increased in fruit with low susceptibility and reduced - in fruit with high susceptibility to the disease compared with separate storage.

References
Authors
Gudkovskiy Vladimir Alexandrovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Kozhina Ludmila Vladimirovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Nazarov Yuriy Borisovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
I.V. Michurin All-Russia Research Institute for Horticulture,
30 Michurin St., Michurinsk, Tambov Region, 393774, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Osadchenko I.M., Gorlov I.F., Slozhenkina M.I., Mosolova N.I., Nikolaev D.V.Determination of the Electrochemical Properties of Some Types of Water and Liquid Foods, Sold in Retail Chains

P. 10-12 Key words
water; the pH; measurement; liquid foodstuff; the redox potential; physico-chemical properties.

Abstract
The article presents the material on the measurement of pH value and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of certain types of water and liquid foodstuff sold in retail chains in the Volgograd region. Water is known to be the main component of liquid foods. Purified drinking water from the centralized water supply sources is used as a thirst quencher and for preparation of food liquids, including beverages, as well as an integral part of dairy products. Therefore, the most important task is to control the quality indicators, in particular, the properties - the acidity (pH) and redox potential. Natural waters of low mineralization as well as dairy products have medicinal properties in addition to their nutritional value. To evaluate the beneficial properties, the urgent task is to determine the pH, ORP and monitoring these indicators, to compare them in different regions of the country. From the literature and regulatory documents, the standard of drinking water pH is known to be 6-9 magnitude; the ORP is not regulated. However, the ORP of the food liquids have been found to be more useful in the source from +160 to -250 mV (with respect to the silver chrome electrode - SCE). According to our data, the ORP of the most valuable food liquids are: brew with ORP +50, +140, milk-feed with ORP +44.9, tomato juice with ORP 70, drinking milk with ORP +159, grape juice with ORP +160 mV (SCE). The given values of pH and ORP of water and food liquids in the region allow assessing their nutritional value in comparison with the existing data from the literature. A number of the investigated liquids have the ORP indicators more favorable for assimilating and improving human health with their similarity with the liquid inside a human.

References
Authors
Osadchenko Ivan Mikhailovich, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor;
Gorlov Ivan Fedorovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Academician of RAS;
Slozhenkina Marina Ivanovna, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor;
Mosolova Nataliya Ivanovna, Doctor of Biological Sciences;
Nikolaev Dmitriy Vladimirovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Scientific Research Institute of Meat-and-Milk Production and Processing,
6 Rokossovskogo St., Volgograd, 400131, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Rudometova N.V., Nikiforova T.A.Preparation of Supramolecular Complexes of Indigo Carmine with beta-Cyclodextrin

P. 13-16 Key words
beta-Cyclodextrin; Indigo Carmine; nanocomplex; spectroscopy; spectrophotometry; supramolecular chemistry; chromatography.

Abstract
Supramolecular chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing direction of modern chemistry. Beta-Cyclodextrins are capable of forming supramolecular complexes with various organic substances. The formation of inclusion complex changes of encapsulated substance properties. Food colours are widely used to improve the consumer properties of foods. Indigo Carmine, Anthocyanins, Chlorophylls, Carotenoids in variety of foods are not stable, resulting their use are limited. Therefore, finding ways to increase the stability of the food colours using supramolecular chemistry methods is actual. The study of the formation and properties nanocomplexes of beta-Cyclodextrins with Indigo Carmine are purpose. The study in All-Russian Research Institute for Food Additives, Saint Petersburg was carried. The complexes by solid-phase and liquid-phase methods were prepared. High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Spectrophotometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy techniques for analysis of nanocomplexes were used. Ñolours stability in aqueous solutions at a temperature 20±2 ° C under natural light was determined. Light stability of the inclusion complexes of Indigo Carmine, obtained by liquid-phase method, better in the 3.5 times than the inclusion complexes, obtained by solid-phase method. The formation of the inclusion complex does not affect the spectrophotometric and chromatographic properties of Indigo Carmine. Significant shifts of protons H3 and H5 of beta-Cyclodextrin into the region of a strong field by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were revealed. This indicates that the interaction of protons molecules of Indigo Carmine and beta-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex formed. As a result of research, the formation of supramolecular structure and its influence on the properties of indigo were based. Liquid-phase method for obtain nanocomplexes of beta-Cyclodextrins with a Indigo Carmine was chosen, because it will provide a maximum light stability of colours.

References
Authors
Rudometova Nataliya Viktorovna, Candidate of Chemical Science
Nikiforova Tatiana Alexeevna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Additives,
55 Liteyniy Pr., Saint-Petersburg, 191014, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF FARM RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING

Vasiliev A.M., Machikhin S.A., Strelyukhina A.N., Potapova M.A. Improvement of Separation Processes Efficiency for Grain Mixtures on Fluted Surface

P. 17-21 Key words
vibration; grain mixtures; land surface; flutes; demixing; separation machines; process efficiency.

Abstract
In spite of the wide usage of vibration in the existing separation machines, the potential of this way of process intensification is used insufficiently, especially with rectilinear oscillations of working organs. The main reasons for this are the insufficiently studied processes of demixing and transportation of grain materials under different conditions and vibration impact parameters. A great potential for improvement of vibrating separation machines lies in creating conditions that would increase the demixing process efficiency due to the fact that particles with distinct physical and mechanical characteristics move inside granular material in different ways. Demixing effect is more or less important for almost all separation processes. This article is devoted to assessing the impact that fluted bearing surface design produces on the demixing process efficiency with rectilinear oscillations of the working organ. Expediency of such a study is analyzed on the basis of the two main modes of separation processes, i. e. sieve and air, used in grain mills. A brief review is given on the works and studies conducted in the field of separation processes. Perspective direction and conditions for improving fluted bearing surface design of working organs have been defined and formulated in order to increase efficiency of the grain mixture separation processes. It has been experimentally confirmed that the proposed modifications and changes in the bearing surface design are followed by an efficiency improvement in the demixing process. Creating conditions for the interaction between granular material and bearing surface of a working organ, resulting in the demixing process intensification, will open prospects for improvement of existing and creation of new highly efficient separation equipment.

References
Authors
Vasiliev Alexander Mihailovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Machikhin Sergey Alexandrovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Strelyukhina Alla Nikolaevna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Potapova Mariya Alexandrovna, Post-graduate Student
Moscow State University of Food Production,
11 Volokolamskoe shosse, Moscow, 125080, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Nagdalian A.A., Oboturova N.P., Selimov M.A., Demchenkov E.L., Gatina Yu.S.Influence of Pulsed Discharge Treatment on Surface Morphology, Hardness and Structural and Mechanical Properties of Muscle Fibers

P. 22-26 Key words
atomic force microscopy; meat tissue; meat fiber; pulsed discharge technology; structural and mechanical properties.

Abstract
Currently we are doing a great work associated, with the technical re-equipment of the food industry and the introduction of advanced technologies. The goal is to increase the competitiveness of domestic goods by improving the quality of production and intensification of technological processes. One effective tool in solving this problem may be a discharge-pulse technology (RIT), which contribute to the intensification of production processes and improving product quality. The purpose of this work - to study the effect of high-energy raw meat at processing it using the RHS of varying intensity (100, 200 and 300 pulses). Experimental tests were carried out in the conditions of the Department "Technology of Meat and Preservation" of the North Caucasus Federal University (Stavropol). The study found that with the increase in the number of reported system brine-meat electric pulses increases the degree of disruption of the structure and morphology of the surface of the meat, reduced limit shear stress and increases the plasticity of muscle tissue, which ultimately contributes to the improvement of meat raw materials mechanical properties compared to traditional processing methods. The experiments revealed that the electro-effect occurring in brine at a discharge-pulse treatment, affect the structure of the components of muscle tissue, reducing their strength characteristics, which leads to degradation of surface processes and internal softening the fibers in general. The authors recommended the use of RIT in the processing of raw meat in order to improve the quality of meat products, the intensification of the production process and improve product competitiveness.

References
Authors
Nagdalian Andrey Ashotovich;
Oboturova Nataliya Pavlovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Selimov Magomed Aslamovich, Candidate of Technical Science;
Demchenkov Egor Leonidovich, Student;
Gatina Yuliana Sergeevna, Student
North-Caucasian Federal University
9 Marshala Zhukova St., Stavropol, 355000, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Artiqov A.A., Masharipova Z.A.Optimal Programmed Control of the Drying Process by Applying Microwave Energy

P. 27-29 Key words
humidity; wave; range; mass transfer; model; oven; microwave energy; drying; temperature.

Abstract
The use of microwave energy in drying materials of plant origin has its own characteristics. An advantage of using microwave energy input here is the possibility of supplying with relatively large amounts of energy, however, in most cases, charring occurs inside of the materials due to an excessive increase in its temperature. And the development of automatic control system using non-contact temperature measurement, especially inside of the material is difficult and expensive. We have developed an optimal system of automatic control, using software object control on the basis of mathematical models. Collected laboratory system has microwave oven integration, computer with Simulink package Matlab modeling environment, the controller Siemens S7-200, connection cable and relay. Experiments were conducted for the case of drying the gourd at temperature 40...70 °Ñ for the material with a mass of 0.1 kg, the initial temperature of 32 °Ñ, humidity of 86?%. They show that the wet material dried within 80 minutes decreased its weight to 0.0593 kg of deviation from the result on a computer model was 0.0003 kg. At 150 minutes, the mass of material was reduced to 0.0436 kg deviation of 0.0016 kg, while drying 240 min weight of the material was reduced to 0.0327 kg deviation of 0.0027 kg, at 750 minutes; the mass of material was reduced to 0.0202 kg, the deviation 0.0022 kg. In general, the standard deviation was 1.9?%, and shows the feasibility of using computer-aided intelligent control of microwave drying of materials of plant origin.

References
Authors
Artiqov Askar Artikovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Masharipova Zulhumar Atabekovna
Tashkent Chemical-technological Institute
32 Navoi St., Tashkent, 700011, Uzbekistan, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abramova I.M., Polyakov V.A., Morozova S.S., Stekanova G.V., Martirosyan A.S.Using the Washing Bleach Water for Cooking Sorting

P. 30-33 Key words
reclaimed water; organoleptic characteristics; wash water; sorting; physico-chemical characteristics.

Abstract
In the article the question of reducing the amount of waste in the production of vodka. In the process of sorting through filtration, activated carbon its activity falls so 1-2 times a year should be carried out regeneration of spent carbon overheated steam which is produced during extraction of residual alcohol. As a result, the regeneration of one of the coal column receive 50-60 gave alcohol distillation strength 55-60?%. Transhumance belong to an alcohol distillery wastes, they suitable for production of alcoholic beverages and can be used for production-tion of denatured products, be transmitted by other users for industrial purposes, or sent to the distillery for further processing. Realization of regeneration obtained by distilled off causes great difficulties, due large amount of waste is reduced economic efficiency. To reduce the amount of waste in the production of vodka by reducing otgo-novv Institute laboratory studies were performed, and then, together with the staff of "Tradition of Quality" developed and implemented a technology of extracting alcohol from active coal by washing it reclaimed water in the coal-cleaning batteries and uses water-alcohol liquid preparation of sorts. During the year of "Tradition of Quality" when removing alcohol from waste coal monitored indicators: the amount of wash water, spent on alcohol extraction of coal waste, the volume fraction of ethyl alcohol in the wash water, physical and chemical indicators of the sort prepared using the resulting wash water. According to the results of laboratory tests and testing for LLC "Tradition of Quality" has been developed for the preparation of technological instruction sorting using washing water obtained by extracting the alcohol from spent activated carbon reclaimed water purifying coal battery. Similar work has been done for other enterprises in the industry, currently this technology is implemented for another 15 enterprises of the sector. Studies have shown that the described method is a promising technology.

References
Authors
Abramova Irina Michailovna, Doctor of Technical Science;
Polyakov Victor Antonovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Morozova Svetlana Semenovna, Candidate of Chemical Science;
Stekanova Galina Vladimirovna
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology,
4b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Martirosyan Artur Surenovich
Tradition of Quality Ltd.
15 Stroiteley St., Krasnoznanensk, Moscow Region, 143090, Russia



RESEARCH ON TRAITS OF SUBSTANCES AND AGRIBUSINESS PRODUCTS

Eremeeva N.B., Makarova N.V., Demidova A.V., Bykova T.O. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Varietal Cherries that Grow on the Territory of Samara Region

P. 34-37 Key words
antioxidant activity; anthocyanins; blackberry; phenolics; physical and chemical indicators; flavonoids.

Abstract
The paper studies the varietal cherry berries in order to obtain the extractor with the highest antioxidant activity, as well as with a high content of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Were studied two types of cherries: sour cherry - Amorel rozovaya, Nizkproslaya kustovaya, Vladimirskaya, Rastunya and cherry felt - Detskaya, Ogonek is grown on the territory of Samara region. Review such factors as chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Analysis on the content of total amount of phenolic compounds in terms of Gallic acid, flavonoids content in terms of catechin, anthocyanin content (calculated) cyanidin-3?glycoside, antiradical capacity using the free radical DPPH method (2,2?diphenyl-1?picrylhydrazyl), restoring force by the method of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system, the mass fraction of soluble dry substances, mass fraction of reducing sugars, mass fraction of titratable acids in terms of malic acid. A considerable number of methods to assess antioxidant activity of compounds and systematized according to the method of registration parameters to determine antioxidant activity, including quantitatively. Marked the most promising varieties of the Vladimirskaya and Rastunya as components of antioxidants in food.

References
Authors
Eremeeva Nataliya Borisovna, Post-graduate Student;
Makarova Nadezhda Viktorovna, Candidate of Chemical Science, Professor;
Demidova Anna Vladimirovna, Post-graduate Student;
Bykova Tatiana Olegovna, Post-graduate Student
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, 443100, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Yudaev V.F., Sychev A.M. To the Viscosity on Example of Water Monosubstance

P. 38-40 Key words
water; viscosity; piecewise-linear function; monosubstance; self-diffusion; the tunnel effect.

Abstract
Graphic dependence of a natural logarithm of coefficient of dynamic viscosity of water on an inverse value of absolute temperature is constructed. Basic data for creation of the schedule were waters known to dynamic viscosity in the range of change of temperature from 0 to 150 °C with a step 10 °C. The system of coordinates is chosen from the assumption that clusters in water at a sammodiffuziya pass from one potential hole in next free according to the law of tunnel effect. The cluster is considered as quantum system. In the chosen system of coordinates graphic dependence is kusochnolineyny function. Mathematical processing of the schedule allowed to find: energy of transition of clusters from one power level on another, intervals of temperatures at which the cluster is at one power level, the Analysis of dependence of energy of transition on temperature I showed that it much more thermal energy. Its dependence on power level allows to assume that the cluster is the nonrigid rotator. Follows from work that at exact metrological measurements of viscosity of liquid depending on temperature at an initial stage of measurements it is necessary to find about temperatures of transition of a cluster from one power level on another, and then with a smaller step of change of temperature in intervals of quantum transitions to measure viscosity of liquid and to specify temperature and energy of transition of a cluster. The received dependences of coefficient of dynamic viscosity on temperature are explained by tunnel effect of self-diffusion of clusters through a power barrier. The given results allow to simplify the solution of problems of not isothermal current of thermolabile, for example, fluid foodstuff in devices and machines where such gradients of speed when in liquid the big density of dissipative thermal energy is allocated take place. At such current in a stream of liquid there are big gradients of temperature and coefficient of viscosity. Temperature can rise above maximum permissible for this foodstuff. At calculation of devices and cars in which local big gradients of speed are observed, it is necessary to consider thermal effect of a gradient current of foodstuff. Regime and technological parameters of the designed food devices and cars have to meet a condition of processing of thermolabile environments.

References
Authors
Yudaev Vasily Fedorovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Sychev Andrey Mikhailovich, Post-graduate Student
Moscow State University of Technologies and Management named after K.G. Razumovskiy,
73, Zemlyanoy Val St., Moscow, 109004, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Rimareva L.V., Overchenko M.B., Ignatova N.I., Shelekhova N.V., Serba E.M., Martynenko N.N. Study on the Ionic Composition of the Nutrient Medium in the Process of Generating Alcohol Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Osmofil Properties

P. 41-45 Key words
anions; generation; yeast; capillary electrophoresis; cations; uterine culture; metabolism; nutrient medium; malt wort.

Abstract
It is known that in the production of alcohol structure and technological properties of the starting cereal wort having a decisive influence on the quality of the products. This is particularly important in the transition to resource-saving technologies, intended to be processed concentrated grain mash and use osmophilic yeast. Probed malt wort Ionic composition of different concentrations and in the process generate alcohol Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae race 985?T and 1039 with osmofil properties. It has been established that the highest proportion of ionic composition of the wort falls on phosphates (23.1-26.9?%), lactates (14.9-15.2?%), citrates (9.3-9.6?%) and anions of potassium (16.7-18.3?%). The remaining ions contained in nutritional Wednesday in small quantities and add up to about 30?%. In the process of yeast generation there was a slight increase in the percentage of organic acid anions (succinates, glikolates, citrates, malates) involved in the biochemical processes of Glycolysis. Thus, in the process of yeast generation decline in the proportion of cations such as ammonium, potassium, sodium. Race of Yeast practically did not affect percentage change studied ions. Set differences in ion concentration changes as a result of the generation of the studied yeast, that is connected with features of their metabolism: in the culture race 985?T the total number of ions in wort declined slightly as compared to the original, and when generating yeast race 1039 tended to increase, mainly due to anions. It is shown that the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae r. 1039 have more pronounced osmofil properties than r. 985?T. On Wednesday, with higher content of PCB (18?%) the number of cells at the race in 1039 1.85 times higher than similar indicators of yeast r. 985?t eat yeast biomass per unit volume of Wednesday increased 1.5 times.

References
Authors
Rimareva Lyubov Vyacheslavovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Corresponding Member of the RAS;
Overchenko Marina Borisovna, Candidat of Technical Science;
Ignatova Nadezhda Iosifovna;
Shelekhova Natalia Viktorovna, Candidate of Economic Science;
Serba Elena Michailovna, Doctor of Biological Science;
Martynenko Nikolay Nikolaevich, Doctor of Biological Science
All-Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology
4b Samokatnaya St., Moscow, 111033, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Guseynova B.M.Moisture-holding Ability - Criterion of Suitability of Fruit to Low-temperature Freezing

P. 46-50 Key words
apricot; cherry plum; moisture-holding ability; freezing; defrosting modes; storage.

Abstract
Change of moisture-holding ability of apricots and cherry plum under the influence of freezing (t0 = -18; -24; -30 °C), storage (t0 = -18 °C), defrosting on air, in water and under the influence of microwaves - microwave energy is studied. Juice loss by fruits was determined by a difference of the mass of the frozen and defrosting fruits expressed as a percentage to initial weight. The technological scheme of receiving the frozen apricots of grades Ananasny, Dzhengutayevsky, Red-cheeked, Honobakh, Shindakhlan, and also a cherry plum Dessert, Plentiful and Purple, growing in Dagestan, included collecting the fruits which reached a consumer maturity inspection, a sink, dehumidification and their freezing before achievement in a fruit t0 = -18 °C. The biggest losses of juice apricots and a cherry plum were caused by freezing at t0 = -18 °C, and minimum were observed after fast freezing (t0 = -30 °C). Changes of moisture-holding ability depending on the initial temperature of fruit (0, 10, 16 and 22 °Ñ) are revealed. The minimum loss of juice of fruits is recorded at their preliminary cooling to 0 °C and freezing (t0 = -30 °C). Moisture-holding ability of fast-frozen apricots and a cherry plum depended on storage period (3, 6, 9 months, t0 = -18 °C). Losses of juice increased with increase in a period of storage. The cherry plum Dessert is carried to the end of nine-months storage to category "very good"; "good" - apricots Honobakh and Shindakhlan, and also a cherry plum Plentiful and Purple. Optimum ways and the modes of defrosting are picked up. The best effect was observed when using microwave energy with a frequency of 2450 MHz and 180 W.

References
Authors
Guseynova Batuch Mukhtarovna, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
Dagestan State University of National Economy
5 D. Ataeva St., Makhachkala, 367008, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



THE DISCUSSION PROCEDURE

Anisimov B.N. Important Not the Profit, but the Maximum Yield