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Winemaking and Viticulture №6/2016

INDUSTRY PROBLEMS

Panasyuk A.L., Oganesyants L.A., Kuzmina E.I. Studies of Oxygen Isotopic Characteristics of Water Component of Wine Products

P. 4-6 Keyword: wine; grapes; the ratio of oxygen isotopes; isotope balancing; exogenous water; elemental analyzer.
Abstract: Big amount of counterfeit products available on the market is largely due to the absence of reliable instrumental methods of detecting such products until today. Consequently the modern method of isotopic oxygen stable isotope mass spectrometry appears to be the most reliable way to detect the exogenous water during wine production. Water of global ocean was taken as the world isotopic standard for the oxygen during tests conduction. We have studied the isotopic composition of oxygen in water of the Black and Azov seas, on the banks of which there are a lot of wine-yards. It has been discovered that isotopic characteristics of oxygen of tested sea water is different from zero value of Viennese Standard that is explained by nature of the Black and Azov seas that are the inland water bodies. Previously, an elemental analyzer was used as the main measuring unit of mass-spectrometer analyzer, but it does not allow you to determine the water component in sampling product. When using two methods during comparative tests for wine samples - by using the elemental analyzer and by using the isotopic compensation method - the difference between the results is 0.5-0.9 ‰. The wines produced in laboratory conditions of grapes grown in central part of the Taman Peninsula were studies as well as industrial wines, produced by an enterprise of other region from grapes grown on its own wine-yards. The wines produced of own grapes had the 18О, ‰ values from от 1.19 to 1.90, and one wine had the value minus 0.98. In order to obtain the criterial values it is required to specify the actual values for authentic wines specific to each region.
Authors: Panasyuk Aleksandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , labvin@yandex. ru



WINEMAKING

Kuzmina E.I., Shilkin A.A., Egorova O.S.Study of the Relationship of Oxigen Isotopes Water Component of Wine by the Isotopic Equilibration Method

P. 8-10 Keyword: wine products; water component; isotope mass spectrometer; isotope balancing; stable oxygen isotopes ratio; GasBench II interface.
Abstract: According to correspondent reference documentation applied in the Russian Federation it is prohibited to add water during wine production. In order to determine the fact of wine dilution it is required to measure the stable oxygen isotopes ratio. To determine the isotopes ratio of oxygen and hydrogen one uses the multi-purpose online GasBench II interface together with isotope mass spectrometer. Besides, it is necessary to use Combi PAL autosampler that provides fully automatic transfer of tested gas in vial with septum-lid. A number of necessary tests for study of influence of wine composition and production technology features on isotopic characteristics of wine products water component oxygen have been conducted in a grape and fruit wine production laboratory of BNIIPBiBP for the purpose of wide implementation of isotopic compensation method. The objects of study: bidistillate with known isotopic characteristics; residues of table wine materials with removed ethanol and water and added bidistillate; model mixtures of white and red wines of different strengths; model mixtures of liqueur wines. Discrepancies of 18ОVSMOW value for all samples were minimal. An effect of chaptalization process on isotopic characteristics of wine products water component oxygen has been studied. Results of measuring the isotopic characteristics of water component of grape must and obtained wine materials have shown that the addition of different sugars to the must before fermentation does not change the 18ОVSMOW value of water component. In order to improve the process of preparation of samples that apt to fermentation in conditions of isotopic compensation, the isotopic characteristics of wine products water component oxygen under condition of added preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and mixtures) have been studied. The results of studies are the following: isotopic compensation method can be used for analysis of water component of wine products of strength up to 22 % by vol.; addition of exogenous sugars irrespective of origin does not affect the isotopic characteristics of wine products water component oxygen; formation of carbon dioxide during fermentation of wine with residual sugar prevents the process of isotopic compensation; the preservatives must be added to perform measurements of isotopes ratio of oxygen of water component of semi-dry, semi-sweet and dry wines. Based on obtained results the "Methods of measurement of isotopes ratio of 18/16O oxygen of water component of alcoholic products by means of method of isotopic mass spectrometry" has been developed. Qualification certificate has been issued and received.
Authors: Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Shilkin Aleksey Aleksandrovich;
Egorova Olesia Sergeevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Oganesyants L.A., Reytblat B.B., Tochilina R.P., Moiseeva A.A., Mikhaylova M.A. The Study of the Processes of Preparation and Holding of Liquors in theProduction of Sparkling Wines

P. 11-16 Keyword: active dry yeast; sparkling wine; inactivated yeast; organic acids; sedimentary yeast; tannin; expedition liqueur.
Abstract: There are fundamental changes in the structure of resource base in recent decades, the requirements to quality of produced sparkling wines and their cost reduction increased. But the main technical processes in the production of sparkling wine recently haven't been studied enough, particularly preparation of liqueurs although the liqueurs have a big effect both on the secondary fermentation process and on the quality of finished product. Improvement and development of new technological regimes at this stage of production will greatly improve the operational efficiency of industry players. The main objective of this work was to conduct comparative studies of the effect of various technological aids on the quality of liqueurs, study the possibility of preparing the expedition liqueur with balanced composition using sedimentary yeast and reduction of the process of it's maturation. Comparative researches of organoleptic, physico-chemical and flavoring indicators in liqueurs have been conducted for the setting an intensification possibility of preparation liqueurs process and increase in their quality. According the results of analysis the practicability of aging of liqueurs prepared using sedimentary yeast was established that significantly improves it's quality and biological value. The possibility of preparation liqueurs with use of sedimentary yeast and tannin on the basis of wood of oak and grape tannin was presented. An experimental research of processes of preparing the expedition liqueur avoids the need to using expensive aids based on inactivated yeast. Experimentally have been setting that preparation of liqueur with use of sedimentary yeast leads to significant reduction of it's conditioning period.
Authors: Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Reitblat Bella Borisovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Tochilina Regina Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Moiseeva Aleksandra Anatolyevna, Postgraduate;
Mihailova Mariya Andreevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Abdullabekova D.A., Vlasova O.K., Magomedova E.S., Aliverdieva D.A., Magomedov M-R.D.Prospects for the Release of Wines with a Protected Designation of Origin in Dagestan

P. 17-19 Keyword: grapes; dessert wine; quality; terroir; technology.
Abstract: According to the current legislative regulation of Russian wine production the possibility is discussed for applying the terroir approach in the production of wine from grapes cultivated in one of Daghestan districts. The study was performed in the Institute of Caspian bioresources DSC RAS. The target of the work is to show the possibility of production "wines with protected appellation of origin" based on the results of biotechnological investigation of grapes from dune ecosystem Sarykhum. High heat supply and light texture of soils containing more than 80% of silicon dioxide are typical for this area and contribute to the formation of valuable raw materials for the production of dessert wines. Quality of Pinot Gris, Traminer, Rkatsiteli grapes and produced sweet wines were evaluated on the mass concentration of sugars, titratable acids, extract, phenol compounds, amino nitrogen and the volume fraction of alcohol. For grapes processing a variety of technological methods is used: maceration, fortification, infusion, heat treatment and pulp sulfitation influencing the process of wine formation and maturation.We applied analytical methods based on the principles of colorimetry, titration and spectrophotometry used in oenochemistry, according to the State standards and procedures from professional literature. Physical and chemical parameters and organoleptic characteristics of dessert wine prototypes produced using different technological modes revealed the possibility of high-quality dessert wines creation from all varieties studied. The results indicate that the quality of the grapes cultivated in this area, in the regulation and optimization of their processing give possibility to obtain luxury products competitive in the international market. According to the authors, conditions creation for making the class of "wines with protected appellation of origin" in the proposed area will contribute to the revival of the domestic industry and solving the problem of import substitution.
Authors: Abdullabekova Dinahanum Abiljaevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Vlasova Olga Konstantinovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Magomedova Elena Selimovna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Aliverdieva Dinara Alievna, Candidate of Biological Science;
Magomedov Magomed-Rasul Dibirovich, Doctor of Biological Science, Corresponding member RAS
Pre-Caspian Institute of Biological Resources DSC RAS
45, M. Gadzhieva Str., Mahachkala, Republic Dagestan, 367000, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Gontareva E.N., Ageeva N.M.Study Patterns of Carbohydrates in the Process of Change Fermentation of Grape Juice of Red Grapes

P. 22-25 Keyword: active dry yeast; fermentation; vinification; glucose; glucose-fructose index;red wine; the must; dry matter; fructose.
Abstract: The main problem of the rational use of yeast in winemaking is the acceleration of the biochemical processes of fermentation and improve the quality of wine. Many companies offer to apply in dry wine yeast preparations. The use of imported materials in the special conditions of the national wine needs in laboratory and industrial research for the purpose of national use of domestic and foreign pure cultures of yeast and accelerate fermentation of grape must. The results of such studies must ensure the wine products of high quality. In recent years in the wine industry use preparations of active dry yeast (ASD), produced in Germany, France, Italy. Their use has a number of significant benefits associated with a significant increase in the storage time, the simplification and acceleration of process of preparation of yeast wiring, the provision of standard organoleptic characteristics of wines. For the purpose of revealing of laws of formation of the carbohydrate composition in the process of vinification dry red wines, depending on the method of fermentation of grape must and yeast RAS was recycled red grape on six technological schemes using two races of yeast with different concentrations. Determination of glucose and fructose was performed by infrared spectrometry on the instrument alpha (Bruker). Studied the dynamics of changes in dry matter, glucose, fructose in fermentation active dry yeast Terroir information processing center, information processing center Premium 9000. Found that both strains of yeast actively ferments sugar regardless of the modes of vinification. However, it is observed that the more rapid absorption of carbohydrates happens in the must from grapes Liberty+Isabella than Cabernet. The studies selected optimal modes of vinification (fermentation in the pulp and thermovinification) with the establishment of the optimal dosage of active dry yeast (IPC Terroir, EIC Premium 9000 - 18 g/HL). Calculated glucose-fructose index.
Authors: Gontareva Elena Nikolaevna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Ageeva Natal'ja Mihajlovna, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
North-Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Vorobyova T.N.Eco-Toxicological Monitoring of Industrial Vineyards

P. 27-29 Keyword: grapes; vineyards; permissible limits; monitoring; pesticides; soil; toxic residues.
Abstract: The results kompleksnyh ecological and toxicological studies in viticulture under intensive anthropogenic impact on the long-term proiyshlennye grape plantings. Established bioaccumulation of pesticides in the soil, increasing their concentration in food (trophic) relations, which confirms the need to improve the industry for the production of competitive products vinogradovinodelcheskoy. The purpose of the work performed: a scientific foundation for the quality control method of grapes in terms of hygienic safety, based on eco-toxicological normalization and optimization of protection systems from malicious objects. The definition of toxic residues carried out according to conventional techniques using chromatography, gas "Color 500M" liquid "KNAUER" and atomic absorption spectrophotometer "Quantum- AFA". It was found that during the period 2009-2013 when the pesticide load on agrougodya vineyards (5.7 kg / ha of fungicides; 5.3 kg / ha of insecticides) residues of chemicals exceeding acceptable norms were detected in soil for up to 2.7 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and in the grapes to 3.0 the maximum allowable levels (MRLs). To detect more than 20 types of pesticides by active ingredient, including more than 10 compounds of toxic metabolites. According to the research developed and scientifically based quality management method ampelotsenozov grapes in biological systems in terms of hygienic safety. Identified and substantiated the main evaluation characteristics aftereffect used in pesticides industry - indicators of residual amounts of soil and seasonal toxicants depending on the farming practices of cultivation of grapes and their impact on food safety industry products.
Authors: Vorobjeva Tatjana Nikolaevna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
North Caucasian Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Salimov V.S. Ampelo-Descriptor Performance of Some Local Varieties of Azerbaijan Grapes

P. 30-34 Keyword: ampelographic collection; ampelo-desсriptors; bunch; initial variety; local variety; breeding; varieties of seedless; grape varieties; eco-geographic origins; berry.
Abstract: By abundance of indigenous grape varieties Azerbaijan is one of the countries taking first place. On the latest data it is known that above 400 local grapevine varieties are cultivated in Azerbaijan at present. Of these only 200 are included in the collection. Biomorphological and economic-technological characterictics of the local and introduced grape varieties, grown in collection, are regularly studied, their ampelographic descriptions made, determined perspective variety and forms are recommended for production, donor types chosen according the different signs are used as the starting material in selection works. The article aims at introducing some local grapevine varieties cultivated in different areas of Azerbaijan. The description of their ampelographic specifications is based on the OIV list. Comparing cultivars, it has been found that, although there are similarities in various descriptor traits, most of the characteristics are distinctive for specific cultivars. Сonsiderable polymorphism was found concerning the botanical features of leaves, clusters, berries, as well as some biological and technological characteristics. In more details, these genotypes differ each other by morphological features of leaves; the shape, size and structure of clusters; the shape, color and flavor of berries; the productivity indices; the resistance to pests and diseases; the duration of their vegetative period; the sugar and acid contents; and the number of seeds in the berry. This study was carried out on cultivars of nine grape varieties grown in regions of Garabagh, Ganja-Gazakh, Shirvan, Nakhchyvan and Absheron in 2008-2015. Ampelographic characteristics of these grape cultivars were determined according to Descriptors of Grape norms of OIV (International Organisation of Vine and Wine). In this study, it was determined that all cultivars belonged to V. vinifera L. However all cultivars were hermaphrodite. Analyses of the ampelographic features of the studied grape varieties showed that the genotypes considerably differ by their main morphological, biological and technological characteristics.
Authors: Salimov Vugar Suleyman, Candidate of Agricultural Science, Assistant professor
Azerbaijan Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine making
Mehdiabad, Baku, Absheron distr., Republic of Azerbaijan, 0118, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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