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Winemaking and Viticulture №5/2016

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Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Peschanskaya V.A.Study of Stable Isotopes Relationship in the Ethanol Fruit Distillates to Determine Identification Characteristics

P. 8-11 Keyword: isotopic mass-spectrometry; fruits and berries; stable isotopes of carbon; fruit wines; fruit distillates; ethanol.
Abstract: At present so-called fruit vodkas are in increasing favour among consumers. However, the organisation of wide industrial production of fruit vodkas runs into serious difficulties. One of the main difficulties is a competition of mala fide manufacturers who substitute expensive fruit distillate, in full or in part, for rectified alcohol with simultaneous application of flavour additives. In order to reveal falsification the method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) may be used. When analysing fruits and berries the following results were obtained: the black currant -25.75±0.08 ‰, sour cherry -25.62±0.06 ‰, chokeberry -26.13±0.26 ‰, pear -27.04±0.06 ‰, plum -26.24±0.41 ‰, and apples -27.58±0.54 ‰. As can be seen from the above results, the carbon isotopic characteristics of ethanol distilled from fruit wines produced of different species have similar values. To produce fruit distillates with product-concentrating column and reflux condenser manufactured by Kothe Destillationstechnik and Arnold Holstein (Germany) were used. Yeast race used in fermentation of pulp does not affect the characteristics of carbon isotope ratio in ethanol of obtained distillates. Thus, the values of 13C for cherry distillates obtained using three different races of wine yeast were in a very narrow range between -26.63 and -26.38 ‰. While producing distillates from fermented wort with the addition of cane and corn sugars, significant shifts in isotopic characteristics of ethanol carbon were occured. This can serve as a proof of falsification. Hence, IRMS can be used when revealing falsification of fruit alcoholic beverages (vodka) associated with adding alcohols, produced from sugars of C4 plants, to blendings. When analysing genuine fruit vodkas produced from various fruit raw materials, it is impossible to establish their belonging to any particular species through this method due to minor variations of such indicator as 13C for various fruits.
Authors: Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Panasyuk Aleksandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Peschanskaya Violetta Aleksandrovna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

Peschanskaya V.A., Osipova V.P., Zakharov M.A.Evaluation of Wine Products Quality Using GZK-MS

P. 12-14 Keyword: wine products; glycerol; GLC-MS method.
Abstract: Ensuring quality and safety of wine-making production is one of the most important problems of branch. The research works directed on extension of the list of the indicators confirming authenticity of production and its compliance to the declared name and development of methods of their control are carried outduring of the last years in All-Russian Research Institute of Brewing Nonalcoholic and Wine Industry for the purpose of prevention of a turn of the forged production. In the countries of the European Union definition of exogenous glycerin in the products of winemaking is carried out by method of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GS-MS). Especially widely this method is applied in Germany where restrictions according to the contents in wine-making production of impurity, characteristic for exogenous glycerin are set. At the same time in domestic practice there is no the standard documentation establishing a method of definition of the nature of glycerin in wine. Thus, development of metrological certified technique of performance of measurements of mass concentration of impurity of exogenous glycerin (3 MPD and CycDs) in wine-making products by method of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry is actual. When performing work the gas chromatograph "Thermo Trace GC Ultra" with the mass and selective detector "Trace DSQ II", the chromatographic column HP-FFAP - 50m, internal diameter - 0.32 mm, thickness of a film of a motionless phase - 0.5 microns (a motionless phase - the polyethyleneglycol modified by nitrop-phthalic acid), gas carrier - helium was used. As a result of the conducted researches optimum conditions of GS-MS of the analysis for this type of the equipment are established, the test preparation modes are fulfilled, the characteristic ions having the greatest signal strength for 3 MPD - 75, for CycDs - 57 and times of keeping for 3 MPD - 14.5-15.5 min., for CysDs - 32-35 min. are established. The technique passed metrological certification and can be used when carrying out different types of examination of wine-making products.
Authors: Peschanskaya Violetta Aleksandrovna; Osipova Valentina Pavlovna, Candidate of Technical Science, Assistant Professor;
Zaharov Maksim Aleksandrovich, Candidate of Technical Science
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of brewing, beverage and wine industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Panasyuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Rozina L.I., Letfullina D.R.Anthocyanins of Colored Fruits and Berries and Cooked Fruit Wine Materials

P. 15-19 Keyword: anthocyanins; volatile constituents; coloured pop wines; organic acids; sugars; spectrograms of anthocyanidin molecular ions; phenolic compounds; fruits; berries.
Abstract: A difficulty in establishing evidence of falsification of fruit wines are features of the technology allowing the use of cane or beet sugar, both for sweetening and alcohol production increasing, as well as water - in the production of wine from berries with high acidity. Therefore, unlike grape wines, when the products of non-grape origin should be absent, fruit wines can not be considered as counterfeits when the products obtained from other types of permitted raw materials are found in them. In addition, there are cases of product falsification using cheaper raw fruits. Biochemical composition of fruits and berries is represented by a large number of compounds of different classes. Coloured fruits are distinguished by the presence of anthocyanins, compounds causing their coloring and having high antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to study some features of biochemical composition of different types of fruit raw materials and produced from them wine products using the method of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight) to lay down identification parameters of unblended fruit wines. Colored pome fruits, stone fruits and berries (chokeberry, black currant, sour cherry, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry) as well as obtained from them fruit wine materials were taken as the objects of research to study the features of biochemical composition. In the analyzed samples of wine materials were determined physico-chemical parameters, which may be of interest for defining identification criteria: composition of sugars and organic acids, qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile constituents and anthocyanins. Qualitative composition of anthocyanidin molecular ions and their relative abundance were determined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. As a result of study it was found that in cherry, blackberry, raspberry, and chokeberry wine materials the cyaniding was the major anthocyanidin, in blackcurrant wine material - cyanidin and delphinidin, in strawberry wine material - pelargonidin with a fraction of cyanidin. In the considered fruit wine materials no malvidin was found while in grape wines malvidin is contained in the greatest quantity.
Authors: Panasyuk Aleksandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Rozina Larisa Il'inichna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Letfullina Diljara Ramilevna, Post-graduate Student
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Reytblat B.B., Oganesyants L.A., Dubinchuk L.V., Moiseeva A.A.Investigation of the Process of Enrichment of Biologically Sparkling Wines by Active Sedimentary Yeast Substances

P. 20-24 Keyword: autolysis; secondary fermentation; sparkling wine; sedimentary yeast.
Abstract: The considerable part of Russian sparkling wine producers uses the tank periodic method for the secondary fermentation when the wine contacts with yeast a short time what could have negative effect for organoleptic values of the wine. It is not uncommon for so-called acratophore tone appearing in wine during carrying out a secondary fermentation by the tank periodic method as the result of excessive oxidation of wine when reduction potential of yeast in lees doesn't extend for total volume of wine. The fullest usage of yeast cell capability boosts efficiency of a secondary fermentation process, for this reason the process of supplementation of wine with reserve biologically active substances of sedimentary yeast was researching in this work. The work was carrying out comparative studies of the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of wine when added of sedimentary yeast in varying percentages with yeast in active physical condition, as well as preparations containing inactivated yeast to the fermentation mixture. The optimal concentrations of sedimentary yeast using in secondary fermentation process are determinated as well as technological modes for the fullest using of yeast cell capability to improve quality and competitive advantage of sparkling wines made by the tank periodic method. For another thing, possibility of replacement of import processing aids containing inactivated yeast cells by sedimentary yeast is shown.
Authors: Reitblat Bela Borisovna, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor;
Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Dubinchuk Ludmila Vasilyevna, Candidate of Technical Science;
Moiseeva Aleksandra Anatolyevna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Brewing, Beverage and Wine Industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Malykh G.P., Makarova A.G., Kerimov V.S.The Effectiveness of the Use of Boron in the Terek-Kuma Sands

P. 26-31 Keyword: boron; additional products; recoupment of costs; yield.
Abstract: The effect of boron application on Terek-Kuma Sands was studied. Boron with N90Р90К90 fertilizers was very effective. Fertilizing with boron increased the efficiency of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers due to the optimum amount of boron in the soil in available form for plants. It reduced the loss of nutrients from fertilizers (especially potassium) due to the transition in bulk forms. The yield of grapes depended on the content of nutrients in the soil that were present in minimum, on doses of the missing elements and timing of their introduction into the soil. Our experiments showed the increase of the sugar content in juice of berries in comparison with the control due to boric acid application in all terms and all doses. Applying boric acid in the early phase of SAP flow at a dose of 3 kg / ha with N90,К90,P90 the yielding of Moldova variety and the sugar content increased compared to control at 18 kg / ha and 5 g / dm3 respectively. Boron increased penetration of the same element into plants and influenced the uptake of other mineral nutrients. The greatest effect from application of boric fertilizers was achieved by introducing into the acid in the early phase of SAP flow at a dose of 3 kg / ha with N90Р90К90. In this variant, the net income amounted to 24850-30000 rubles more than in the control variant, where only N90Р90К90 was applied.
Authors: Malih Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Science, Professor
All-Russian scientific research Institute of viticulture and winemaking Y. I. Potapenko
166, Pr. Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov region, Russia, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Makarova Anna Gennadievna, Postgraduate Student
GUP Vinsovhoz "Burunnyy"
12, Pobedy Str., Chervlennaya, Shelkovskoy district, Chechen Republic, Russia, 366011
Karimov Waha Sultanovich, Postgraduate Student
GUP Vinsovhoz "Soviet Russia"
155, Lenina Str., Rubizhne, Naur region, Chechen Republic, Russia, 366100, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Panakhov T.M., Shukyurov A.S., Salimov V.S., Asadullaev R.A.Effect of Additional and Artificial Pollination on Yield of Grapes

P. 32-35 Keyword: bunch; pollination; grape variety; flower type.
Abstract: Grape varieties with functionally female flower type - Ag shany, Tavkveri, Chaush, Nimrang, Madlen Angevin, Ekim Kara, Katta-Kurgan, Arna-Grna, Cheres, Shafei, Khatuni etc., are cultivated in Azerbaijani vineyards. As the pollen of these grape varieties is sterile, i.e. is deprived of fertilization ability, the productivity and harvest quality, as well as organoleptical specifications of the grape are formed on the low level. Sometimes even in the grape varieties with hermaphroditic flower type, the pollination and fertilization process can`t go normally because of some unfavorable factors, like cold, rainy and windy weather during blossom period, lack of nutritional substances in inflorescence, hormonal condition violations, deforming of pollen grains, etc., what finally leads to sharp decrease in production and worsening of grape quality. The researches were aimed at study of influence of artificial and additional pollination on productivity, harvest quality, trade appearance and other characteristics of several grape varieties with functionally female and hermaphroditic flower types. With this purpose we conducted pollination in different flowering stages (blossom of 25.50 and 75 % of flowers) on grape varieties with functionally female (Ag shany and Nimrang) and hermaphroditic (Gara shany and Bayanshirey) flower types using the pollen collected from representatives of wild grape with male flower type. As result it was found that when pollinating was conducted on the stage of blossom of 50 % of flowers, the average weight of bunches considerably increased, and as a result, visibly increased the productivity. Comparing the control variant, the average weight of bunches of studied varieties increased respectively at Gara shany for 31.8 g (22.4 %), at Bayanshirey for 54.6 g (27.6 %), at Ag shany for 126 g (156 %), at Nimrang for 153 g (208 %). The studies and calculations showed that when conducting the pollination on the stage of blossom of 75% of flowers, visibly increased the average weight of bunches. In this variant comparing the control the weight of bunches increased at Gara shany for 36.1 g (25.5 %), at Bayanshirey for 37.8 g (19 %), at Ag shany for 122.2 g (151.2 %), at Nimrang for 194 g (264.6%).
Authors: Panahov Tariel Mahammad, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor;
Shukurov Azar Salaman,
Salimov Vugar Suleyman, Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor;
Asadullayev Rauf Aydin, Candidate of Technical Science
Azerbaijan Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking
Mehdiabad, Baku, Absheron distr., Republic of Azerbaijan, 0118, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Levchenko S.V., Vasylyk I.A., Boyko V.A.The Effectiveness of Drug Application «Albit» on Table Grapes Variety Moldova in the Republic of Crimea

P. 36-39 Keyword: performance; quality; fertilizer; portability; yield; efficiency.
Abstract: Competent use of fertilizers and growth regulators in vineyards is one of the main factors that increases the yield and quality of grapes. Taking into account the need to reduce the cost of production, the priority shall be given to adjusting plant nutrient regime through foliar fertilization. This work aims to study the effect of growth regulator "Albit" on the quality and productivity of table grape vines in conditions of the Republic of Crimea. The research was carried out in "Morskoye" branch of the Federal State Unitary Entreprise OJSC "Massandra" on vine plants of Moldova variety in conditions of furrow irrigation and without irrigation. In the course of this growth regulator application combined with reduced fungicide load in different experimental settings and in the weather conditions prevailing in the season of 2015, no development of diseases was observed. The use of growth regulator "Albit" enhanced Moldova table variety performance in cultivation, both in conditions of drip irrigation and without irrigation. Appliance of "Albit" growth regulator enhanced performance of Moldova variety by 10.7-14.4 %, contributed to the improvement of commercial quality (by 7 %) and transportable properties of Moldova grapes cultivated without irrigation, increased the mass concentration of sugars, improved taste indicators of fresh grapes, which was reflected in the results of tasting assessment (8.0-8.2 points in test samples). Also, the use of "Albit" growth regulator combined with reduced by 30 % fungicide load allows reducing the overall cost of production on cultivated vineyards by 27.6 thousand rubles per hectare, which makes it possible to enhance the profitability of Moldova variety up to 121.2 %.
Authors: Levchenko Svetlana Valentinovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science, Associate Professor;
Vasylyk Irina Aleksandrovna, Candidate of Agricultural Science;
Bojko Vladimir Aleksandrovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
All-Russian National Scientific Research Institute of viticulture and winemaking "Magarach" RAS
31, Kirova Str., Yalta, Republic Of Crimea, Russia, 298600, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kazakhmedov R.E., Agakhanov A.Kh.Ampelographic Collection of Dagestan Selection Experimental Station of Viticulture and Vegetable Growing

P. 40-42 Keyword: grapes; genetic sources; donors; introduction; the collection; selection.
Abstract: Given the characteristic of the collection of grapes plantings of the station for the years of the bookmark, the ratio of the varieties, origin and biological characteristics. Analyzed the history of the creation and expansion of the collection shows the evolution of the number of varieties in its 90-year history of the station. Practical use of results of scientific work will contribute to the improvement of assortment, increase of level the realization of the potential of economic productivity, economic output stabilization, the most complete satisfaction of the constantly growing requirements of grapes for fresh consumption and industrial processing. The purpose of the research are to isolate the genetic sources and donors of economically valuable traits for breeding new high-yielding varieties and hybrids; to identify morphological and economic-valuable signs and properties; to identify the nature of inheritance of characters. Research tasks: execution of the field surveys in search of indigenous grape; ampelographic description was found forms, their identification, assessment of economically valuable prizna Cove; creation of collection site of indigenous forms of grapes and nurseries for planting in the industrial areas; a study of adaptations and adaptive qualities of indigenous grape varieties; the extension of the collection through introductions of sorts. Research work carried out at the production-experimental base FBGO, Dasvi, located near the city of Derbent on the South side drevnekitajskaya on the terrace. The Eastern boundary, where the collection 1980, 1987, 1997, 2003 landing is at an altitude of 0 above sea level with a gradual rise to the West toward the mountains. Soil cover - light brown, loamy, medium and heavy mechanical composition, unstructured, modified by long culture of grapes and irrigation. The own-rooted culture of grapes, irrigated, not covering. Form hi-stem bushes, duplici cordon Cazenave. The scheme of planting, breeding of indigenous and introduced grape varieties 2,0; 3,5 in a row, between the bushes 1.5-2.0 meters (2,0; 3,5 2,0 m). Research is conducted in accordance with Hassadim FANO Russia. In the result of carried out research work in 2015 ampelographic collection was replenished 48 new varieties; 8 hybrids; 10 wild grapes.
Authors: Kazahmedov Ramidin Jefendievich, Doctor of Biological Science, Professor;
Agahanov Albert Halidovich, Candidate of Agricultural Science
Dagestan breeding research station of viticulture and horticulture
9, Vavilova Str., Derbent, Republic Dagestan, 368601, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



INFORMATION

Feyzullaev B.A., Kazakhmedov R.E., Agakhanov A.Kh. 90 Years of Dagestan Selection Experimental Station of Viticulture and Vegetable Growing

Results of the III Forum of the Black Sea Winemaking

Feast of Good Taste