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Rambler's Top100

Winemaking and Viticulture №3/2016

INDUSTRY PROBLEMS

Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Peschanskaya V.A.Features of the Application of Isotope Mass Spectrometry Analysis at Carbon Ethanol in Brandy and Cognac Distillates

P. 4-7 Keyword: distillates ageing; distillation; isotopic mass-spectrometry; cognac; carbon ethanol.
Abstract: The cognac as well as many high-quality products that are subject to falsification is based primarily on the partial or complete replacement of aged cognac distillate to alcohol of non-grape origin. Attempts to establish their presence in cognac have not been successful until one proposed a technique based on a principle of isotopic mass spectrometry. However, within the study of cognac distillates it was established that some features of carbon isotopic composition of ethanol change at certain stages of the process that require special attention when using the criterial assessments of the product authenticity. Analyzing the cognac of a known manufacturer, it was found that the characteristics d13С change with age. Thus, young cognac alcohol had d13С figure - minus 27.5 ‰, which fits into the recommended range, while the cognac aged 20 weighted to minus 25.92 ‰, and 25 and 30 years - accordingly to minus 25.50 and minus 25,29 ‰. One of the possible factors affecting the change of d13С figure is a partial evaporation of ethanol in the process of cognac aging. When simulating the ageing process in vitro the most stringent conditions were chosen - oak barrels up to 700 liters at a temperature of 25 °C. Analysis of the data showed that the evaporation of 40% of distillate, which corresponds to approximately 15 years of exposure, strength decreased from 67.2 to 61.7% and figure d13С increased by 0.85 ‰, which should be considered when using the criterial assessments. The distillation of cognac materials was analyzed in terms of production on plant KU-500, which implements the process of direct wine distillation to brandy with the release of the heads and after run. It is shown that at distillation the ethanol characteristics of carbon isotope do not vary by more than 0,02 ‰, leading to the conclusion that using this distillation method a noticeable isotope fractionation is absent.
Authors: Oganesyants Lev Arsenovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician of RAS;
Panasyuk Aleksandr Lvovich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
Kuzmina Elena Ivanovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Peschanskaya Violetta Aleksandrovna
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of brewing, beverage and wine industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



WINEMAKING

Dergunov A.V.The Impact of the Aging Process on the Quality of Red Liqueur Wines, Fortified by Various Agents

P. 9-13 Keyword: flavors; wine aging; quality wine; alcohol agent; phenolics.
Abstract: High-quality liqueur wines production system is based on the close relationship the geographical location of the vineyard, the varietal composition, the system of reference of the vine, as well as biotechnological methods of winemaking. Changes in the composition and quality of wines during their aging due to complex physical and chemical transformations, able to significantly improve the flavor properties of the wine. The aim of staging is to study on the identification of patterns of change in the quality of red liqueur wines under the influence of alcohol agents of different nature and aging process. Object of study is liqueur wine stocks Cabernet Sauvignon, harvest 2013, alcohol agents: alcohol - rectified grain origin strength of 96.6 % vol. Ethyl alcohol - rectified strength of 91.0 % and wine bidistillate strength 75.0 % vol. Work performed in the Krasnodar region on the Anapa Experimental Station. The mass concentration of the main components of wine were determined according to the applicable GOST and GOST R, as well as the techniques developed in the research center of winemaking SKZNIISiV. Organoleptic properties of young wine tasting commission evaluated the Anapa ZOSViV. The studies revealed that the most intense phenolic substances precipitated on standing in the version with when mounting the double-distilled water of ethyl alcohol. The low concentration of phenolic compounds, reduces the palatability of red liqueur wine. According to the results of the experiment can be concluded that the criterion of quality liqueur aged red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon is ruby coloring with the concentration of anthocyanins in the range 345-350 mg/dm3. Aging process is not able to fully eliminate the negative impact of the use of double-distilled water wine castle 75 % when fixing red liqueur wines. Option alcoholization of wine with a data agent had low organoleptic assessment of the high content of aromatic components, predominantly due to the unwanted group of compounds such as methanol and other fusel oil.
Authors: Dergunov Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor
Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of Viticulture and Winemaking
36, Pionerskiy P, Anapa, Russia, 353456, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Tochilina R.P., Goncharova S.A., Khorosheva E.V., Semipyatny V.K. Features of the Mineral Composition of the Don Wine and Wine Products as an Indicator of Origin Identification

P. 14-17 Keyword: wine; wine materials; identity; macronutrients; place of origin; micronutrients; mineral composition; soil.
Abstract: In the moment in Russia there are standards in which the assignment of the categories "wine with protected geographical indication" and "wine with protected appellation of origin" the individual wines and the control of their production should be carried out a special way in with the established order. In the world constantly make research work to identify objective characteristics, responsible for territorial identity of wine which primarily are aimed at studying the mineral composition of wines, determination of the concentrations of individual components and the correlation between them, as well as, the determination of specific parameters. The object of this work is to study the mineral composition of the soils and wines of the wineries located in Donskoe wine region. In this work we researched the mineral composition of red and white wines, and samples of the soil of this making region. The results of the determination of the mineral composition of wine were processed mathematically using the method of discriminant analysis and calculated regression equations for micro and macro elements, interpreted in graphical form. The greatest effect the use of ammonium acetate buffer gives when evaluating the total concentration of "minerals" in the soil. The total mineral content in the samples of red wines exceeds the index for whites is 1.3-1.8 times that confirms previously established the index of the minimum concentration of ash for red and white wines. Quantitative determination of the individual components of the mineral complex, combined with the mathematical treatment of the results allows a sufficient degree of probability to determine the origin of wines studied wine making region.
Authors: Tochilina Regina Petrovna, Candidate of Technical Sciences;
Goncharova Svetlana Anatolievna;
Horosheva Elena Vladimirovna;
Semipjatnyj Vladislav Konstantinovich, Candidate of Technical Sciences
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the brewing, beverage and wine industries
7, Rossolimo Str., Moscow, Russia, 119021, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ismailov Kh.S.The Study of the Characteristics of Certain Races of Yeast for Fruit Winemaking

P. 18-21 Keyword: wine; a riveting wine; barmy culture; shiver; separation; preparation; alcohol; ferment.
Abstract: The spent researches develop a way the technological scheme of manufacture of fruit-berry wines. Necessary technological modes of a fermentation, alcoholicity initial wine a material are established, productivity, aeration of environment, influence of type and nozzle volume, and also concentration of brought yeast is studied, the most comprehensible modes of cultivation of yeast are offered. The biochemical processes proceeding at a fermentation apple wine a material, a metabolism of nitrogenous substances and organic acids, change aroma forms substances are investigated. Results of the experiments spent and semiworking conditions have shown that at application of technological modes recommended by us and introduction of race of pure yeast gives possibilities to reach complete lighting the received juice and wine a material and their improvement organoleptic properties. By researches it is allocated some races of yeast for the fruit-berry winemaking, answering by requirements of local winemaking. With that end in view they have allocated a considerable quantity various strains from yeast of flora of fruits and berries. Allocated strains were tested at fermentation apple and quince mashes. Under control take race apple and sherry yeast. As a result of research was found that local race apple culture of yeast possess high barmy properties. The received wines and wine a material in comparison with sherry yeast differed full aroma and fresh taste. Besides, in difference local races leave a sediment granular structure that creates preconditions for fast clarification wine a material. Researches have shown that for development wine materials it is possible fermentation juice on the allocated culture also spontaneously. The received results show that at spontaneous fermentation biochemical processes are carried out in wished direction, promoting a new growth and accumulation of by-products of fermentation in set with the substances of an initial mash forming quality indicators fault. Preparation of distributings of yeast of pure culture carry out a method gradually accumulation of a biomass of yeast and increase of their physiological activity way consecutive scroll on nutrient mediums. Distributings of yeast pure culture prepare from clarified apple juice or wine material at temperature 18...20°С. To generation of yeast apply as a nutrient medium fresh apple juice or apple wine material with the maintenance of spirit of 8-10 % about., sugar to 7 g/100 ml, титруемой acidity 5-7 g/dm3 the Nutrient medium for first four generation to sterilise heating. Fresh juice heat up to 100°С, and wine material - to 80...85°С and maintain at temperature of heating within 15 minutes. Thus, the conclusion has allowed to draw researches that at development fruit-berry wine material it is possible to spend fermentation spontaneously or on allocated culture natural microflora. For this purpose it is necessary to bring at a mash sediment SO2 in number of 50-150 mg/ dm3 thanks to which undesirable microorganisms, and also is apple-dairy bacteria as less steady do not develop, whereas wine the yeast steadier against this dose of sulphurous acid, begin intensively to breed and fermentation mash sugar. Optimum temperature of fermentation 18...24°С. At lowered to temperature 10...12°С wine yeast develops poorly.
Authors: Ismailov Hanlar Saleh ogly
Azerbaijan technological University
103, Pr. S. I. Khatai, Ganja, AZ 2011, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



VITICULTURE

Malykh G.P., Gvozdik V.I., Yakovtseva O.L. The Experimental Installation for the Cultivation of Grafted Seedlings of Grapes

P. 23-27 Keyword: steam generators; temperature sensors and humidity; resistive heating element.
Abstract: Paper presents the results of the researches on revealing of possible applications of a new facilitythat allows stratification of grafting, and growing of seedlings. The authors propose facility-micro greenhouse. Its walls are made from double polyethylene film, with an air gap of about 10 cm. It can be used in unheated rooms, for control of pests and diseases, stratification of grafts and for growing seedlings in farms, and industrial plants. To accelerate breeding and improvement of plants against phytopathogenic infection, the facilityhas a control unit with two sensors steam generator with steam to improve the accuracy of dosing. For ground heating it has thermostat with heating elements. Steam generators are used for steam with dissolved toxic chemicals for disinfection of planting material and for supply of steam with macro- and micronutrients. This allows you to optimize plant nutrition, to control of pests and diseases, and to achieve it in greenhouse only, but not in the vaccination room, and that improves the hygienic conditions of work. The micro greenhouse is multifunctional for disease control of grape grey mould shown in the example. To provocatethe development of the fungus, steam with a temperature of 20...25 °C and a humidity of 90-95 % were used. The rate of full germination of conidia of Botrytis cinereeis the formation of a green cone from the buds of the rootstock with a height of 1.5-2 cm, and then sequentially and continuously the temperature of the steam rises to 45...50 °C. Such a high steam temperature is maintained for 10 minutes, and is a critical for gray mold. This technique provides not only the death of Botrytis with minimum expenses of work and funds, but the yield of standard seedlings, the survival rate on plantation, which will accelerate the establishment of new vineyards. Rootstock cuttings are treated in micro greenhousewith an optimum temperature of 20...25 °C and saturated with moisture for germination of conidia of Botrytis cineree. The thermal conductivity is very low in dry cuttings (average water content 40-45 %) and pores filled with air. If the cuttings are wet, the pores fill with water, and the thermal conductivity of water is 20 times higher than that of air. The cell wall and components of cell membranes play an important physiological role in the metabolism of plants. Woody cell walls, impregnated by lignin and other encrusting substances, under the action of a stream with "albite" is undergoing the reverse process of unwooding and it is a normal physiological process associated with vital activity of lignified cells. Therefore, under the action of steam, the conditions of permeability of tissues and enhance the therapeutic effect of steam and chemical stimulation applied "albite". Our greenhouse provides an output of high-quality seedlings 90-95 %.
Authors: Malyh Grigoriy Pavlovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Gvozdik Vasiliy Ivanovich;
Yakovleva Olga Leonidovna, Postgraduate
All-Russian Research Institute for Viticulture and Winemaking named after Ya. I. Potapenko
166, Pr. Baklanovskiy, Novocherkassk, Rostov region, Russia, 346421, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Vorobyova T.N., Petrov V.S., Veter Yu.A.Ecological and Biological Recovery of Vineyards Productivity

P. 28-31 Keyword: agroecology; biofertilizer; grapes; vineyards; detoksikacion; a winemaking waste; pesticides; soil; efficiency.
Abstract: Materials and results of use of the modified organic fertilizer reducing long-term anthropogenous influence on agrogrounds of grape plantings are presented. Replenishment of soil by organic chemistry of a biological waste winemaking manufactures, makes active transformation Pesticides in soil to safe levels, raises reproduction of soil biopotential and efficiency of a grape plant. The purpose of the present researches: improvement agrobioreceptions of the maintenance of soil of vineyards by application of a waste of winemaking. Researches were carried out on industrial sites of vineyards of the specialised enterprises. Results of complex agrotechnical and ekologo-toxicological researches on industrial vineyards are resulted. Definition of the toxic rests was spent with use хроматографов, gas "Colour 500М", liquid "KNAUER" and atomnoabsorbtsionnogo spectrum photometr метра "Quantum-AFA". Physical and chemical and mechanical structure of soil - pH water suspension (GOST 26423-85), nitrates nitrogen disulfofenolov a method, mobile phosphorus (P2O5) and kali (K2O) on Machigin (GOST 26205-91), the maintenance gumus (GOST 26213-91). Agrobiological accounts were spent by the standard techniques and GOST. For the biochemical analysis of grapes used electricfores "Capel-103" and "Capel-105", рН, refractometr, (GOST 27198-87, GOST 51621-2000). Replenish mezga gumus a biomass of the vegetative rests of green fertilizer has allowed: to raise frost resistance of a plant (safety of eyes, loading runaways and inflorescences, growth of runaways) from 5 % to 17 %; to improve water durability of soil units on 15 %; to raise рН soils on 0.5; to reduce concentration pesticides in soil at biotechnology in the spring to 30 %, at addition, а winemaking waste to 35 %, in the autumn, accordingly, to 50 % and to 57 %; To lower a migration indicator - factor Cпр (biofertilizer)=0.40, Cпр (entering of a waste of winemaking)=30; to increase speed of accumulation (5.0 %) and concentration (3.0 %) sugars in grapes; to raise productivity on 3.4 ts / hectares, and an efficiency index on 5.1 %. The waste of wine manufacture supplementing biofertilizers, can be used on vineyards for increase of reproduction of soil biopotential, improvement and clarification of soil from toxic inclusions.
Authors: Vorobjeva Tatjana Nikolaevna, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
Petrov Valerij Semenovich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Assistant professor
North Caucasian Regional Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture
39, 40 Let Pobedy Str., Krasnodar, Russia, 350901
Veter Jurij Alekseevich, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
OJC AF "Southern"
158, K. Marksa Str., Taman, Russia, 353556, y_veter @ mail.ru



Bykova T.O., Makarova N.V., Azarov O.I., Eliseev S.V.Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of the Table Grape Harvest of 2015

P. 32-35 Keyword: antioxidants; grape; varieties; chemical compound.
Abstract: The aim of research is studying of chemical composition and antioxidant properties of 7 technical varieties and 4 grapes for table use. All grape varieties were grown in Samara Region. The methods are content of organic acids by GOST 25555.0-82, content of sugar and dry matter by GOST 27198-87, photocolorimetric determination methods of contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocianins, ferric reduce antioxidant power (FRAP), antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system and scavenging activity of DPPH radical. Technical varieties Rubin Golodrigi, Pinot Noir, Kefesija are contain a lot of organic acids. Grape variety for table use Red Muscat and 4 technical varieties (Riton, Pinot Noir, Kefesija and Livadijjskij Chernyj) are contain a lot of sugar and dry matter. Minimal content of sugar was determined for Viktor. Technical varieties Rubin Golodrigi, Pinot Noir, Livadijjskij Chernyj have the biggest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in comparison with other varieties. Athocianins were not detected for varieties Viktor, Viktorija, Pamjati Merkulovoj, Riton and Pinot Gris. Technical varieties Pinot Noir and Livadijjskij Chernyj have bigger content of athocianins. Technical varieties Livadijjskij Chernyj, Rubin Golodrigi and Pinot Noir have maximal rate of reduce power. Minimal rate of reduce power was detected for varieties Pinot Gris and Viktorija. Technical varieties Livadijjskij Chernyj, Pinot Noir and grape for table use Cosmonaut have maximal rate of antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system. Antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system was not detected for varieties Riton, Viktor and Red Muscat. Livadijjskij Chernyj has the best scavenging activity of DPPH and Pinot Gris has minimal one. The dark varieties are richer of antioxidant than bright varieties. Technical varieties have higher antioxidant activity and antioxidant content in comparison with grape for table use. Technical varieties Livadijjskij Chernyj and Pinot Noir have high nutrition value.
Authors: Bykova Tatjana Olegovna, Postgraduate;
Makarova Nadezhda Viktorovna, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor
Samara State Technical University
244, Molodogvardeiskaya str., Samara, Russia, 443100, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Azarov Oleg Igorevich;
Eliseev Sergej Vladislavovich
Research Institute of Horticulture and drug plants "Zhigulevskie sady"
18 km, Samara, Russia, 443072, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Kazakhmedov R.E., Mamedova S.M.Early Diagnosis of the Stability of Hybrids of Grapes to Phylloxera

P. 36-39 Keyword: apical dominance; auxins; grapes; shoots; seedling; crossing; tolerance; stability; phylloxera; cytokinins.
Abstract: Selection of grapes based on the General concept of the launch system components and viticulture new high-yielding, adapted to the specific conditions and technologies of cultivation, resistant to abiotic and biotic stress factors varieties for production of various functional purposes. The process of creating high-yielding varieties led to reduced immune status of plants. The main way to increase of plant immunity, is the creation of varieties with high level of specific resistance. Research aimed at preservation of own-rooted culture of grapes, which forms an important objective in breeding new grape varieties - the search criteria of early diagnostics of resistance of seedlings to the root phylloxera. Objective: the biological characteristics of seedlings of grapes of different combinations of crossing on the background of infection with phylloxera. The objective of the research is to study the characteristics of vegetative growth of the seedlings; to investigate the survival rate of seedlings on the background of infection with phylloxera; to analyze the dependence of the survival of the seedlings on the characteristics of vegetative growth of the seedlings; can I hybridological analysis of the progeny of various combinations of crossbreeding. The research work carried out at the pilot production base of Dagestan breeding research station of viticulture and horticulture (Dasvi), located near the city of Derbent on the South side of the ancient Caspian terrace. The article presents the results of three years of research on breeding grape varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Promising genotypes of grapes in strength of vegetative growth. Held hybridological analysis of progeny 8 combinations of crossing, studied their survival on the background of infection with phylloxera. Used physiological approaches to increase the efficiency of the selection process. Agrometeological the first proposed criterion for evaluating the tolerance of seedlings to the root form of phylloxera in the early stages of the selection process: the research results indirectly confirm that one of the criteria of the physiological tolerance of new breeding forms to the root phylloxera may be their high pasynkovaniya ability. The reason for such significant growth of side shoots can be the production of cytokinins in roots and good root development of the seedlings on the background of the phylloxera and possible tolerance to phylloxera seedlings data.
Authors: Kazahmedov Ramidin Efendievich, Doctor of Biological Sciences;
Mamedova Seidhanym Mirmagomedovna
Dagestan breeding research station of viticulture and horticulture
9, Vavilova Str., Derbent, Republic Dagestan, 368601, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



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